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Full text of "European paintings"

The Toledo Museum of Art 

EUROPEAN 
PAINTINGS 









#J 








THE TOLEDO MUSEUM OF ART 

European Paintings 



THE TOLEDO MUSEUM OF ART 

European Paintings 



THE TOLEDO MUSEUM OF ART • TOLEDO • OHIO 

Distributed by Pennsylvania State University Press 



Copyright © by The Toledo Museum of Art 

Monroe Street at Scottwood Avenue, Toledo, Ohio 43697, U.S.A. 

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 76-24500 
ISBN (clothbound): 0-271-01249-8 
isbn (paperbound): 0-271-01248-x 

Distributed by Pennsylvania State University Press, 
University Park and London 

Designed by Harvey Retzloff 

Photography by Raymond S. Sess and Carl J. Schulz 

Composition by Typoservice Corporation, Indianapolis, Indiana 

Printed in the United States of America by 

The Meriden Gravure Company, Meriden, Connecticut 

First Printing 1976 

This catalogue is supported in part by grants from 

The Ford Foundation and the National Endowment for the Arts, 

a federal agency. 



Contents 



LIST OF COLOR PLATES 7 

INTRODUCTION 9 

EXPLANATORY NOTES 15 

CATALOGUE 17 

PLATES 1-1 

Italy 173 

Spain 203 

Germany Z17 

Netherlands 229 

France 2S3 

Britain ;^^ 

RESERVE SECTION 585 



List of Color Plates 



i. Pesellino, Madonna and Child with Saint John 49 

11. Master of the Morrison Triptych, The Virgin and Child with Angels 50 

in. Hans Muelich, Portrait of a Man 67 

iv. El Greco, The Agony in the Garden 68 

v. Guido Reni, Venus and Cupid 85 

vi. Peter Paul Rubens, The Crowning of Saint Catherine 86 

vii. Aelbert Cuyp, The Riding Lesson 105 

viii. Eustache Le Sueur, The Annunciation 104 

ix. Jean-Honore Fragonard, Blind-Man's Buff rzi 

x. Sir Thomas Lawrence, Lord Amherst 112 

xi. Paul Gauguin, Street in Tahiti 139 

xii. Pierre Bonnard, The Abduction of Europa 140 



Introduction 



This catalogue of European paintings is published in celebration of the 75th anniversary of 
the founding of The Toledo Museum of Art. It is appropriate that a major publication of 
the Museum's anniversary year should be devoted to European paintings, as they form a 
significant portion of the Museum's collections. 

This is the second catalogue of European paintings to be published by the Museum. 
The first, published in 1939, included 175 paintings. This catalogue describes and illustrates 
444 paintings. The considerable growth of the collection over the years can be easily fol- 
lowed, since the first two digits of the accession numbers indicate the year of acquisition. 

HISTORY OF THE MUSEUM 

The Toledo Museum of Art was founded April 18, 1901 by a small group of citizens under 
the leadership of Edward Drummond Libbey, Toledo industrialist, whose successful glass 
company and its successor companies have formed the economic cornerstone of this city 
for many years. 

The newly founded Museum had no collections and depended on borrowed works of 
art for its early exhibitions. Acquisitions during the first 25 years were few, as the young 
Museum used its meager funds and small staff to establish itself as a significant educational 
institution in its community. 

Mr. and Mrs. Libbey formed a personal collection of a limited number of important 
works of art in the first two decades of the century. Their collection, which included pic- 
tures by Rembrandt, Holbein, Turner, Constable and others, came to the Museum after 
Mr. Libbey's death in 1925. It was also disclosed at that time that Mr. Libbey had left 



INTRODUCTION 



his residuary estate in trust for the Museum, after providing for his widow, as they had 
no children. 

An unusual and generous clause in Mr. Libbey's will directed that annual income from 
his estate be used for art acquisitions, with the exception that up to 50 percent could be 
used for Museum operation if necessary. Mr. Libbey had hoped that all income from his 
estate could be used to acquire art, and that other funds could be found to operate the 
Museum's extensive programs and to maintain its building. 

Mr. Libbey's hope has yet to be achieved. While generous annual contributions by 
an ever-increasing number of corporate and individual donors have enabled the Museum 
to continue its educational services as well as to acquire works of art, a portion of Libbey 
funds is also used for operations. The Museum receives no direct tax support. 

Although Mr. Libbey had given some works of art to the Museum during his lifetime, 
such as the Zurbaran, and just before his death the portrait of Antonin Proust by Manet, 
it was only in the years subsequent to 1926 that substantial funds for art acquisitions be- 
came available from his estate. Florence Scott Libbey, his widow, continued her interest 
in the Museum, provided funds during her lifetime for substantial additions to the Museum 
building, and bequeathed her estate to the Museum at her death in 1938. She also provided 
that 50 percent of her estate's income be used for the acquisition of works of art; these 
funds have generally been used to acquire decorative arts and American paintings, follow- 
ing her personal interests. 

While other generous donors, notably Arthur J. Secor, Mrs. C. Lockhart McKelvy, 
Mr. and Mrs. William E. Levis and others have given European paintings or provided funds 
for such acquisitions, the majority of the paintings in this catalogue were acquired with 
funds bequeathed by Mr. Libbey. So extensive are these acquisitions that unless otherwise 
indicated in the catalogue, all paintings have been acquired with Libbey funds and are 
designated as gifts of Edward Drummond Libbey, the Museum's founder and first president. 

EARLY YEARS 

The years between 1926 when Libbey funds first became available, and 1939 when the 
Museum's first catalogue of European paintings was published, witnessed the growth of 
the collections in two principal directions: Italian Renaissance art and French Impres- 
sionist paintings. 

Under the perceptive guidance of Blake-More Godwin, then the Museum's director, 
and William A. Gosline, Jr., then its president, most of the paintings in these two cate- 
gories were acquired at a time when it was still possible to do so at reasonable prices. 
The great tondo by Piero di Cosimo, the Pesellino, the Giovanni Bellini, paintings by Van 
Gogh, Gauguin, Monet, Renoir and many others brought important masterpieces as well 
as the glorious light and color of Impressionist paintings to the Museum's galleries. 

By deeds of gift in 1926 and 1933, Arthur J. Secor, the Museum's second president, 
gave his extensive collection of European and American paintings, including a large num- 

10 



[ N T R O I) U C T I N 



ber of Barbizon School and Dutch 19th century pictures, as well as some Dutch 17th cen- 
tury and English 18th century paintings. This remains the largest private collection of 
paintings ever to be received by the Museum and, together with the Libbey gifts of 1926, 
the only appreciable number of European paintings not acquired by the Museum's profes- 
sional staff. 



POST-WAR GROWTH 

Following the lean years between 1941 and 1946, when practically no European art was 
acquired, collecting began again in 1946 with the purchase of El Greco's Agony in the 
Garden, inaugurating a 30-year period in which the collections have almost tripled. Size- 
able funds from the Libbey estates reserved for art acquisitions had accumulated during the 
war years. These funds, together with substantially increased annual income from the same 
sources, provided the opportunity for major post-war growth at a time when many great 
works of European art came into the market at prices not yet inflated by the decline in 
value of most international currencies. 

The past 30 years have seen a rate of growth in the Museum's collections unprece- 
dented before and unlikely to occur again. Although a substantial portion of available art 
funds has been allocated for European paintings, almost all the sculpture, furniture, silver 
and ceramics now in the Museum, most of the objects in the classical collection, and many 
American paintings were also acquired during these post-war years. 

It has been an enjoyable adventure to be associated with this Museum for these 30 
years. Arriving in 1946 after completion of military service in World War II, I was given 
the unusual opportunity to play a major part in the acquisition of much of this art and 
many of the paintings described in this catalogue. Planning a program to develop and im- 
plement the post-war growth of the Museum's collections has been for me a primary 
responsibility for three decades, initially as the Museum's associate director and subse- 
quently as its director and chairman of its Art Committee. 

It seemed apparent in those early post-war years that major areas in the European 
painting collection which should be developed were Dutch and Flemish 17th century paint- 
ing where Toledo had only a few examples, French 17th and 18th century painting where 
the Museum had only one picture, and Italian 17th and 18th century painting where we owned 
only two pictures. These were categories of art not extensively sought at that time and 
therefore reasonably valued. The consequent search for art for this Museum has involved 
extensive negotiations with collectors and dealers, and considerable travel here and abroad, 
enabling us to develop collections balanced to complement earlier acquisitions. 

When significant opportunities in other categories occurred, we have also acquired 
pictures of quality such as the rare Italian Renaissance paintings by Signorelli, early Flem- 
ish pictures such as the Morrison Triptych and the three panels by Gerard David, as well 
as several important French Impressionist and Post-Impressionist paintings and some iSth 
century English pictures. 

11 



INTRODUCTION 



During these years our policy has been to select carefully paintings of high quality in 
excellent condition. We have not hesitated to acquire pictures out-of-fashion, nor have we 
sought only great names. The primary requisite has always been the quality of the picture 
regardless of the current reputation of its author. The collection of European paintings is 
not large nor is it intended to be encyclopedic. It is instead a carefully selected group of 
pictures chosen for quality and condition, within the necessary limits of availability and 
financial resources. 



THE CATALOGUE 

Any collection catalogue is a complex undertaking to which many contribute; and it is 
important to understand its intent. This catalogue contains in succinct form as much in- 
formation as we have at this time on each painting acquired through June 30, 1976. We 
have attempted to refer to all significant published or written opinions, have weighed the 
available evidence and have finally based attributions on our own judgment. 

Entries in a catalogue such as this can only be summaries of available infor- 
mation. We have attempted to present this information as objectively as possible. The cata- 
logue is the result of continuous research by many members of the Museum staff, as well 
as of the generously shared knowledge of many scholars in this country and abroad. 
Entries were prepared by members of the curatorial staff and a number of Museum in- 
terns and assistants over a period of some years. 

Decisions concerning attribution have been made by an Editorial Committee of three, 
the director as chairman, the associate director and the chief curator. In the few instances 
where there was a difference of opinion among members of the Committee, the final de- 
cision was made by the director, who is charged by the Museum's trustees with responsi- 
bility for the Museum and its collections and therefore must accept responsibility for final 
decisions on the catalogue content. 

Among many who have collaborated in the preparation of this catalogue, grateful 
acknowledgment should be made of the following: Roger Mandle, associate director, who 
has given enthusiastic guidance to this project during the past two years; William J. Chiego, 
former associate curator of European paintings, who assisted in planning the basic format 
for the catalogue and who supervised research during his two-year tenure here; William 
Hutton, chief curator, who continued supervision of research after the departure of Mr. 
Chiego, and who is responsible for the literary style and consistency of the entries; Anne 
O. Reese, librarian and Joan L. Sepessy, assistant librarian, who have been of great assist- 
ance to the curators and researchers during the years of preparation of the catalogue; 
Patricia Whitesides, registrar, who is in charge of the Museum's documentary files and 
photographs; Darlene Lindner, curatorial secretary, who has typed every entry not once 
but several times and who has helped so much to establish consistency of entries. 

Roger M. Berkowitz, assistant curator of decorative arts, and Patrick J. Noon, cura- 
torial intern, have made major contributions through their support and assistance in many 

12 



I N T R O U U C T I O N 



phases of research. Many Museum interns have carried out research and have drafted 
various entries. These include Dan Ewing, who contributed considerable research and 
writing and William R. Olander, a special research assistant for two summers. Several in- 
terns in education also assisted with research. These included Stephanie J. Barron, Tara 
Devereux, Harold B. Nelson, Beth Pilliod, Danielle Rice and Nancy J. Sher. Carol Orser 
has been most helpful in reading proof, as have others already mentioned. My secretary, 
Elaine Dielman, has been endlessly helpful to all of us in coordinating activities related 
to this catalogue. 

We also acknowledge with gratitude the many museum colleagues, collectors, scholars, 
librarians and art dealers in this country and abroad who have generously shared their 
specialized knowledge. These are too numerous to begin to acknowledge by name here, 
but their names appear in the individual catalogue entries. We are indebted to many li- 
braries in this country, especially the Frick Art Reference Library and the libraries of 
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Fogg Art Museum, The Cleveland Museum of Art 
and The Detroit Institute of Arts, and in Europe, the Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische 
Documentatie, The Hague, and the library of the Victoria and Albert Museum, London. 
Without their assistance, the bibliographical information would be far less complete. 

The initial stimulus for the catalogue was provided by a grant from The Ford Foun- 
dation in 1963, which was later generously supplemented. A substantial grant from the 
National Endowment for the Arts in 1975 assured additional funds for research and pub- 
lication. Funds to match these grants were provided by the Museum. 

To all institutions and individuals mentioned above and to many others we express 
our gratitude and appreciation. To the Trustees of this Museum who have always sup- 
ported the acquisitions of art described in this catalogue and who have been helpful in so 
many ways during the long period of preparation of the catalogue, we express deepest 
thanks for their continuing support and encouragement. 

OTTO WITTMANN 

Director 
Toledo, Ohio 
September 1, 1976 



ii 



Explanatory Notes 



catalogue order: The catalogue contains three 

sections: 

i. Catalogue entries, listed alphabetically by artist. 

2. Illustrations of each painting for which there is 
a catalogue entry, arranged by country and 
chronologically within each country. 

3. A reserve section of approximately 80 secondary 
paintings in a separate section following the 
plates, listed alphabetically and illustrated. 

catalogue entries: Entries in the first section of 
the catalogue are arranged alphabetically according 
to the surnames or commonly used names of artists, 
or according to nationalities where artists are un- 
known. Cross-references are given for certain alter- 
native names. Names with the word Master are 
listed under that heading. Dutch and German names 
are listed by the surname proper {e.g. gogh, not van 
Gogh). French names with Le or La are listed by 
these prefixes {e.g. le nain, not nain). Where there 
are two or more works by the same artist, entries 
appear in chronological order, or in order of acces- 
sion numbers. 

illustrations: All paintings are illustrated and each 
catalogue entry indicates the plate number. Plates 



are arranged by country and chronologically within 
each of these national groups: Italy, Spain, Germany, 
Netherlands, France, Britain. 

reserve section: Approximately 80 paintings have 
been placed in a reserve section of secondary pic- 
tures. This section follows the plates. It is also 
arranged alphabetically by surname, and each entry 
contains a small illustration. 

medium: Works in this catalogue are defined as 
paintings on the basis of their medium (chiefly oil 
or tempera) and support (chiefly canvas or wood 
panel). A few pastels and watercolors are included 
because their scale brings them into closer relation- 
ship with paintings than with works on paper. 

accession numbers: The first two digits indicate 
the year of acquisition; the last digits, the serial 
number within the year {e.g. ~6.i indicates the first 
work of art acquired in 1976). 

dimensions: The measurements represent stretcher 
or panel size unless otherwise indicated. These are 
given in inches, followed by centimeters in paren- 
theses. Height precedes width. 

15 



EXPLANATORY NOTES 



signatures and inscriptions: Transcribed as ac- 
curately as possible, virgules indicating breaks be- 
tween lines. Cited inscriptions other than on the 
faces of paintings are those believed to be in the 
artist's hand unless otherwise noted. 

right and left: Unless otherwise stated, these terms 
indicate the spectator's right and left. 

collections: Known owners are listed chronolog- 
ically. Dealers' names and auction sales appear in 
parentheses. Inclusive dates indicate known periods 
of ownership. 

exhibitions: Only those significant for their subject 
or scholarship or for evidence of dating or early 
ownership are listed. Cities are omitted if clearly 
contained in museum names. The English spelling 
is given for the names of foreign cities. 

references: These are selective. In general, entries 
include early references, standard catalogues rai- 
sonnes and monographs, specialized studies and 
critical commentaries or analyses. The complete 
issue of Apollo magazine for December, 1967 was 
devoted to articles on the collections of this Museum. 
References to this issue of Apollo are not specifically 
indicated in this catalogue. 

attributions: Where the painting is considered 
autograph, the painter's name is used. If the artist's 
workshop is thought to be involved, the term "work- 
shop of" is used. Where there is some reasonable 
doubt that the artist executed the picture, the term 
"attributed to" is used. "Follower of" indicates the 



work is not considered to be by the artist, and may 
not necessarily be contemporary with him. 

sources: Unless otherwise indicated, all paintings 
accessioned through 1926 were given or bequeathed 
by Edward Drummond Libbey, while those acces- 
sioned after 1926, unless otherwise indicated, were 
acquired by the Museum with funds bequeathed by 
him. Following his wishes, such acquisitions are 
designated Gift of Edward Drummond Libbey. 

abbreviations: These bibliographical and other 
abbreviations have been used: 

B. Fredericksen and F. Zeri, Census: B. Fredericksen 
and F. Zeri, Census of Pre-Nineteenth Century 
Italian Paintings in North American Collections, 
Cambridge (Mass.), 1972. 

C. Hofstede de Groot: C. Hofstede de Groot, A 
Catalogue Raisonne of the Works of the Most 
Eminent Dutch Painters of the Seventeenth Century 
Based on the Work of John Smith, London, 1907- 
28, 10 vols. 

J. Smith: J. Smith, A Catalogue Raisonne of the 
Works of the Most Eminent Dutch, Flemish and 
French Painters, London, 1829-37, 8 vols. 

W. Stechow: W. Stechow, Dutch Landscape Painting 
of the Seventeenth Century, London, 1966, 2nd ed., 
1968. 

Thieme-Becker: H. Thieme and F. Becker, Allgeme- 

ines Lexikon der bildenden Kiinstler, Leipzig, 1907- 

50. 

R.A.: Member of the Royal Academy. 

A.R.A.: Associate member of the Royal Academy. 



16 



Catalogue 



A V E R C A M I' 



ANDREA DI BARTOLO 

Ca. 1370-1428. Italian. Active in Siena, where he studied 
with his father, Bartolo di Fredi. Influenced by the Loren- 
zetti and Taddeo di Bartolo, Andrea's work has often 
been confused with paintings by both the latter and by 
his own father. 

The Crucifixion pl. 4 

[After 1400] Tempera on wood panel 
19-11/16 x 33-3/16 in. (50 x 84.3 cm.) 

Ace. no. 52.103 

collections: Georges Chalandon, Paris; (Otto Werth- 
eimer, Basel, by 1952); (Knoedler, New York). 

references: B. Berenson, The Central Italian Pictures of 
the Renaissance, New York, 1909, p. 141; "An Early 
Sienese Painting of The Crucifixion," Toledo Museum 
of Art Museum News, xvi, Apr. 1953, pp. [1-2], repr.; 
B. Berenson, Italian Pictures of the Renaissance: Central 
Italian and North Italian Schools, London, 1968, 1, p. 8; 
B. Frederickson and F. Zeri, Census, pp. 6, 292, 641. 

Although attributed by Berenson (1909) to Bartolo di 
Maestro Fredi and originally by the Museum to Taddeo 
di Bartolo, there is now general agreement, including 
Berenson (1968), that the Toledo panel is by Andrea di 
Bartolo. According to G. Coor-Aschenbach (letter, 1955), 
a workshop hand was probably also involved. She dated 
this picture after 1400, when Andrea was strongly influ- 
enced by Taddeo di Bartolo. F. Zeri suggests that To- 
ledo's Crucifixion was the central part of a predella, and 
may be from the same series as five panels in the Edoardo 
Ruffini collection, Rome (in letter from Baetjer, June 
1976). 



BALTHASAR VAN DER AST 

1593/94-1657. Dutch. Born in Middelburg. Studied and 
worked with his brother-in-law, the flower painter Am- 
brosius Bosschaert. In 1619 entered the guild of painters 
at Utrecht, where he lived until 1632, when he settled in 
Delft. 

Fruit, Flowers and Shells pl. 94 

[1620s] Oil on wood panel 
zi 3 A x 35M$ in. (55.2 x 89.2 cm.) 
Signed lower left: B. vander.ast. 

Ace. no. 51.381 

collections: Reginald Marnham, Westerham, Kent; 
(Eugene Slatter, London, by 1945). 



exhibitions: London, Slatter, Masterpieces of Dutch 
Painting in the Seventeenth Century, 1945, no. 25; To- 
ledo Museum of Art, The Age of Rembrandt, 1966, no. 
99, repr. 

references: L. J. Bol, "Een Middelburgse Brueghel- 
groep (Part HI: In Bosschaerts Spoor, 1. Balthasar van 
der Ast)," Oud Holland, lxx, 1955, p. 142, n. 26; L. J. 
Bol, The Bosschaert Dynasty, Leigh-on-Sea, i960, p. 83, 
no. 104; P. Mitchell, European Flower Painters, London, 
1973, P- 40, fig. 4°- 

The basket of fruit, Chinese Wan-li porcelain vase, ani- 
mals and shells, alone or variously combined, often ap- 
pear in Van der Ast's pictures. The same vase is shown 
in other still life paintings of the 1620s (dated 1620 and 
1621, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam; 1623, Ashmolean Mu- 
seum, Oxford). Although Van der Ast's style changed 
little during his career, it is likely the Toledo picture was 
painted during this decade, his most active period. 

The porcelain, parrot and shells (from the Indian and 
South Pacific Oceans, except one from the Mediterra- 
nean) were natural and man-made rarities that fascinated 
contemporaries, who often combined scientific and ar- 
tistic collecting interests. 



HENDRIK AVERCAMP 

1585-1634. Dutch. Baptized in Amsterdam; lived in 
Campen. His style was based on that of the Flemish fol- 
lowers of Pieter Brueghel the Elder. Specialized in winter 
skating scenes. His nephew, Barent Avercamp, was his 
pupil and imitator. 

Winter Scene on a Canal pl. 93 

[Ca. 161 5] Oil on wood panel 

18^ x 37^s in. (47.6 x 95.5 cm.) 

Signed center left (on tree): ha (in monogram) 

Ace. no. 51.402 

collections: Augustus II, Elector of Saxony and King 
of Poland (died 1733); Countess Kosciencka, Poland; 
(Duits, London). 

exhibitions: Paris, Orangerie, Le pay sage hollandais au 
XVIIe siecle, 1950, no. 2, repr.; Toledo Museum of Art, 
Dutch Painting, The Golden Age, 1954, no. 1, repr. 

references: J. Rosenberg, S. Slive and E. ter Kuile. 
Dutch Art and Architecture, 1600 to 1800, Harmonds- 
worth, 1966, p. 145, pl. 121A. 

The chronology of Avercamp's work is unclear because 
his style changed relatively little and few pictures bear 



19 



BATONI 



dates. This picture is dated about 1615 on the basis of 
the costumes. 



BARTOLO {see ANDREA) 



POMPEO BATONI 

1708-1787. Italian. In 1727 left his native Lucca for 
Rome, where he studied antique sculpture, Raphael and 
the Old Masters. Batoni painted religious, mythological 
and classical subjects, though from the 1740s until his 
death, he was best known for portraits of noblemen on 
the Grand Tour. His work represents the transition of 
Roman painting from baroque to neoclassical style. 

The Madonna and Child in Glory pl. 31 

[Ca. 1747] Oil on canvas 
46/^ x 24 in. (118 x 61 cm.) 

Ace. no. 63.5 

collections: Merenda collection, Forli; (Colnaghi, 
London). 

references: E. Casadei, La citta di Forli e i suoi din- 
torni, Forli, 1928, p. 382, repr. p. 381; L. Marcucci, 
"Pompeo Batoni a Forli," Emporium, xxn, Apr.-June 
1944, p. 95, n. 1 (no. 5); B. Fredericksen and F. Zeri, Cen- 
sus, pp. 20, 341. 



SIR WILLIAM BEECHEY 

1753-1839. British. Lived in Norwich early in his career; 
settled in London, 1787. Studied in Royal Academy 
schools, 1792. Elected A.R.A. in 1793, the year he was 
made Portrait Painter to the Queen, and R.A. in 1798. 



PL. 322 



The Dashwood Children 

[Ca. 1791] Oil on canvas 

71M x 72 in. (182.2 x 182.8 cm.) 

Ace. no. 48.61 

collections: Sir Henry Watkin Dashwood, 3rd Bt., and 
descendants, Kirtlington Park, Oxfordshire; Sir Robert 
Henry Seymour Dashwood, 7th Bt., Duns Tew Manor, 
Oxford; (Christie, London, July 12, 1946, lot 78); (Frost 
and Reed, London); (Arthur Tooth and Sons, London). 

exhibitions: London, Royal Academy, 1791, either no. 
127 or no. 257. 

references: W. Roberts, Sir William Beechey, R.A., 
London, 1907, pp. 222, 247; E. Waterhouse, Painting in 
Britain, 1530 to 1790, London, 1953, p. 227. 

The children are those of Sir Henry Watkin Dashwood, 
and identified as (from left to right) Charles, Anna, 
George (afterwards 4th Bt.) and Henry (died in 1803, 
before his father). This painting hung in the dining room 
of Kirtlington Park (now in the Metropolitan Museum 
of Art) as seen in a watercolor (ca. 1891) by Susan Alice 
Dashwood, daughter of Sir Henry William Dashwood, 
5th Bt. (repr. Connoisseur, cxxxvin, Oct. 1956, p. 1). 



This painting is either a devotional picture, or a modello 
for a larger unknown or unexecuted altarpiece. 

A. M. Clark dated this picture ca. 1745 (letter, Mar. 
1963). This is confirmed, Clark advises (letter, Feb. 1976), 
by the recent appearance on the London art market of a 
signed oil sketch for this composition bearing the artist's 
dated (1747) authentication on the back of the canvas. 
The Toledo canvas was one of several dozen Batonis 
owned by the Merenda family of Forli, whose collection 
of 16th, 17th and 18th century art was formed in the 
1730s and 40s. 

Four red chalk drawings are related to this composi- 
tion: the angel playing the recorder at the left (National 
Gallery of Scotland, inv. no. D781); the pointing angel 
at the upper left (private collection, U.S.A.); the figure of 
the Madonna, and hand and drapery studies (Armando 
Neerman, London); and studies of the head of the Child, 
including the two angels to the right of the Madonna 
(Witt Collection, Courtauld Institute, London, no. 4703). 



GIOVANNI BELLINI 

1430/31-1516. Italian. Born in Venice, the son of the 
painter Jacopo Bellini. Trained by his father and influ- 
enced by his brother-in-law Andrea Mantegna. First re- 
corded in Venice in 1459. Collaborated with his father 
and brother Gentile on an altarpiece, now lost, for the 
Duomo in Padua, reportedly signed and dated 1460. In 
1479, with the departure of Gentile to Constantinople, 
appointed to direct the work on the historical paintings 
for the Doge's Palace in Venice. From that date, em- 
ployed continuously by the state, churches and private 
patrons. Primarily a painter of religious pictures, Gio- 
vanni exerted a strong influence on Giorgione and Titian. 



Christ Carrying the Cross 

[Ca. 1503] Oil on wood panel 
19J/2 x 15 l A in. (49.5 x 38.7 cm. 
Ace. no. 40.44 



PL. 10 



20 



B E N S O N 



collections: Taddeo Contarini, Venice, by 1527; Mar- 
quis de Brissac, Paris; Marquise de La Chatre, Paris, 
early 19th century; Comte Louis de Brissac, Paris; Hen- 
riette de Lorge (nee de Brissac), Paris; Due Robert de 
Lorge, Paris; (Hans Wendlend, Switzerland); (Jacob M. 
Heimann, New York). 

exhibitions: Toledo Museum of Art, Four Centuries of 
Venetian Painting, 1940, no. 6, repr. (cat. by H. Tietze). 

references: T. Frimmel, Der Anonimo Morelliano 
(Marcanton Michiel's Notizia d'opere del disegno), Vi- 
enna, 1888, p. 88; G. M. Richter, "Christ Carrying the 
Cross by Giovanni Bellini," Burlington Magazine, lxxv, 
Sep. 1939, pp. 94-7, repr.; H. Tietze, "Bellini's Christ 
Acquired," Toledo Museum of Art Museum News, June 
1940; P. Hendy and L. Goldscheider, Giovanni Bellini, 
London, 1945, p. 33, pi. 85; B. Berenson, Italian Pictures 
of the Renaissance: Venetian School, 1, New York, 1957, 
p. 34; F. Heinemann, Giovanni Bellini e i Belliniani, Ven- 
ice, 1962, no. 151, fig. 91; R. Pallucchini, Giovanni Bel- 
lini, Milan, 1962, pp. 92, 152-53, fig. 160; S. Bottari, 
Tutta la pittura di Giovanni Bellini, Milan, 1963, n, p. 
30; F. Gibbons, "Practices in Giovanni Bellini's Work- 
shop," Pantheon, xxm, May-June, 1965, pp. 149-50, 
fig. 5 (as workshop); S. Ringbom, "Icon to Narrative: 
the Rise of the Dramatic Close-up in Fifteenth Century 
Devotional Painting," Acta Academiae Aboensis, xxxi, 
1965, pp. 149-50, 152, fig. 120; G. Robertson, Giovanni 
Bellini, Oxford, 1968, p. 124, pi. cxna; R. Ghiotto and 
T. Pignatti, L'opera completa di Giovanni Bellini detto 
Giambellino, Milan, 1969, no. 156; B. Fredericksen and 
F. Zeri, Census, pp. 23, 286 (as school of Bellini); 
P. Hendy, European and American Paintings in the Isa- 
bella Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston, 1974, pp. 20, 22. 

This painting was unknown to scholars until Richter 
published it as an autograph work by Bellini. With the 
exception of Gibbons and Fredericksen and Zeri, it is 
now generally accepted as the work by Giovanni men- 
tioned by Marcantonio Michiel in 1527 as in the Palace 
of Taddeo Contarini at Venice. Richter dated the panel 
about 1 5 10, although Tietze convincingly argued for a 
date about 1505, noting the softness of the draperies and 
the subtle color scale which are closer to the S. Zaccaria 
altarpiece dated 1505 than to work done after then un- 
der the influence of Diirer. Tietze also disputed Richter's 
view that the Toledo painting is after Giorgione's Carry- 
ing of the Cross in S. Rocco, Venice, as he believed it was 
the model for it. More recently, Heinemann noted that 
a copy by Marco Palmezzano is signed and dated 1503, 
which suggests a possible terminus ante quern for the 
Toledo painting. Robertson, who believes the Toledo 



painting is the only autograph version known, suggested 
that Bellini may have painted an earlier version in the 
1490s. 

The importance of the Toledo picture is proven by 
the many copies of it. Heinemann lists 55, including the 
painting in the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Bos- 
ton, variously attributed to Giorgione, Palma Vecchio 
and a follower of Bellini, and another in the Accademia 
dei Concordi, Rovigo, which was formerly identified as 
the Contarini Bellini. 

According to Ringbom, this composition is an original 
type of non-narrative devotional image that originated 
in Milan at the end of the 15th century, and subsequently 
developed by Bellini in this painting. 



AMBROSIUS BENSON 

Active 1519-1550. Flemish. Originally from Lombardy. 
In Bruges by 15 19, when he entered the painters' guild; 
remained there until his death. 

Portrait of a Woman PL. 80 

[Ca. 1525-30] Oil on wood panel 
16 x iojMs in. (40.6 x 27 cm.) 

Ace. no. 50.239 

collections: Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford; Hor- 
ace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, Strawberry Hill, Twick- 
enham; Anne Seymour Darner, Strawberry Hill; Dow- 
ager Countess of Waldegrave, Strawberry Hill; George, 
4th Earl of Waldegrave, Strawberry Hill (George Robins, 
Strawberry Hill, 1842, p. 197, lot 31); George Tomline, 
Orwell Park, Ipswich; George Pretyman, Orwell Park 
(Christie, July 28, 1933, lot 20, repr.); (Frank Sabin, 
!933); (D. A. Hoogendijk, Amsterdam). 
exhibitions: London, Guildhall Art Gallery, Exhibition 
of Works by Flet7iisb and Modern Belgian Painters, 1906, 
no. 63; London, Royal Academy, Works by the Old 
Masters, 1908, no. 5. 

references: H. Walpole, Catalogue of Pictures and 
Drawings in the Holbein Chamber at Straicbern- Hill, 
1760; H. Walpole, Anecdotes of Painting in England, 
London, 1762, (1849 ed., 1, p. 94); H. Walpole, A De- 
scription of the Villa of Mr. Horace Walpole . . . at 
Strawberry Hill, London, 1-S4, (1964 reprint, p. 44); 
M. J. Friedlander, Die Altniederlandische Malerei, Ley- 
den, 1934, xi, no. 293; G. Marker, Ambrosius Benson et 
la peinture a Bruges au temps de Charles-Quint, Damme, 
1957, p. 246, no. 128, pi. lxvii; M. J. Friedlander v ed. 
H. Pauwels), Early Netherlandish Painting, New York, 
1974, xi, no. 293, pi. 182. 



21 



BERCHEM 



This portrait was attributed to Benson by both Fried- 
lander and Marlier, the latter citing it as the masterpiece 
among Benson's portraits of sitters in prayer, probably 
originally united with a devotional panel to form a dip- 
tych or triptych. 

At Strawberry Hill the painting was placed in the Hol- 
bein Chamber, as it was then considered a portrait of 
Catherine of Aragon by Holbein. The sitter has also 
been called Louise of Savoy, an equally spurious identi- 
fication of uncertain origin. 

The painting was engraved in 1743 by Houbraken for 
Birch and Vertue's Illustrious Heads as a portrait of 
Catherine of Aragon by Holbein. 



NICOLAES BERCHEM 

1620-1683. Dutch. Son of the still life painter Pieter 
Claesz. Active chiefly in Haarlem, where he was born. 
Studied with his father and Jan van Goyen, among oth- 
ers. Entered the Haarlem painters' guild in 1642. In 
Rome 1642/43-45, a visit which deeply influenced his 
style. His pictures are mostly Italianate landscapes seen 
through a golden haze and peopled with travelers or 
Arcadian shepherds and their flocks, and he is the prin- 
cipal Dutch painter of Italian pastoral scenes. He was 
highly productive and versatile, and also made a num- 
ber of etchings. 

Pastoral Landscape PL. 117 

[1649] Oil on wood panel 

27J/2 x 32^ in. (69.9 x 84 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower left: Berighem 1649 

Ace. no. 55.82 

collections: Charles Scarisbrick, Scarisbrick Hall, Lan- 
cashire (Christie, London, May n, 1861, lot 207); Dela- 
pierre, 1861-63); Rene Beller, France; (J. Kugel, Paris); 
(Nystad, The Hague, 1955). 

references: W. Roberts, Memorials of Christie's (1766- 
1896), London, 1, 1897, p. 193; C. Hofstede de Groot, 
ix, no. 225a (as perhaps identical with no. 227a); 
E. Schaar, Studien zu Nicolaes Berchem, unpublished 
Ph.D. dissertation, Cologne University, 1958, p. 27; 
W. Stechow, "Uber das Verhaltnis zwischen Signatur und 
Chronologie bei einigen hollandischen Kiinstlern des 17. 
Jahrhunderts," Festschrift fur Dr. h.c. Eduard Traut- 
scholdt, Hamburg, 1965, p. 114, fig. 62 (detail). 

Schaar groups this landscape with others painted about 
1647-49 which are characterized by high mountains and 
prominent figures. 



This painting and Hofstede de Groot no. 227a are, in 
fact, not identical because the sizes are different. 



ABRAHAM VAN BEYEREN 

1620/21-1690. Dutch. Born in The Hague. Possibly a 
pupil of the still life painter Pieter de Putter. Later, he 
was influenced by J. D. de Heem. In Leyden, 1639; re- 
turned to The Hague, 1640. Later in Delft, again in The 
Hague, Amsterdam, Alkmaar, and finally in Overschie, 
near Rotterdam. He was one of the chief masters of the 
mature phase of Dutch still life painting. 

Still Life with a Wine Ewer pl. 126 

[After 1655] Oil on canvas 

31 Va x 25 in. (79.3 x 63.5 cm.) 

Signed lower right (on table edge): ab (in monogram) 

Ace. no. 52.24 

collections: M. Meisgeier, Vienna; (Frederick Mont, 
New York). 

exhibitions: Paris, Orangerie, La nature mort de I'an- 
tiquite a nos jours, 1952, no. 46, pl. xx (cat. by C. Ster- 
ling). 

references: S. Sullivan, "A Banquet-Piece with Vanitas 
Implications," Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art, 
lxi, No. 8, Oct. 1974, p. 275; M. Johnson, "Abraham 
van Beyeren's Banquet 'Still-Life,' " Krannert Art Mu- 
seum Bulletin (University of Illinois), 1, No. 2, 1976, pp. 
16, 18, 19, 20, fig. 6. 

According to Sullivan and Johnson, the moral intended 
by the subject is moderation in pride and pleasure before 
this rich array. The objects shown symbolize the tran- 
sience of human life (watch), earthly existence (wine 
ewer, goblet), or the Resurrection (grapes, grapevine, 
wine). Johnson believes the artist's self-portrait reflected 
in the ewer may be a further reminder to be contempla- 
tive in the face of such plenty (p. 23). 

Van Beyeren painted other "banquet" still lifes con- 
taining the same silver wine ewer, Wan-li porcelain bowl, 
tablecloth and watch. Two of these are dated (1653, 
Alte Pinakothek, Munich; 1655, Worcester Art Mu- 
seum). Johnson suggests the Toledo picture vvas prob- 
ably painted later than these two because of its simpler 
composition and greater emphasis on light and color. 



Still Life with Wine Glasses 

Oil on wood panel 

14% x 13K in. (36.2 x 33.6 cm. 

Ace. no. 50.247 



PL. 127 



22 



BLANCHAR D 



collections: (Douwes, Amsterdam). 

The reflections in the roemer are similar to those in still 
lifes at the Nationalmuseum, Stockholm (I. Bergstrom, 
Dutch Still-Life Painting in the Seventeenth Century, 
London, 1956, fig. 203) and Ashmolean Museum, Ox- 
ford (J. G. van Gelder, Catalogue of the Collection of 
Dutch and Flemish Still-life Pictures Bequeathed by 
Daisy Linda Ward, Oxford, 1950, no. 9). Van Gelder 
dates the latter ca. 1655-60. Bergstrom (letter, Jan. 1976) 
compares the Toledo painting to a still life in the Boy- 
mans-van Beuningen Museum, Rotterdam (inv. no. 1051) 
in terms of composition and size. 



JACQUES BLANCHARD 

1600-1638. French. Born in Paris, where he studied with 
his uncle Nicolas Ballery. In Lyons with the painter Hor- 
ace Le Blanc, 1620-23. 1° Rome, Venice, Turin 1624-28. 
Returned in 1629 to Paris, where he had immediate suc- 
cess. In 1636 mentioned as a "peintre du roi." Older 
brother of the painter Jean. Greatly admired in the 18th 
century, Blanchard's importance lay in introducing to 
France the richness of Venetian color, which he united 
with Roman and Bolognese classicism. 

Portrait of a Sculptor PL. 181 

[Ca. 1632-35] Oil on canvas 
37% x 3X/4 in. (95.5 x 80 cm.) 

Ace. no. 55.32 

collections: Earls Cowper, Panshanger, Hertfordshire, 
before 1854 (Christie, London, Oct. 16, 1953, lot 112, as 
Poussin, Duquesnoy); (Agnew, London). 

exhibitions: London, Agnew, Autumn Exhibition of 
Fine Pictures by Old Masters, 1954, no. 15 (as Blanch- 
ard); Cleveland Museum of Art, Style, Truth and the 
Portrait, 1963, no. 5, repr. 

references: G. Waagen, Treasures of Art in Great Brit- 
ain, London, 1854, in, p. 16 (as Poussin, Duquesnoy); 
M. L. Boyle, Biographical Catalogue of the Portraits at 
Panshanger, The Seat of Earl Cowper, K. C, London, 
1885, pp. 63-4 (as Poussin, Duquesnoy); W. Fried- 
lander, Nicolas Poussin, die Entwicklung seiner Kunst, 
Munich, 1914, p. 111 (as Poussin, Duquesnoy); O. Grau- 
toff, Nicolas Poussin, sein Werk und sein Lehen, Munich 
and Leipzig, 1914, 1, p. 265 (as Poussin, Duquesnoy); 
£. Magne, Nicolas Poussin, premier peintre du roi, 1594- 
1665, Brussels and Paris, 1914, p. 218, no. 327 (as Pous- 
sin, Duquesnoy); B. N. (B. Nicolson), "Current and 
Forthcoming Exhibitions," Burlington Magazine, Nov. 



1954, p. 362, fig. 28; C Sterling, "Les peintres Jean et 
Jacques Blanchard," Art de France, 1, 1961, no. 70, p. 
108, repr. p. 105; A. Blunt, The Paintings of Nicolas 
Poussin, A Critical Catalogue, London, 1966, no. R4 (as 
Blanchard, Duquesnoy); J. Thuillier, Tout I'oeuvre peint 
de Poussin, Paris, 1974, no. R5 (as Blanchard, Du- 
quesnoy). 

Until Charles Sterling attributed this portrait to Blanch- 
ard for the catalogue of the 1954 Agnew exhibition, it 
had been repeatedly published as a portrait by Nicolas 
Poussin of the Flemish sculptor Francois Duquesnoy. 
Sterling (1961) dates it about 1632-35 on the basis of 
costume, the range of color, and its similarity to a 
Blanchard portrait dated 163 1 (Detroit Institute of Arts). 
Sterling also points out that when Blanchard left Rome 
in 1626, Duquesnoy, then working in Rome, was about 
32, while the subject of this portrait appears older. Ster- 
ling suggests that the sitter, shown with a terracotta fig- 
ure of Charity on his modelling stand, may be the Pa- 
risian sculptor Jean Blanchard (born ca. 1596), a relative 
of Jacques. 

Allegory of Charity PL. 182 

[Ca. 1637] Oil on canvas 

42^2 x 54^ in. (108 x 138.4 cm.) 

Ace. no. 75.9 

collections: Prince de Carignan (Prestage, London, 
Feb. 26, 1765, lot 40, as Blanchard, Charity and Her 
Children, 3 ft. 5 in. x 4 ft. 3 in.)?; Dukes of Richmond 
and Gordon, Goodwood House, Sussex, by 1822- 
(Sotheby, London, Mar. 27, 1974, lot 61, repr.); (New- 
house, New York). 

exhibitions: London, Royal Academy, Seventeenth Cen- 
tury Art in Europe, 1938, no. 324 (as La Hire); Montreal 
Museum of Fine Arts, Heritage de France, French Paint- 
ing i6io-ij6o, 1961, no. 30, repr. p. 100 (as La Hire). 

references: D. Jacques, A Visit to Goodwood near 
Chichester, The Seat of His Grace the Duke of Richmond, 
Chichester, 1822, p. 38 (as La Hire); \X T . Mason, Good- 
wood, its House, Park and Grounds, with a Catalogue 
Raisonne of the Pictures, London, 1839, p. 21 as La 
Hire); O. Merson, La peinture francaise an XYIIe siecle 
et XVIIle, Paris, 1900, p. 21, fig. 5 ;as Blanchard; repr. 
of engraving captioned as in Louvre); A. Blunt, Arr and 
Architecture in France, 1500-1-00, Harmondsworth, 
1953 (2nd ed., 1970), p. 151, pi. 112B (as Blanchard); 
C. Sterling, "Les peintres Jean et Jacques Blanchard," 
Art de France, 1, 1961, no. 58, p. 113, repr. p. 112; 
A. Chatelet and J. Thuillier, French Painting from Fou- 
quet to Poussin, Geneva, 1963, p. 206, repr. p. 205. 



BLOEMAERT 



Until Blunt correctly identified this painting as by Blanch- 
ard, it was long attributed to Laurent de La Hire. In 
addition, a contemporary engraving of it by Antoine 
Gamier (Sterling, fig. 58 bis) names Blanchard as the 
painter. There are stylistic similarities with Blanchard's 
Charity dated 1637 (Courtauld Institute, London). Ster- 
ling, in his comprehensive study of the artist, believes the 
Toledo painting was done about the same year. 

Charity with children was painted several times by 
Blanchard in his last years. According to Sterling, this 
undoubtedly reflects the contemporary humanitarian 
work of St. Vincent de Paul with Paris foundlings. This 
movement, popular among the same wealthy circles that 
included Blanchard's clients, led to the founding by the 
Ladies of Charity of a hospital to shelter these children 
in 1638. Sterling also notes that the relief at right of sol- 
diers in Roman dress symbolizing war contrasts with the 
benefits of peace, of which Charity is the principal. 

Another Charity, unknown to Sterling in 1961, is at 
Bob Jones University, Greenville, S.C. (P. Rosenberg, 
"Quelques nouveaux Blanchard," Etudes d'art francais 
offertes a Charles Sterling, Paris, 1975, pp. 220-21). 

The Toledo picture has been identified with the 
Blanchard in the 1765 Carignan sale by D. Carritt (let- 
ter, Apr. 1975). 



ABRAHAM BLOEMAERT 

1564-1651. Dutch. Born in Gorinchem, the son and pu- 
pil of the architect and sculptor Cornelis Bloemaert. Pu- 
pil of Joos de Beer in Utrecht. Went to Paris in 1580. 
Returned to Utrecht in 1583 for the remainder of his life, 
except for two years in Amsterdam, 1591-93. Among 
his pupils were Honthorst, Terbrugghen, Bijlert, Both, 
Poelenburgh and Weenix. 

Shepherdess Reading a Sonnet pl. 97 

[1628] Oil on canvas 

41 x 29^ in. (104.2 x 74.9 cm.) 

Signed and dated upper right: A. Bloemaert. fe:/i628 

Ace. no. 55.34 

collections: Anthony Aupine, Hoviton, Norfolk?; So- 
phia Dawson and her descendants, St. Leonard's Hill, 
Windsor Forest, by 1818-1955; (Sotheby, London, Apr. 
6, 1955, lot 96); (Speelman, London). 

exhibitions: Indianapolis, John Herron Art Museum, 
The Young Rembrandt and His Times, 1958, no. 76, 
repr. 

references: J. Lauts, Hollandische Meister aus der 



Staatlichen Kunsthalle Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, i960, in no. 
11. 

The poem which the shepherdess reads is as follows 
(transcription and translation by letter from J. G. van 
Gelder, Feb. 1955): 

Nieuw liedeken 
Silvia harderin waer heen? 
Waer gaet ghy int wout alleen? 
Schort uw ganck en wilt niet vlien 
Wout Coridon weest niet besien 
Ich bid U numphe keert U weer 
Waerom ist dat ghy loopt so ras 

al door het gras 
ij lieve, set U toch wat neer 
(het is toch . . . komt . . .) 

New Small Poem 
Silvia whither art thou going? 
Whither goest thou in the woods alone? 
Go more slowly and do not flee 
If Corydon has been wouldst not wish 

to see him 
I pray thee Nymph turn back 
Wherefore does thou go so fast through 

the grass 
pray sit down a little 
(it is of course . . . comes . . .) 

Although the author of the verse is unknown, W. A. P. 
Smit (letter to J. G. van Gelder, July 1955) stated, "The 
motive of the poem is very traditional . . . certainly the 
sonnet is associated with the numerous books of poems 
of the beginning of the 17th century." 

The arcadian subject matter, classicizing profile of the 
shepherdess, raking light and half-length figures are 
characteristic of a number of Bloemaert's paintings of 
the late 1620s. 



THEOPHILE DE BOCK 

1857-1904. Dutch. Born in The Hague. Studied with 
J. W. van Borselen and J. H. Weissenbruch. At Paris and 
Barbizon, 1878-83; again at Barbizon just before his 
death. Founding member and chairman of the Hague 
Art Circle; primarily a landscape painter; also a print- 
maker. 

Castle at Arnhem pl. 168 

[1891] Oil on canvas 

25 x 18 in. (63.5 x 45.7 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower left: Th. de Bock 91 

Ace. no. 25.44 

collections: (Reinhardt, New York); Edward Drum- 
mond Libbey, 1910-25. 



24 



B O N N A R D 



The identity of the castle is not known, but there are 
several in the vicinity of Arnhem in eastern Holland, not 
far from Renkum, where the artist lived from 1895 to 
1902. 

Solitude PL. 169 

Oil on wood panel 

14 x 19 in. (35.6 x 48.3 cm.) 

Signed lower left: Th de Bock 

Ace. no. 22.38 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: (Vose, Boston); Arthur J. Secor, 1912-22. 



LOUIS-LEOPOLD BOILLY 

1761-1845. French. Studied briefly with his father, then 
in Douai and Arras before settling in Paris by 1785. Ex- 
hibited scenes of Parisian society and portraits at the 
Salon for more than thirty years. The detail and execu- 
tion of his typically small-scale works reflect the influ- 
ence of Dutch 17th century genre painters. 

S'il vous plait PL. 213 

[Ca. 1790] Oil on wood panel 
15% x 12^ in. (40.4 x 32 cm.) 

Ace. no. 75.58 

collections: Georges Lutz (Georges Petit, Paris, May 
26, 1902, lot 9, as La recompense); (Agnew, London); 
(Wildenstein, London); Sir Robert Mayer, London; 
(E. V. Thaw, New York). 

references: H. Harrisse, L.-L. Boilly, peintre, dessina- 
teur et litbographe, Paris, 1898, p. 130, no. 502; P. Mar- 
mottan, Le peintre Louis Boilly, Paris, 1913, p. 251 (as 
La recompense); A. Mabille de Poncheville, Boilly, Paris, 
1931, p. 24. 

While the artist rarely signed or dated his work, cos- 
tumes indicate a date about 1790. This painting was en- 
graved by Jean Testard (born ca. 1740) with the present 
title (C. Le Blanc, Manuel de l' amateur d'estampes, Paris, 
1854-90; Testard no. 2). 



FERDINAND BOL 

1616-1680. Dutch. Born in Dordrecht. He was one of 
the most gifted pupils of Rembrandt, with whom he 
studied in Amsterdam from the early 1630s to ca. 1642. 
Admitted to the Amsterdam guild of painters ca. 1654. 



He was a successful portraitist, but apparently ceased 
painting about 1669, and in 1670 was described as a 
merchant. 

The Huntsman pl. 133 

[1650s] Oil on canvas 

50^ x 4o5Hs in. (128.3 x 103.2 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower left (fragmentary): Bol (i)65(?). 

Ace. no. 26.153 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: Duncan Davidson, Tulloch, Scotland, ca. 

1840; (Sedelmeyer, Paris); (Howard Young, New York, 

1926); Arthur J. Secor. 

As in several dated portraits of the 1650s (Young Man, 
1652, Mauritshuis, The Hague; Girl with a Basket of 
Fruit, 1657, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York), 
Bol placed his subject outdoors rather than relying on 
the dark, modulated chiaroscuro of his earlier style. 

The Huntsman resembles several self-portraits illus- 
trated by A. Bredius ("Self Portraits by Ferdinand Bol," 
Burlington Magazine, xlii, 1923, p. 72 ff.) and J. H. J. 
Mellaart ("Self Portraits by Bol," Burlington Magazine, 
xliii, 1923, p. 152 ff.). 

Overpainting which had altered various portions of 
the painting (especially the face, collar, hat and tree) was 
removed in 1962. The signature and date were also re- 
vealed at that time. 



PIERRE BONNARD 

1867-1947. French. Born in Fontenay-aux-Roses. Stud- 
ied at the Academie Julian and Ecole des Beaux-Arts. 
1888. In 1883 met Vuillard, Denis and Serusier. who 
from ca. 1889 to 1899 belonged to the group called the 
Nabis. From 1892 he frequently exhibited at the Salon 
des Independents; exhibited at Salon d*Automne, 1903. 
Active as a painter, etcher and lithographer, he also il- 
lustrated many books, periodicals and posters. 

The Abduction of Eur op a [color pl. xiij pl. 2SS 

[1919] Oil on canvas 

46H x 6o J A in. (118 x 154 cm.) 

Signed lower left: Bonnard 

Ace. no. 30.215 

collections: (Galeries Druet, Parish v Ethel Hughes, 

Versailles); (Rene Gimpel, Paris'!. 

exhibitions: San Francisco, California Palace of the 
Legion of Honor, French Painting, 1934, no. 61; New 



-5 



BORCH 



York, Museum of Modern Art, Bonnard Memorial Ex- 
hibition, 1948, no. 37, repr. (cat. by J. Rewald); Paris, 
Musee National d'Art Moderne, L'oeuvre du XXe siecle, 
1952, no. 4; Lyons, Musee des Beaux-Arts, Bonnard, 
1954, no. 42, fig. 9; London, Royal Academy, Pierre 
Bonnard, 1966, p. 20, no. 138, repr. 

references: G. Besson, Bonnard, Paris, 1934, p. 2, fig. 
33; T. Natanson, Le Bonnard que je propose, Geneva, 
1951, p. 140; H. Rumpel, Bonnard, Berne, 1952, p. 25, 
fig. 42; A. Vaillant, Bonnard ou le bonheur de voir, Neu- 
chatel, 1965, pp. 124, 229, repr. p. 197; J. and H. Dau- 
berville, Bonnard, Catalogue raisonne de l'oeuvre peint, 
Paris, 1965, 11, no. 972, repr. 

Zeus was enamored of the beauty of Europa, daughter 
of the King of Sidon. To disguise himself from his jealous 
wife Hera, Zeus transformed himself into a bull and 
carried Europa across the sea to Crete, where she bore 
him several sons. 

In this glowing, sumptuously painted picture, one of 
a small group of mythological subjects painted in the 
1910s, Bonnard was inspired by Titian, as well as by 
Monet and Renoir. 

A crayon study for Europa and the bull is illustrated 
by Vaillant, p. 124. 



references: A. Somoff, Catalogue de la galerie des 
tableaux, St. Petersburg, 1895, 11, no. 874; N. Wrangell, 
Les chefs d'oeuvre de la galerie de tableaux de I'Ermitage 
Imperial a St. Petersbourg, London, 1909, pp. xviii-xix, 
p. 159, repr.; F. Hellens, Gerard ter Borch, Brussels, 
1911, p. 126, repr. opp. p. 96; C. Hofstede de Groot, v, in 
no. 140 (as an "old copy"); P. Weiner, Les chefs d'oeuvre 
de la galerie de tableaux de I'Ermitage a Petrograd, Mu- 
nich, 1923, p. 179 repr.; E. Plietsch, Gerard ter Borch, 
Vienna, 1944, p. 52, no. 92 repr.; O. White, "Dutch and 
Flemish Paintings at Waddesdon Manor," Gazette des 
Beaux Arts, July-Aug. 1959, pp. 70-2; S. J. Gudlaugs- 
son, Katalog der Gemalde Gerard ter Borchs, The 
Hague, i960, 11, no. 271/11; E. Waterhouse, The James 
de Rothschild Collection at Waddesdon Manor: Paint- 
ings, Fribourg, 1967, p. 170. 

The discovery in 1975 of a monogram and partial date 
corrects Gudlaugsson's statement that the Toledo paint- 
ing is an unsigned replica by Ter Borch after the painting 
dated 1675 in the Rothschild Collection, Waddesdon 
Manor. 

Gudlaugsson pointed out that the history of the To- 
ledo painting before it entered the Hermitage as given 
by Somoff and Hofstede de Groot belongs instead to a 
painting in the National Gallery, London (Gudlaugsson 
no. 220). 



GERARD TER BORCH 

1617-1681. Dutch. Studied first with his father, Gerard 
ter Borch the Elder in Zwolle, his birthplace. Subse- 
quently worked under Pieter Molyn in Haarlem, ca. 
1634-35. Between 1635 and 1650 he made trips to Eng- 
land, Italy, Germany and Spain, and is thought to have 
been influenced by the work of Velazquez. Married in 
1654 and settled in Deventer. Painted genre scenes and 
small portraits. His best-known pupil was Caspar 
Netscher. 

The Music Lesson PL. 129 

[1660s] Oil on canvas 

34 x zyH in. (86.3 x 70.1 cm.) 

Signed lower left (on chair): gtb (in monogram) i66(?). 

Ace. no. 52.9 

collections: Hermitage Palace, St. Petersburg, until ca. 
1930; (Wildenstein, New York). 

exhibitions: Kansas City, Nelson Gallery of Art, Paint- 
ings of the iyth Century, Dutch Interiors, 1967, no. 24, 
p. 41, repr.; The Hague, Mauritshuis, Gerard ter Borch, 
1974, no. 61, p. 197, repr. 



JOHANNES BOSBOOM 

1817-1891. Dutch. Born in The Hague, where he mostly 
lived. Studied with Bart van Hove. Traveled in Ger- 
many, Belgium, and France. Painted many church and 
synagogue interiors in the 17th century tradition. Major 
figure of the Hague School. 

In Trier Cathedral pl. 149 

[1867] Oil on wood panel 
33% x 26 in. (85 x 66 cm.) 
Signed lower left: J. Bosboom 

Ace. no. 26.78 

collections: Roel-van Rappard?; W. C. Robinson, 
Amsterdam (Frederik Muller, Amsterdam, Nov. 13, 
1906, lot 21, pl. 20); (Henry Reinhardt, New York); Ed- 
ward Drummond Libbey, 1908-25. 

exhibitions: The Hague, Pulchri Studio, Exposition 
Bosboom, 1891, no. 106; Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae 
Society, Exposition Bosboom, 1900, no. 146; The Hague, 
Gemeentemuseum, Meesters van de Elaagse School, 
1965, no. 6, repr. 



26 



BOUCHER 



references: G. Marius and W. Martin, Johannes Bos- 
boom, The Hague, 1917, pp. 60, 143; J. de Gruyter, De 
Haagse School, Rotterdam, 1968, 1, pp. 15, 23, 29, 112, 
no. 18, repr. 

Bosboom visited Trier in 1865. There are two other ver- 
sions of the same interior view of this German church, 
a larger one dated 1871 (Rijksmuseum Twenthe, En- 
schede), and a smaller one painted about 1875 (Rijks- 
museum, Amsterdam). 

The Amstel River, Amsterdam pl. 150 

[After 1883] Oil on canvas 
18 x 30- s /s in. (45.7 x 77.7 cm.) 
Signed lower left: JB 

Ace. no. 60.12 

COLLECTIONS: (L. J. Kriiger, The Hague?); W. J. R. 
Dreesmann, Amsterdam (Frederick Midler and Co., Am- 
sterdam, Mar. 22-25, i960, lot 65); (Nystad, The 
Hague). 

references: M. F. Hennus, Johannes Bosboom, Am- 
sterdam, n.d., p. 22, repr.; Verzameling Amsterdam — 
W. J. R. Dreesmann, 195 1, 111, p. 759, repr. opp. p. 763; 
J. de Gruyter, De Haagse School, Rotterdam, 1968, 1, 
pp. 15, 17, 28, in, no. 16, repr. (as ca. 1869). 

This picture was painted after 1883, the date of the 
Hoogesluis Bridge shown in the center (F. Lugt, letter, 
May 1961). In this view from the Amstel Rowing and 
Sailing Club the Amstel Hotel, completed in 1867, ap- 
pears on the right. 



JAN BOTH 

1615/18-1652. Dutch. Studied with Abraham Bloemaert 
in his native Utrecht. In Rome by 1638 where he lived 
with his brother Andries until 1641. According to 
Sandrart, both brothers were influenced by Pieter van 
Laer and Claude Lorrain. Returned in 1641 to Utrecht, 
where he remained until his death. The leading master 
of Italianate landscape painting, he was also active as an 
etcher. 



Travelers in an Italian Landscape 

[Ca. 1648-50] Oil on canvas 

34^2 x 41% in. (87.6 x 106.4 cm -) 

Signed lower right: jboth (jb in monogram) 

Ace. no. 55.40 



PL. 118 



COLLECTIONS: de Piles?; (Sale, Apr. 29-30, 1742, lot 26 ?; 
Dukes of Bedford, Woburn Abbey, Bedfordshire, 1742.- 
1951; (Christie, London, Jan. 19, 1951, lot 11, as by Jan 
and Andries Both); (Duits, London, by 1952-55). 

exhibitions: London, British Institution, 1843, no. in; 
London, British Institution, 1856, no. 16; Milan, Palazzo 
Reale, Mostra di pittura olandese del seicento, 1954, no. 
21; Toledo Museum of Art, The Age of Rembrandt, 
1966, no. 72. 

references: C. Hofstede de Groot, IX, no. 230; J. Burke, 
Jan Both: Paintings, Drawings and Prints, New York 
and London, 1976, no. 112. 

As is the case with most of Both's paintings, the Toledo 
picture was probably painted in the 1640s, the decade 
prior to his early death (see W. Stechow, 1968, p. 154). 
Burke believes that it was probably done ca. 1648-50. 
He compares the Toledo painting to related landscapes 
in the Indianapolis Museum of Art and Boston Museum 
of Fine Arts, among others, and believes that these paint- 
ings represent the high point of Both's mature landscape 
style. 



FRANCOIS BOUCHER 

1703-1770. French. First studied with his father, then 
with Francois Lemoine and the engravers L. Cars and 
J. de Julienne. Awarded Prix de Rome in 1-24; to Italy 
in 1727. Returned to Paris in 173 1, having traveled with 
Carle van Loo and entered the Academie Royale as a 
history painter. Influenced by Rubens and "Watteau. Un- 
der the patronage of Mme. de Pompadour for about 20 
years, he worked on important decorations for the royal 
residences. Director of the Gobelins Factory, 1755; in 
1765 First Painter to Louis XV, supervisor of the Beau- 
vais Manufactory and Director of the Academie. 

The Mill at Charenton PL. 201 

[1758] Oil on canvas 

44^2 x 57^ in. (113 x 146 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: f. Boucher i~5S 

Ace. no. 54.18 

collections: Mme. Veuve Lenoir, Paris (Boussaton & 
Pillet, Paris, May 18, 1S-4, lot 3); Baron Anselm de 
Rothschild; Baron Albert de Rothschild, Vienna; Baron 
Louis de Rothschild, Vienna; Baron Maurice de Roths- 
child, Chateau de Pregny, Switzerland; v Rosenberg 6v 
Stiebel, New York). 

exhibitions: London, Roval Academy, France in the 



-~ 



BOUCLE 



Eighteenth Century, 1968, no. 55, fig. 129; Toledo Mu- 
seum of Art, The Age of Louis XV: French Painting 
1710-1774, 1975, no. 10, pi. 89 (cat. by P. Rosenberg). 

references: A. Michel, L. Soullie and C. Masson, Fran- 
cois Boucher, Paris, 1889, no. 1763. 

Charenton, at the junction of the Seine and Marne Riv- 
ers, was the site of many mills in the 18th century. The 
best known of them was Quinquengrogne, which may 
have inspired this subject, although Boucher's combina- 
tion of fantasy and reality makes a specific geographical 
identification hazardous. 

Boucher's drawings from nature at this location served 
as sources for figures, such as the washerwoman and the 
woman peering from the doorway, and other motifs, 
such as the foreground log and the barge, which he used 
in several paintings, especially smaller scale examples 
such as Le Moulin and Le Pont (Louvre), La Lavandiere 
and The Water Mill (Cincinnati Art Museum), and The 
Mill (London, Sotheby, June 29, i960, lot 35, ex-col. 
Viscount Ednam). 

Versions of Toledo's painting, which is among Bou- 
cher's largest landscapes, are in the National Gallery, 
London, and the museum at Orleans. This type of pic- 
turesque genre scene in a naturalistic landscape was in- 
fluenced by the 17th century Dutch Mannerist Abraham 
Bloemaert. Toledo's idyllic landscape, created with imag- 
ination and poetry, is considered "one of the master- 
pieces of landscape in Boucher's oeuvre" (Rosenberg). 

The Footbridge pl. 202 

[1760] Oil on canvas 

19% x 24 in. (50.5 x 61 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower left: f. Boucher/1760 

Ace. no. 57.38 

Gift of Mrs. C. Lockhart McKelvy 

collections: Chateau de Beauregard, Seyssinet, near 
Grenoble, France, from early 19th century to 1957; (Cail- 
leux, Paris, 1957); Mrs. C. Lockhart McKelvy. 
exhibitions: Toledo Museum of Art, The Collection of 
Mrs. C. Lockhart McKelvy, 1964, p. 6, repr. p. 7; Bor- 
deaux, Musees de Bordeaux, La peinture francaise: col- 
lections americaines, 1966, no. 22, pl. 23. 

Like The Mill at Charenton, this rustic pastorale was 
probably inspired by the picturesque countryside around 
the junction of the Seine and Marne rivers. 

According to Cailleux, a drawing for this painting was 
in the Georges Bourgarel sale (Hotel Drouot, Paris, June 
15-16, 1922, lot 12). 



PIETER VAN BOUCLE 

Before 1610-1673. French. Probably born at Antwerp, 
Pieter (or Pierre) van Boucle (or Bouck or Boeckel) was 
the son of an engraver. He appears to have been in Paris 
from the 1620s, and may have worked in the studio of 
Simon Vouet. While his work was similar to that of 
Lubin Baugin, he was also influenced by Jan Fyt and 
Frans Snyders, and may have had some contact with 
Sebastien Stosskopf. Primarily a still life painter. 

Basket of Fruit PL. 185 

[1649] Oil on canvas 

20 x 24^2 in. (50.8 x 62.2 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: p.v.b. fecit. 1649. 

Ace. no. 61.28 

collections: Private collection, Paris (Hotel Drouot, 
sale before Nov. i960); (J. Aubry, Paris); (Heim, Paris). 

exhibitions: Paris, Musee des Arts Decoratifs, Louis 
XIV, faste et decors, i960, pl. 510. 

references: M. Fare, La nature morte en France, son 
histoire et son evolution du XVlle au XXe siecle, Ge- 
neva, 1962, 11, fig. 88; M. Fare, Le grand siecle de la na- 
ture morte en France, le XVlle siecle, Fribourg, 1974, 
repr. p. 98; J. Foucart, "Un peintre flamand a Paris: 
Pieter van Boucle," in Etudes d'art francais offertes a 
Charles Sterling (ed. A. Chatelet and N. Reynaud), Paris, 
1975, PP- 2.38, 248, 251-52, 255. 

As no known picture by Van Boucle is dated before 1648 
(Musee d'Art et d'Histoire, Geneva), this picture is among 
his earliest signed and dated works. The subject was a 
favorite with the artist, and is an example of the blend- 
ing of Flemish and French influences in French painting 
at this time. 



EUGENE BOUDIN 

1824-1898. French. Born in Honfleur. While working in 
Le Havre, he met Troyon, Isabey and Millet, who en- 
couraged him to take up painting. Studied in Paris, 
1851-53. Major influence on Monet, whom he met in 
1858, and who in turn introduced him in 1862 to Jong- 
kind, who guided him toward direct observation of na- 
ture. Exhibited at Salon regularly from 1863 to 1897 and 
at the first exhibition of the Impressionist group, 1874. 
Best known for paintings of the coast of northern France. 



The Beach, Trouville 

[1865] Oil on wood panel 
i}H x zi.y% in. (34.5 x 57.5 cm.) 



PL. 23' 



28 



B R E E N B E R G H 



Signed and dated lower right: E. Boudin-65 

Ace. no. 51.372. 

collections: M. Gillou, Paris; Mrs. R. Fenwick, Paris; 
(Reid &c Lefevre, London). 

Boudin often spent summers in Trouville, a fashionable 
resort on the coast of Normandy near his birthplace. In 
1865 he went there with his friends Courbet and Whis- 
tler, who helped him find buyers for his small paintings 
of groups of well-dressed people on the beach. Paintings 
such as this anticipated the Impressionists' light, brilliant 
colors and broken brushwork, as well as the holiday 
mood that prevailed in much of their work. 



Signed lower right: F. Brangwyn 

Ace. no. 31. 1 

collections: Hurst Walker; Andrew G. Kidd, Dundee, 
Scotland (Christie, London, May 16, 1930, lot 88); (Bar- 
bizon House, London); (Vose, Boston). 

references: V. Galloway, The Oils and Murals of Sir 
Frank Brangwyn, Leigh-on-Sea, 1961, no. 257. 

Brangwyn traveled to North Africa, Turkey and the 
Balkans in 1890. This view of the Bosporus with Con- 
stantinople in the background, was painted soon after 
this trip. 



WILLIAM ADOLPHE BOUGUEREAU 

1825-1904. French. Born at La Rochelle. Studied in Bor- 
deaux before entering the Paris Fcole des Beaux-Arts in 
1846. After winning the Prix de Rome in 1850, he spent 
four years in Italy. One of the most popular academic 
painters of his time, he exhibited at nearly every Salon 
from 1854 until his death. 



The Captive 



pl. 269 



[1891] Oil on canvas 

51/-2 x 30^ in. (130.8 x 77.5 cm.) 

Signed and dated center left: w-BOVGVEREAV-1891 

Ace. no. 23.25 

Gift of Sidney Spitzer 

collections: Ceilan M. Spitzer, Toledo. 

references: A. Gowans, The Restless Art: A History 
of Painters and Painting, Philadelphia, 1966, pp. 121-22, 
fig. 16c. 



SIR FRANK BRANGWYN 

1867-1956. British. Born in Bruges of Anglo-Welsh par- 
ents who returned to London in 1875. Self-taught. Em- 
ployed by William Morris from about 1882 to 1884. 
Exhibited regularly at the Royal Academy, 1885-1900. 
After 1900, occupied primarily with mural decorations, 
including commissions for Skinners Hall, London, 
1904-09, and Rockefeller Center, New York, 1930-34. 
Traveled extensively. Member, Royal Academy in 1919; 
knighted in 1941. 



The Golden Horn, Constantinople 

[Ca. 1890] Oil on canvas 

25 x 30/^ in. (63.5 x 76.5 cm.) 



PL. 339 



GEORGES BRAQUE 

1882-1963. French. Born at Argentenil-sur-Seine. Son of 
a decorator and amateur painter who encouraged his in- 
terest in art. First studied in Le Havre, and from 1902 
in Paris, where he established a studio in 1904. Exhib- 
ited with the Fauve group in 1906. In 1907 met Picasso, 
with whom he formulated the Cubist style. Also a print- 
maker and sculptor. 

Still Life with Fish PL. 301 

[1941] Oil on canvas 

23H x iSH in. (60.4 x 73 cm.) 

Signed lower left: G Braque 

Ace. no. 47.60 

collections: Alfred Poyet, Paris; (Theodore Schempp, 

New York). 

exhibitions: Munich, Haus der Kunst, Georges Braque, 
1963, no. 105, fig. 97; New York, Knoedler, Braque: An 
American Tribute, 1964, no. 8, repr. 

references: N. Mangin, ed., Catalogue de I'oeuvre de 
Georges Braque: peinture 1939-41, Paris, 1961, no. 96, 
repr. 



BARTHOLOMEUS BREENBERGH 

1599/1600-1657. Dutch. Born in Deventer. In Rome ca. 
1619, where he may have studied under Agostino Tassi 
and/or Paul Bril. Influenced by Elsheimer. Co-founder 
of the Schildersbent. Returned to Amsterdam ca. 1629. 
He belongs to the first generation of the Dutch Italianate 
landscape painters. Also an etcher. 



Landscape with Ruins 

[Ca. 1630] Oil on wood panel 
iz l A x ziH in. (31. 1 x 55 cm.) 



PL. 96 



19 



BREITNER 



Acc. no. 65.170 

collections: Private collection, England (Christie, Lon- 
don, May 1, 1964, lot 163); (Alfred Brod, London, 
1964-65); (Nystad, The Hague). 

exhibitions: Utrecht, Centraal Museum, Nederlandse 
ije eeuwse, italianiserende landscbapschilders, 1965, no. 
27, fig. 28, repr. on cover; Toledo Museum of Art, The 
Age of Rembrandt, 1966, no. 70, repr. p. 122. 

references: M. Rothlisberger, Bartholomaus Breen- 
bergh, Handzeichnungen, Berlin, 1969, in no. 96. 

The Toledo painting may be dated by comparison with 
a landscape signed and dated 163 1 (Utrecht, exh. cat., 
1965, no. 28, fig. 29). 

A signed drawing in the Louvre, dating from Breen- 
bergh's later years in Rome, shows a ruin similar to the 
one in the Toledo painting (Rothlisberger). 



Tijdgenoten van Floris Verster, 1957, no. 30; Amster- 
dam, Stedelijk Museum, Breitner, 1957, no. 37 (as 1901); 
Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Van Romantiek tot Am- 
sterdamse School, 1958, no. C.91. 

references: P. Zilcken, G. H. Breitner, Amsterdam, 
1921, repr.; A. van Schendel, Breitner, Amsterdam, 
(1939), repr. p. 53; A. M. Hammacher, Amsterdamsche 
bnpressionisten en hun kring, Amsterdam, 194 1, repr. 
p. 45. 

This view in the Teertuinen district of Amsterdam shows 
a canal barge in the Eilandsgracht and tar warehouses 
on the Prinseneiland. The range of sombre colors is 
characteristic of Breitner's first Amsterdam period 
(1886-1903) in which he was attracted by the busy 
modern life of the city rather than by its quiet, pictur- 
esque aspects. 



GEORGE HENDRIK BREITNER 

1857-1923. Dutch. Born in Rotterdam. In 1875 entered 
the Hague Academy. Studied with Willem Maris, 1880. 
In 1882 enrolled in the Rotterdam Academy. In his early 
career best known for military subjects. Under the in- 
fluence of Jacob Maris, developed his gift for color and 
composition; with Van Gogh in The Hague, 1883. To 
Paris, 1884; Amsterdam, 1886. His greatest contribu- 
tion to Dutch art was the force of his naturalistic style 
in subjects ranging from figural studies to town views, 
especially of Amsterdam. 

Warehouses, Amsterdam pl. 173 

[1901] Oil on canvas 

32 x 51 % in. (81.5 x 130 cm.) 

Signed lower left: G. H. Breitner 

Acc. no. 76.14 

collections: E. J. van Wisselingh, Amsterdam; C. G. 
Vattier Kraane, Aerdenhout (Frederik Muller, Amster- 
dam, Mar. 22-29, 1955, lot 70, repr.); B. de Geus van 
den Heuvel, Niewersluis (Sotheby Mak van Waay, Am- 
sterdam, Apr. 27, 1976, lot 252, repr.). 

exhibitions: The Hague, Gemeentemuseum, Breitner 
Tentoonstelling, 1928, no. 145, repr. p. 53; Amsterdam, 
Stedelijk Museum, Tentoonstelling Breitner, 1933, no. 
68, pl. 62; The Hague, Gemeentemuseum, G. H. Breit- 
ner, 1947, no. 85; Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Breit- 
ner en Amsterdam, 1947, no. 123; Rotterdam, Museum 
Boymans-van Beuningen, Breitner Tentoonstelling, 1954, 
no. 47, repr.; Leiden, Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, 



JULES BRETON 

1827-1906. French. Born near Calais. Studied at Royal 
Academy in Ghent, and with Felix de Vigne, 1843-46. 
In the studio of Baron Wappers, Academy of Fine Arts, 
Antwerp, briefly in 1846. Moved to Paris in 1847 and 
entered Drolling's studio. Exhibited at the Salon from 



The Shepherd's Star PL. 266 

[1887] Oil on canvas 

40^2 x 31 in. (102.8 x 78.7 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: Jules Breton/87 

Acc. no. 22.41 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: Pitet aine, Paris, by 1889; (Knoedler, New 
York); Art Institute of Chicago, 1 889-1908; (Knoedler, 
New York); (Reinhardt, Milwaukee); Arthur J. Secor, 
1908—22. 

exhibitions: Paris, Salon, 1888, no. 374; Toledo Mu- 
seum of Art, Inaugural Exhibition, 19 12, no. 162, repr. 

references: Masters in Art: Breton, Boston, 1907, pp. 
29, 37, pl. IV. 



BRITISH, ANONYMOUS 

Elizabeth I, Queen of England pl. 307 

[Ca. 1588] Oil on canvas 
30 x 25 in. (76.2 x 63.5 cm.) 



30 



B R O N Z I N O 



Inscribed, upper left: by Mark Gerard 

Ace. no. 53.94 

collections: Lord Tollemache, Peckforton Castle, 
Cheshire, by 1857 (Christie, London, May 15, 1953, lot 
112); (Agnew, London). 

exhibitions: Manchester (England), Catalogue of the 
Art Treasures of the United Kingdom, 1857, p. 114, no. 
63; Richmond, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, The 
World of Shakespeare, 1564-1616, 1964, no. 2, fig. 2. 

references: W. Biirger (T. Thore), Tresors d'art en 
Angleterre, Paris, 1865, p. 348; Sketch Books of Sir 
George Scharf in the Archives of the National Portrait 
Gallery, 49, f.12; F. O'Donoghue, A Descriptive and 
Classified Catalogue of Portraits of Queen Elizabeth, 
London, 1894, pictures no. 50; "A Portrait of the First 
Elizabeth," Toledo Museum of Art Museum News, No. 
147, Sep. 1953, unpaginated, repr. on cover; R. Strong, 
Portraits of Queen Elizabeth I, Oxford, 1963, p. 75, repr. 
p. 70; R. Strong, Tudor and Jacobean Portraits, London, 
1969, 1, p. in. 

The formula-like style of most portraits of Elizabeth I 
partly derives from the Queen's practice of having an 
official portrait taken from life used as the only autho- 
rized pattern for all other portraits, although her cos- 
tume was usually varied in each subsequent copy. Strong 
(1963, 1969) notes that Elizabeth sat for a new portrait 
about the time of the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 
1588, an event commemorated in several portraits of her 
(Strong, 1963, pp. 64, 65). The Toledo portrait is one of 
at least ten belonging to this "Armada pattern." 

The inscription at the upper left is a later addition, 
inscribed in the unfounded belief that this painting was 
by Marcus Gheeraerts, father or son, both of whom 
painted portraits of Elizabeth. 



AGNOLO BRONZINO 

1503-1572. Italian. Agnolo di Cosimo di Mariano, called 
Bronzino, was born at Monticelli, near Florence. Studied 
with Raffaelino del Garbo, but more importantly, with 
Pontormo, with whom he collaborated on major com- 
missions from 1518 to 1557. About 1530-32 in the ser- 
vice of the Duke of Urbino at Pesaro. In 1539 named 
court painter by Duke Cosimo I de'Medici. Remained 
in Florence except for short trips to Rome and Pisa. Be- 
sides portraits he also painted sacred and mythological 
subjects, designed tapestries and festival decorations, and 
wrote poetry. 



Cosimo I de 'Medici pl. 13 

[1546 or after] Oil on wood panel 
41 x 30^6 in. (101.6 x 77.8 cm.) 

Ace. no. 13.232 

collections: Oscar Hainauer, Berlin, until 1906; (Du- 
veen, New York); Dr. Frank Gunsaulus, Chicago. 

exhibitions: Bruges, Exposition de la Toison d'Or, 
1907, no. 158 (attr. to G. Vasari). 

references: F. Harck, "Quadri di maestri italiani in pos- 
sesso di privati a Berlino," Archivo storico dell'arte, 11, 
1889, p. 205; W. Bode, ed., Die Sammlung Oscar Hai- 
nauer, Berlin, 1897, no. 68 (attr. to G. Vasari); H. Schulze, 
Die Werke Angelo Bronzino, Strasbourg, 1911, p. iv; 
A. McComb, Agnolo Bronzino, His Life and Works, 
Cambridge, 1928, p. 133; B. Berenson, Italian Pictures of 
the Renaissance, Florentine School, London, 1963, 1, p. 
44; 11, pl. 1445 (as partially autograph); S. L. Faison, Jr., 
"From Lorenzo Monaco to Mattia Preti," Apollo, Dec. 
1967, p. 39, fig. 10; M. Levey, Painting at Court, Lon- 
don, 1971, pp. 99-100, fig. 81; B. Fredericksen and 
F. Zeri, Census, pp. 36, 515 (as School of Bronzino); 
E. Baccheschi, L'opera completa del Bronzino, Milan, 
1973, no. 54e, repr. p. 95. 

Cosimo I (1519-1574), one of the most remarkable of 
the Medici, united the two branches of his family and 
was the founder of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. 

In August 1545 Bronzino was at work on a portrait 
of Cosimo (G. Gaye, Carteggio inedito d'artisti, Flor- 
ence, 1840, 11, pp. 330-31). According to Vasari, "The 
Lord Duke, having seen . . . the excellence of this painter, 
and that it was his particular and peculiar field to por- 
tray from life with the greatest diligence that could be 
imagined, caused him to paint a portrait of himself, at 
that time a young man, fully clad in bright armor, and 
with one hand upon his helmet." {Lives, trans. G. D. 
De Vere, London, 1912-15, 1, p. 6). 

The actual painting referred to by Vasari has not been 
conclusively identified among the several versions of it, 
which are of two types: half-length (Florence, Uffizi and 
Pitti; Posnan, Museum Narodowe); and three-quarter 
length (Toledo; Lucca, Pinacoteca Communale; Kassel, 
Gemaldegalerie; New York, W. Smadbeck collection^. 
The Toledo version was first published as a work by 
Bronzino by Schulze, as a replica of the Kassel painting, 
and McComb supported Schulze's proposals (letter, Oct. 

1935)- 

In the Toledo portrait Cosimo wears the Order of the 
Golden Fleece, awarded in 1546 by Emperor Charles V. 
As the badge of the order does not appear in the Uffizi 



31 



BRUEGHEL 



version, the latter may be the original version of 1545, or 
the closest reflection of it. For a discussion of the signifi- 
cance of the laurel branch as a Medici emblem, see 
J. Sparrow in Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld 
Institutes, xxx, 1967, especially p. 169, as pointed out 
by Graham Smith. 

Don Giovanni de' Medici PL. 14 

[Ca. 1551] Oil on wood panel 
18^ x 11-13/16 in. (46 x 30 cm.) 

Ace. no. 51.305 

Gift of William E. Levis 

collections: Baron Lazzaroni, Paris; Lawrence P. 
Fisher, Detroit; (Howard Young, New York); William 
E. Levis, Perrysburg, Ohio. 

exhibitions: Detroit Institute of Arts, Italian Paintings 
from the XIV to XVI Century, 1933, no. 33. 

references: W. Heil, "The Lawrence P. Fisher Collec- 
tion in Detroit," Antiquarian, xv, Dec. 1930, p. 46, repr.; 
B. Fredericksen and F. Zeri, Census, pp. 36, 515; E. Bac- 
cheschi, L'opera completa del Bronzino, Milan, 1973, p. 
99, in no. 86 (as Don Giovanni). 

Don Giovanni (1543-1562), was the third son of Co- 
simo I de'Medici and Eleonora da Toledo. As early as 
1550 his parents destined him for the church; he later be- 
came a Cardinal. 

This bust repeats the upper part of a half-length por- 
trait (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford), painted about 1551, 
the year Bronzino did a series of portraits of the Medici 
children (D. Heikamp, "Agnolo Bronzinos Kinderbild- 
nisse an dem Jahre 1551," Mitteilungen des Kunsthis- 
torischen Institutes in Florenz, Aug. 1955, pp. 133-36). 

Although the Oxford and Toledo portraits have tra- 
ditionally been identified as Giovanni's younger brother 
Don Garzia (1549-1562), Heikamp reasoned that in 1551 
he would have been too young to be the boy in the Ox- 
ford portrait, whose costume, including the sash, is iden- 
tical with that in a later drawing inscribed 1551 (Uffizi, 
Florence). The question is admittedly complicated by 
the lack of both detail in contemporary accounts and a 
sure portrait of Giovanni at this age, and also by the 
family resemblance of the several Medici sons. 

According to M. Levey (letter, Aug. 1975), a picture 
in the Marquess of Lansdowne collection, England that 
is related to the Oxford-Toledo portraits shows the hair 
altered, presumably to show Don Giovanni at a later age. 



JAN BRUEGHEL THE ELDER 

1568-1625. Flemish. Born in Brussels, the son of Pieter 
Bruegel the Elder. Studied in Antwerp with Pieter Goe- 
kindt. To Italy ca. 1589; reportedly in Naples, 1590; in 
Rome, 1593-94. I n 1 59& returned to Antwerp, where he 
entered the painters' guild the next year. In Prague, 1604; 
and Nuremberg in 1606 and 1616. He often collaborated 
with other painters, including his friend Rubens. Painter 
of landscapes, small-scale figures and flowers. Daniel 
Seghers and his son Jan Brueghel II were his pupils. 

Landscape with a Fishing Village PL. 89 

[1604] Oil on wood panel 

14 x 25-KJ in (35.6 x 64.4 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower left: BRVEGHEL.1604 

Ace. no. 58.44 

collections: Jacomo de Wit, Antwerp; Augustus II, 
Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, Dresden, 1710; 
Gemaldegalerie, Dresden, 1750-1925; Members of the 
Saxon royal family of Wettin, Halle an der Saale, Ger- 
many; (Rosenberg and Stiebel, New York). 

references: K. Woermann, Katalog der Koniglichen 
Gemaldegalerie zu Dresden, 1887, no. 879; Dresden, 
Gemaldegalerie, Catalogue of the Pictures in the Royal 
Gallery at Dresden, 8th ed., 191 2, p. 104, no. 879; 
Y. Thiery, Le paysage flamand an XVIIe siecle, Paris, 
I 953> P- 1 7^ ( as Paysage accidente; incorrect measure- 
ments); Catalogue of European Paintings in The Minne- 
apolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis, 1970, in no. 73. 

The Toledo painting shares a similar provenance with 
Brueghel's Landscape with Peasants (Minneapolis Insti- 
tute of Arts) and Canal Scene (Clowes Fund Collection, 
Indianapolis). All three landscapes were in Dresden from 
the 18th century until 1925, when they were ceded to the 
former ruling family of Saxony. 



PIETER BRUEGHEL THE YOUNGER 

Ca. 1564-1637/38. Flemish. Born in Brussels, son of 
Pieter Brueghel the Elder (1525/30-69), whose work he 
frequently copied. He was the brother of Jan Brueghel. 
Studied with Gillis van Coninxloo at Antwerp, where he 
entered the painters' guild in 1585. Teacher of Frans 
Snyders. Died in Antwerp. 

Winter Landscape with a Bird Trap PL. 90 

[Ca. 1600—25] Oil on wood panel (transferred to mason- 

ite) 
15^4 x zz% in. (38.7 x 56.5 cm.) 



32. 



C A M V I N 



Signed lower right: P. brveghel 

Ace. no. 54.77 

collections: (Knoedler, New York). 

references: G. Marlier, Pierre Brueghel le Jeune, Brus- 
sels, 1969, p. 242, no. 7. 

This is a copy of Winter Landscape with Bird Trap 
(1565; Musees Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brussels) by 
Pieter Brueghel the Elder. Dated copies by Brueghel the 
Younger range from 1596 to 1621. According to Mar- 
lier, the form of signature on the Toledo painting was 
used in the first quarter of the 17th century. 

The meaning of the scene is not clear. According to 
Marlier (p. 240), the carelessness with which the birds 
fly around the trap parallels the skaters' offhandedness 
as they skate across the thin ice. Both birds and skaters 
are oblivious to life's precariousness. Marlier also states 
the scene may illustrate an unknown Netherlandish prov- 
erb or, in light of contemporary political events, the bird 
trap may be an allusion to the dangers of Spain's op- 
pression of the Netherlands. The city on the horizon is 
probably Antwerp. 

Whether or not the composition was originally done 
with a moralizing or political intent, it is nevertheless 
among the earliest forerunners of 17th century Dutch 
winter scenes, and its popularity is clearly evident from 
the 60 copies and versions listed by Marlier. 



GUSTAVE CAILLEBOTTE 

1848-1894. French. Born in Paris. Entered the studio of 
Leon Bonnat in 1873 an d, briefly, the Ecoledes Beaux- 
Arts. Participated in all the Impressionist exhibitions ex- 
cept the second and last. Friend and patron of Degas, 
Monet, Renoir and Pissarro. Bequeathed his collection 
of Impressionist works to the state. From 1887 lived at 
Petit-Gennevilliers, where he painted views of the Seine 
and of his garden. 

By the Sea, Villerville PL. 259 

[1884] Oil on canvas 

23M x 28-K in. (60.3 x 73 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: G. Caillebotte/84 

Ace. no. 53.69 

Gift of Wildenstein Foundation 

collections: M. Hugo, Paris; (Wildenstein, New York). 

exhibitions: New York, Wildenstein, Gustave Caille- 
botte, 1968, no. 50 (as Paysage, Bord de Mer). 

references: M. Berhaut, "Catalogue des peintures et 



pastels," Gustave Caillebotte, Paris, Wildenstein, 195 1, 
no. 216 (as Villerville). 

Villerville is on the Normandy coast, which Caillebotte 
visited several times in the 1880s. 



CALIARI (see VERONESE) 



ROBERT CAMPIN, Copy after 

1378/79-1444. Flemish. Perhaps born in Valenciennes 
or northern Brabant. By 1406 in Tournai, where in 1410 
he became a citizen and was elected dean of the painters 
guild in 1423. Jacques Daret and Rogier van der Weyden 
were his pupils. Campin is now generally identified with 
the artist known as the Master of Flemalle. 

The Virgin in an Apse PL. 78 

[Ca. 1490-1520] Oil on wood panel 
19H x 14 in. (49.2 x 35.6 cm.) 

Ace. no. 54.60 

collections: Giuseppe Plannuzzi; W. Muller, Berlin, 

by 1924; Princess K., Berlin, 1954; (Curt Reinheldt, New 

York). 

references: M. J. Friedlander, Die Altniederldftdische 
Malerei, Leyden, 1924, 11, no. 74!; M. Frinta, The Genius 
of Robert Gampin, The Hague, 1966, p. 115, n. 4; M. J. 
Friedlander, Early Netherlandish Painting (ed. H. Pau- 
wels), New York, 1967, 11, no. 741; M. Davies, National 
Gallery Catalogues: Early Netherlandish School, 3rd 
ed., London, 1968, p. 29, n. 3. 

This painting, one of more than 30 known copies after 
a lost original by Campin, is exceptional for its inclu- 
sion of symbolic flowers and animals. 

Friedlander divides the copies into three groups. In 
the earliest, the apse appears flattened and is seen from 
above. In the second and slightly later group, including 
the Toledo picture, the apse is shown frontally in cor- 
rect perspective. In the third group, mainly 16th cen- 
tury, a background landscape, elaborate architectural 
setting or more angels are added. 

Panofsky (Early Netherlandish Painting, Cambridge, 
I 953> Ij P- 35° ff-) an d others refer to a revival of van 
Eyck and Campin compositions ca. 1490-1520, the pe- 
riod from which the Toledo painting may date. This is 
given some support by the dark garments of the Virgin, 
a characteristic not present in earlier copies also present 
in some variants by Quentin Massys (1464 65—1530) 
and Bernard van Orley (ca. 1488-1541). 



33 



CANALETTO 



CANALETTO 

1697-1768. Italian. Born Giovanni Antonio Canal in 
Venice. In Rome, 1719-20, as a scenographer, returning 
to Venice where he began his career as a view painter. 
Probably influenced by Gaspare Vanvitelli and Luca 
Carlevaris. Aided by the British Consul in Venice, Jo- 
seph Smith, Canaletto traveled to London in 1746, re- 
turning to Venice about 1755. Not until 1763 was he 
made a member of the Venetian Academy. His nephew, 
Bernardo Bellotto, was his chief pupil. Canaletto also is 
renowned for his etchings. 

View of the Riva degli Schiavoni pl. 37 

[Late 1730s] Oil on canvas 

i8>2 x 24% in. (47.1 x 63.3 cm.) 

Two labels on reverse: 1) Anton Canale/M zu 

Venedig/a 1740; 2) No. 191/Tablau Apertenant au 

Prince Joseph/Wenceslau de [Liechten] stein/ in 

73- 

Ace. no. 51.404 

collections: Prince Josef Wenzel Liechtenstein, Vienna, 
about 1740; Princes Liechtenstein, Vienna, to about 
1951; (Frederick Mont, New York). 

exhibitions: Detroit Institute of Arts, Venice, 1700- 
1800, 1952, no. n, repr.; Baltimore Museum of Art, Age 
of Elegance: The Rococo and its Effect, 1959, no. 181; 
Venice, Palazzo Ducale, / vedutisti veneziani del sette- 
cento, 1967, no. 52, repr. and pl. 10 (detail) (cat. by 
P. Zampetti); Art Institute of Chicago, Painting in Italy 
in The Eighteenth Century: Rococo To Romanticism, 
1970, no. 17, repr. (cat. entry by B. Hannegan). 

references: Description des tableaux et des pieces de 
sculpture que renferme la gallerie de son Altesse Fran- 
cois Joseph, Chef et Prince Regnant de la Maison de 
Liechtenstein, Vienna, 1780, p. 74; Katalog der Fiirstlich 
Liechtensteinischen Bildergalerie im Gartenpalais der 
Rossau zu VJien, Vienna, 1873, p. 69, no. 591; G. Fer- 
rari, I due Canaletto, Turin, 1920, pl. 14; A. Kronfeld, 
Fiihrer durch die Fiirstlich Liechtensteinische Gemalde- 
galerie in Wien, Vienna, 1927, no. 199; W. G. Constable, 
Canaletto: Giovanni Antonio Canal, i6<)y-iy68, Ox- 
ford, 1962, 1, p. 112, n. 2 and pl. 30, no. 118, II, no. 118; 
L. Puppi, The Complete Paintings of Canaletto, New 
York, 1968, p. 92, fig. 35, pl. xxvi. 

This view of the Riva degli Schiavoni, Venice from the 
harbor of St. Mark's includes, from the left, a corner of 
the Doge's Palace, the Ponte della Paglia (with the Bridge 
of Sighs partly visible behind), the Prisons, a group of 
small houses, and, toward the right, the Palazzo Dan- 



dolo, later known as the Palazzo (now Hotel) Daniele. 

Toledo's painting is one of a series (referred to in 
various sources as having consisted of eight, nine or 
twelve pictures) of small Venetian views that were in 
the Liechtenstein collection and now appear to be di- 
vided among various American and Italian collections. 

The Harbor of St. Mark's and the Island of San Gior- 
gio from the Piazetta (private collection, Milan; Con- 
stable no. 126) appears to be from this series and a 
pendant to Toledo's painting. The pendant shows the 
steeple of San Giorgio Maggiore, constructed in 1726- 
28. The two paintings thus seem to have been painted 
between 1728 and 1740. The 1952 Detroit exhibition 
catalogue dates Toledo's painting to the 1730s, Zampetti 
to 1729-30, Constable to the early 1730s, and Hannegan 
to the late 1730s. In addition to stylistic grounds, Han- 
negan supports his dating by pointing out that the series 
suggests a commission which, together with the infor- 
mation on the labels on the reverse of the painting, indi- 
cate it was painted shortly before entering the Liechten- 
stein collection in 1740. 

There is a version of Toledo's painting in the Landes- 
museum, Darmstadt (no. 135), although its attribution 
is not definite (Constable, II, p. 233). 



JAN VAN DE CAPPELLE 

1624/26-1679. Dutch. Born and lived in Amsterdam. 
Self-taught as a painter, but probably inspired by Simon 
de Vlieger. A successful dye merchant. Had a large art 
collection with more than two hundred paintings and 
six thousand drawings by not only Dutch, but Flemish, 
German and Italian artists. Best known for his seascapes 
and winter landscapes. 

Shipping Off the Coast pl. 122 

[After 1651] Oil on canvas 
24^ x 33MS in. (61.9 x 84.0 cm.) 

Signed on second ship from left: J.V.C. (traces of a pos- 
sible full last name) 

Ace. no. 56.56 

collections: Dukes of Arenberg, Brussels, early 18th 
century-1955; (Speelman, London). 

exhibitions: The Hague, Mauritshuis, In the Light of 
Vermeer, 1966, no. 26. 

references: W. Burger, Galerie d' Arenberg a Bruxelles, 
1859, no. 10; C. Hofstede de Groot, vn, no. 24; F. T. 
Kugler, Handbook of Painting, The German, Flemish 
and Dutch Schools (ed. J. A. Crowe), London, 1879, 11, 
p. 501 (as a view of the Scheldt); W. Stechow, "Ober 



34 



CEZANNE 



das Verhaltnis zwischen Signatur und Chronologie bei 
einigen hollandischen Kiinstlern des 17. Jahrhunderts," 
Festschrift fur Dr. h.c. Trautscholdt, Hamburg, 1965, 
pp. 115-16; W. Stechow, 1968, p. 118, figs. 232, 233; 
L. Bol, Die bolliindische Marinemalerei des 17. Jahr- 
hunderts, 1973, p. 266, repr. p. 223; M. Russell, Jan van 
de Cappelle, 1624/26-1679, Leigh-on-Sea, 1975, pp. 20, 
2-4, % 9, P- 59, n. 3, p. 64, no. 24. 

Russell groups the Toledo painting with the seascapes at 
the Kunsthaus, Zurich (Hofstede de Groot 21; dated 
165?) and the Art Institute of Chicago (Hofstede de 
Groot no; dated 1651). All three are characterized by 
cool tonalities, a centralized composition and an overall 
luminosity of the water. Stechow (1962) also points out 
that Van de Cappelle seems to have preferred using a 
canvas support to panel sometime after 1651. 



BRUNO CASSINARI 

1912-. Italian. Born in Piacenza. Studied at the Milan 
Academy. Member of Corrente, 1938. Prizewinner at 
Venice Biennale. Lives in Milan. 

Still Life pl. 43 

[1952] Oil on canvas 

27H x 39^4 in. (70.5 x 101 cm.) 

Signed lower right: Cassinari 

Ace. no. 52.140 
Museum Purchase 

collfxtions: (II Milione, Milan). 



JEAN-CHARLES CAZIN 

1841-1901. French. Studied at the Ecole des Arts De- 
coratifs and with Lecoq de Boisbaudran. Traveled in 
England, Italy and Holland, 1871-75. Following his first 
success at 1876 Salon, he painted primarily history and 
religious pictures until ca. 1883. However, his reputa- 
tion rests on the landscapes he painted from the 1880s 
onward. 

In the Lowlands pl. 276 

[Ca. 1890-1900] Oil on canvas 
15^ x 18K in. (38.4 x 46.4 cm.) 
Signed lower left: J. C. Cazin 

Ace. no. 26.75 

collections: Edward Drummond Libbey, by 1903 (?)- 
1926. 



This painting probably dates from the last phase of 
Cazin's work after 1888, when he painted many similar 
landscapes, in which the emphasis is on color and tone 
rather than spatial organization. 



PAUL CEZANNE 

1839-1906. French. Born in Aix. In 1862 went to Paris; 
entered the Academie Suisse, where he met Pissarro. Re- 
jected by the Salon, he exhibited at the Salon des Refuses 
in 1863, and with the Impressionists in 1874 and 1877. 
Lived mostly in Paris and Aix, and in later years painted 
almost exclusively in Provence. 

Avenue at Chantilly pl. 261 

[1888] Oil on canvas 

32 x 25^ in. (81.3 x 64.8 cm.) 

Ace. no. 59.13 

Gift of Mr. and Mrs. William E. Levis 

collections: Ambroise Vollard, Paris; (Hugo Cassirer, 
Berlin); Mme. Furstenberg, Paris; (J.K. Thannhauser, 
New York); W. A. M. Burden, New York, 1949-53; 
(Knoedler, New York, 1953); Mr. and Mrs. William E. 
Levis, Perrysburg, Ohio. 

exhibitions: Cologne, Sonderbund, International Kunst- 
austellung, 1912, no. 136; Berlin, Cassirer, Cezanne, 
1921, no. 12; San Francisco, H. M. de Young Museum, 
The Fainting of France since the French Revolution, 
1940, no. 4, repr. p. 88; New York, Metropolitan Mu- 
seum of Art, French Fainting: David to Toulouse-Lau- 
trec, 1 94 1, no. 6; Art Institute of Chicago, Masterpieces 
of French Art lent by the Museums and Collectors of 
France, 194 1, no. 13, pl. xxxix. 

references: W. Weisbach, Impressionismus in der 
Antike und Neuzeit, Berlin, 1910-n, 11, pp. 160-61, 
repr.; A. Vollard, Paul Cezanne, Paris, 1914, pl. 48; 
L. Venturi, Cezanne, son art, son oeuvre, Paris, 1936, 1, 
no. 627; 11, pl. 201; G. Riviere, Cezanne, le peintre soli- 
taire, Paris, 1936, p. 142; M. Schapiro, Paul Cezanne, 
New York, 1952, pp. 14, 80, repr. p. 81; A. Gatto and 
S. Orienti, L'opera completa di Cezanne, Milan, 1970, 
no. 665, repr. 

In 1888 Cezanne spent five months working at Chan- 
tilly, living at the Hotel Delacourt. 



The Glade 

[Ca. 1890] Oil on canvas 
39/ / 2 x 32 in. (100.3 x 81.3 cm. 
Ace. no. 42.18 



PL. 260 



35 



CHAMPAIGNE 



collections: Mme. Emile Staub-Terlinden, Mannedorf, 
Switzerland; (Wildenstein, New York). 

exhibitions: Basel, Kunsthalle, Paul Cezanne, 1936, no. 
50; New York, Wildenstein, Cezanne, 1947, no. 55, repr. 
p. 60; New York, Wildenstein, Cezanne, 1959, no. 41, 
repr. 

references: F. Burger, Cezanne and Hodler, Munich, 
1920, 1, p. 103; 11, pi. 109; L. Venturi, Cezanne, son art, 
son oeuvre, Paris, 1936, 1, no. 670; 11, pi. 215; A. Gatto 
and S. Orienti, L'opera completa di Cezanne, Milan, 
1970, no. 689, repr. 

This picture is one of a large group in which massed 
trees form the principal subject. Although Venturi dated 
the Toledo painting 1892-96, Ronald Alley (letter, Aug. 
1974) has suggested it was painted ca. 1889 because of 
its similarity to pictures such as Le Grand Pin (Museo 
de Arte, Sao Paulo, Brazil). 



PHILIPPE DE CHAMPAIGNE 

1603-1674. French. Born in Brussels, where he was first 
trained as a landscape painter. In 1621 to Paris, where 
he lived most of his life. Collaborated on the decoration 
of the Luxembourg Palace for Marie de Medici, and in 
1628 was appointed painter to her. Worked for the King 
and for Cardinal Richelieu. Member of the Academie 
from its founding in 1648. About 1643, after beginning 
to work for the austere Catholic Jansenist sect whose 
beliefs deeply influenced him, his work became more 
classical in style. 

A Councilman of Paris PL. 184 

[1654] Oil on canvas 

31K x 25M in. (80 x 65.5 cm.) 

Ace. no. 33.325 

Gift of Felix Wildenstein 

collections: Hugot, Paris; Felix Wildenstein, New 
York. 

exhibitions: Paris, Orangerie, Philippe de Champaigne, 
1952, no. 35, pi. xiii (cat. by B. Dorival). 

references: A. Mabille de Poncheville, Philippe de 
Champaigne, sa vie et son oeuvre, Paris, 1952, p. 146, pi. 
xxi; A. Blunt, "Philippe de Champaigne at the Orange- 
rie, Paris," Burlington Magazine, xciv, June 1952, p. 
175; P. Gaudibert, "Philippe de Champaigne: portrait de 
magistrat parisien recemment identifie," Bulletin de la 
societe de I'art francais, 1955, p. 44; J. Wilhelm, "Les 
tableaux de l'hotel de ville de Paris et de l'abbaye Sainte 



Genevieve," Bulletin de la societe de I'art francais, 1956, 
pp. 25-6; "Wallace Collection Catalogues: Pictures and 
Drawings, 16th ed. (ed. F. J. B. Watson), London, 1968, 
p. 60; B. Dorival, Philippe de Champaigne, Paris, 1976, 
no. 226. 

In 1648, 1654 and 1656 Philippe de Champaigne painted 
the prevot des marchands (mayor) and echevins (mu- 
nicipal councilmen) for the Paris Hotel de Ville. These 
group portraits continued a series painted from the mid- 
dle of the 16th century onward in which these civic 
officials are shown kneeling on either side of an altar or 
royal figure with the prevot and three other officials of 
the corps municipal on the left, and the four echevins on 
the right. 

Only the 1648 painting has survived (Louvre). B. Dori- 
val states (letter, Apr. 1976) the 1654 group was vandal- 
ized by a Revolutionary mob on August 10, 1792, while 
the fate of the 1656 painting, still intact in 1799, is un- 
known. 

The Toledo painting is one of four similar portraits 
of echevins identified as fragments of the 1654 and 1656 
groups (A. Blunt, "Philippe de Champaigne's Portraits 
of the Echevins of Paris," Burlington Magazine, lxxxii, 
Apr. 1943, pp. 83-7; Blunt, 1952; Gaudibert). The can- 
vas has been enlarged at the sides, the elbow (left) and 
folds at the back of the robe (right) having been added. 
According to Dorival (1976), these fragments must be 
from the 1654 group, which would have been actually 
painted during the term of office of the prevot and 
echevins (1652-54). The other fragments are in the Wal- 
lace Collection, London; private collection, Geneva, 
Switzerland and formerly Kaiser Friedrich Museum, 
Berlin (destroyed, 1945). While the names of the four 
echevins of 1654 are known, only the Geneva portrait 
can be linked to one of these names. 



CHAVANNES [see PUVIS) 

GIORGIO DE CHIRICO 

1 888-. Italian. Born in Greece of Italian parents. Studied 
drawing in Athens, then painting at Munich Academy of 
Fine Arts, 1905-08. Lived in Paris, 191 1-3 1. With Carra 
founded the quasi-Surrealist Metaphysical Painting 
movement in 1917. Has lived in Italy since 193 1. 



Self-Portrait 

[Ca. 1922] Oil on canvas 
15M; x 20/^ in. (38.4 x 51. 1 cm. 



PL. 41 



36 



CLAUDE 



Signed lower right: G. de Chirico se ipsum 

Ace. no. 30.204 

collections: (Bonjean, Paris); (Rene Gimpel, Paris). 

exhibitions: Houston Museum of Fine Arts, Chagall 
and Chirico, 1955, no. 21, repr.; Rome, Palazzo dei Es- 
posizioni, V77 quadriennale nazionale de'arte di Roma, 
1955, P- 58, no. 72 (as 1922). 

Although de Chirico has painted several self portraits, 
this appears to be the only one in double form. The ar- 
chitectural setting, classical bust and fruit are recurring 
images in his work. According to the artist (letter, May 
1976), this portrait was painted between 1922 and 1925, 
probably about 1922. 



PIETER CLAESZ. 

1596/97-1660. Dutch. Born in Westphalia, Germany. 
By 1617 in Haarlem, where he remained the rest of his 
life. Father of the painter Nicolaes Berchem. He and 
William Claesz. Heda are the originators of monochrome 
and breakfast still lifes. 

Still Life with Oysters pl. 124 

[1642] Oil on wood panel 

14 x zo l A in. (35.6 x 51. 1 cm.) 

Signed and dated left center: PC (in monogram)/i642 

Ace. no. 50.233 

collections: Colonel M. A. W. Swinfen Broun, Swinfen 
Hall, Lichfield (Christie, London, Dec. 10, 1948, no. 84); 
(Eugene Slatter, London). 



GIAMBETTINO CIGNAROLI 

1706-1770. Italian. A student of Sante Prunati and later 
Balestra, Cignaroli spent most of his life in his native 
Verona, making occasional trips to Venice and Parma, 
never traveling outside Italy. Veronese and the Carracci 
influenced his style. 

Madonna and Child with Saints PL. 29 

[Probably 1759] Oil on canvas 
62 x 33^ in. (157.5 x 85.2 cm.) 

Ace. no. 71.6 

collections: (Colnaghi, London). 

exhibitions: Art Institute of Chicago, Painting in Italy 
in the Eighteenth Century: Rococo to Romanticism, 
1970, no. 19, repr. p. 61 (entry by B. Hannegan). 

references: R. Pallucchini, "La pittura Veneta del sette- 
cento alia mostra itinerante di Chicago — Minneapolis — 
Toledo," Arte Veneta, xxiv, 1970, p. 287. 

The Madonna and Child with Saints Lawrence, Lucy, 
Anthony of Padua and Barbara, with the Guardian An- 
gel is a finished modello for, or perhaps an autograph 
reduction (Pallucchini) of, the large altarpiece (Prado) 
originally in the Spanish royal church of S. Ildefonso, 
Madrid, the gift of Louise Elisabeth, daughter of Louis 
XV of France and wife of Philip, Duke of Parma, who 
commissioned it during Cignaroli's visit to Parma in 
1759. Hannegan cites Veronese's altarpiece of the Ma- 
rogna family in S. Paola, Verona, as the artist's point of 
departure, while the Madonna recalls Lodovico Car- 
racci. 



CLAUDE LORRAIN 

1600-1682. French. Born Claude Gellee in Lorraine. Ca. 
1613 in Rome, where he was assistant to the landscape 
painter Agostino Tassi, ca. 1620-25. m France 1625-27, 
but returned to Rome for the remainder of his life. The 
use of light, space and atmospheric tones in his poetic 
interpretations of the Roman countryside and Mediter- 
ranean coast influenced landscape painting for two cen- 
turies after his death. 

Landscape with Nymph pl. 188 

and Satyr Dancing 

[1641] Oil on canvas 
3934 x 52^ in. (99.6 x 133 cm.) 

Perhaps traces of a signature (and date?) on fallen capi- 
tal, lower right 

Ace. no. 49.170 

collections: Painted for an unknown patron in Venice, 
1641; Hubert, probably France, by ca. 1720 until at least 
1777; A. Gilmore, London (Phillips, London, June 2, 
1843, lot 76); 2nd and 3rd Lords Bateman, Shobdon, 
Herefordshire, by 1881-ca. 1930; (Colnaghi, London); 
(David H. Farr, New York, 1930); (Christie, London, 
July 14, 1939, lot 119); (Wildenstein, Paris, 1939); seized 
for Hitler's projected museum at Linz, 1940; (Wilden- 
stein, New York, 1945-49). 

exhibitions: London, Royal Academy, Winter Exhibi- 
tion, 1881, no. 163; New York, Wildenstein, Gods and 
Heroes, Baroque Images in Antiquity, 1968, no. 8, pl. 

44. 

references: J. Smith, via, p. 22i; Mme. M. Pattison, 
Claude Lorrain, sa vie et ses oeuvres, Paris, 1884, pp. 



37 



CLEVE 



212, 229; O. T. Dullea, Claude Gellee Le Lorrain, Lon- 
don, 1887, pp. 105, 122; M. Rothlisberger, Claude Lor- 
rain: The Paintings, New Haven, 1961, 1, pp. 195-96; n, 
fig. 123; M. Rothlisberger, "Nuovi aspetti di Claude 
Lorrain," Paragone, No. 273, Nov. 1972, p. 31; M. Roth- 
lisberger and D. Cecchi, L'opera completa di Claude 
Lorrain, Milan, 1975, no. 119, pis. iv-v, vi. 

Beginning in 1633 Claude made record drawings of his 
paintings, with notations relative to dating and patrons, 
in the Liber Veritatis (British Museum). Claude's draw- 
ing in the Liber (no. 55) after this picture is inscribed in 
ink on the reverse: faict per Venetia ("done for Venice") 
and Claudio fecit in V.R. ("done by Claude in Rome"). 
The Venetian patron who commissioned it is not known. 
Rothlisberger (1961), who dates the painting 1641 based 
on the chronological order of the Liber, considers it 
Claude's first landscape with a bacchic theme. He also 
notes (1972) that a satyr appears in only one other paint- 
ing by Claude. 



JOOS VAN CLEVE 

Ca. 1485-1540/41. Dutch. Born at or near Cleves. Also 
called Joos van der Beke. 15 11 recorded in Antwerp 
guild. Except for possible visits to France and Italy, he 
worked in Antwerp. Primarily a portraitist, he also 
painted religious subjects. 

Portrait of a Man pl. 83 

[Ca. 1520-30] Oil on wood panel 
i6 T A x 13J4 in. (41.2 x 33.6 cm.) 
Ace. no. 26.59 

Portrait of a Woman pl. 84 

[Ca. 1520-30] Oil on wood panel 
i6Y% x 13K in. (42.1 x 34 cm.) 

Ace. no. 26.62 

COLLECTIONS: Earl of Ellenborough (Christie, London, 
Apr. 3, 1914, lots 106, 107, repr.); (Agnew, London); 
Edward Drummond Libbey. 

references: M. Conway, The Van Eycks and Their 
Followers, London, 1921, p. 411; L. Baldass, Joos van 
Cleve, der Meister des Todes Maria, Vienna, 1925, 1, p. 
27; 11, p. 8, n. 79, p. 26, figs. 57, 58; M. J. Friedlander, 
Die Altniederlandische Malerei, Leyden, 1934, ix, no. 
116; M. J. Friedlander, Early Netherlandish Painting 
(ed. H. Pauwels), New York, 1972, ixa, no. 116, pis. 120, 
121, fig. 116; John G. Johnson Collection, Catalogue of 
Flemish and Dutch Paintings, Philadelphia, 1972, p. 24. 



These pendant portraits were painted about 1530, ac- 
cording to Friedlander and Conway, though Baldass 
dated them ca. 1521-24. A copy of the man is in the 
Johnson Collection, Philadelphia Museum of Art; the 
present location of a copy of the woman (Friedlander, 
1972, pl. 124) is unknown. 

A coat of arms on the back of the Toledo man's por- 
trait identifies him as a member of the Hanneman family 
of Holland. These arms also appear on the front of the 
Johnson copy, as does his age, given as 25. As there were 
two Hannemans about this age around 1530, it is not 
certain which one is shown. The ring held by the woman 
may refer to the marriage or betrothal of the couple. 



FRANCOIS CLOUET 

Ca. 1510-1572. French. Born in Tours. Son and prob- 
ably pupil of Jean Clouet. Active as early as 1536. 
1540/41 succeeded his father as painter to King Fran- 
cis I, subsequently serving as painter to Henry II, Francis 
II and Charles IX. Especially known for his crayon por- 
traits, Clouet also painted mythological scenes and di- 
rected a large workshop which produced miniatures, 
enamel designs and decorations for triumphal entries. 
Died in Paris. 

Elizabeth of Valois pl. 178 

[Ca. 1559] Oil on wood panel 
14^ x 9% in. (36.2 x 25.1 cm.) 

Ace. no. 29.140 

collections: Princess de Croy; Count de Lonyay, Nagy- 
Lonya, Hungary; (Wildenstein, New York). 

exhibitions: London, Royal Academy, Commemorative 
Catalogue of the Exhibition of French Art, 1200-1900, 
1932, no. 50, pl. 22. 

references: "A Francois Clouet Acquired," Toledo 
Museum of Art Museum News, No. 55, Dec. 1929, un- 
paginated, repr. on cover; M. Chamot, "Primitives at 
the French Exhibition," Apollo, xv, Feb. 1932, p. 65, 
repr. p. 60; L. Reau, French Painting in the XlVth, XVth 
and XVIth Centuries, Paris, 1939, p. 35, repr. p. 95. 

The identification of the sitter as Elizabeth of Valois, 
daughter of Henry II of France and third wife of Philip 
II of Spain, is confirmed by the likeness to a portrait of 
Elizabeth at nearly the same age by Sanchez Coello in 
the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. The Imperial 
collection provenance of the Vienna portrait and the 
fact that the Queen's pearl headdress carries the mono- 
gram YF (Ysabella, France) secure its identification. The 



CONSTABLE 



Toledo sitter strongly resembles the young girl in the 
drawing in the Musee Conde, Chantilly (E. Moreau- 
Nelaton, Les Clouets et leur emules, 1924, II, fig. 208), 
probably by Clouet, which bears a 16th century inscrip- 
tion identifying the subject as Elizabeth, Queen of Spain 
at the age of 14. Since Elizabeth was born in April 1545, 
this drawing can probably be dated 1559. 

Dating is based on the close correspondence in age of 
the Toledo and Chantilly portraits. The Toledo painting 
was surely executed before 1560, when Elizabeth joined 
Philip in Spain. 

The attribution of the Toledo portrait to Clouet has 
been consistently upheld and recently reaffirmed by 
Charles Sterling (letter, May 1974). 

Two copies of Toledo's portrait are known. One was 
reported to be in the Kleiweg de Zwaan collection, Am- 
sterdam, in 1929, and the other in the collection of 
Henry Blank, Glen Ridge, New Jersey (Parke-Bernet, 
New York, Nov. 16, 1949, lot 59, repr.). 



JOHN CONSTABLE 

1776-1837. British. Born in Suffolk. Entered the Royal 
Academy Schools, 1799. A.R.A., 1819; R.A., 1829. He 
divided his time between London and his native Stour 
Valley, Suffolk. Working from direct observation of na- 
ture, he sketched the changing effects of weather, clouds 
and countryside for use in his pictures. The bright color 
and spontaneity of Constable's work was much admired 
by the French, especially Delacroix and the early Barbi- 
zon painters. Received a gold medal at the 1824 Paris 
Salon. He and Turner were the dominant influences on 
19th century English landscape painting. 

Arundel Mill and Castle pl. 331 

[1837] Oil on canvas 

28J/2 x 39H in. (72.4 x 100.3 cm.) 

Ace. no. 26.53 

collections: Constable sale (Foster, London, May 16, 
1838, lot 81; bought in for John Charles Constable); 
John Charles Constable (the artist's son), London, 1838- 
41; Charles Golding Constable (the artist's second son), 
London, by 1862-79; Holbrook Gaskell, Wootton, 1878 
(Christie, London, Jun. 24, 1909, lot 8); (Knoedler, 
1909); (Henry Reinhardt, Milwaukee, 1909-10); Edward 
Drummond Libbey, 1910-25. 

exhibitions: London, Royal Academy, 1837, no. 193; 
London, Royal Academy, Works of the Old Masters 
Associated with Works of Deceased Members of the 
British School, 1871, no. 4; Liverpool Art Club, Oil 



Paintings by British Artists Born Before 1801, 1881, no. 
15; London, Royal Academy, Works by the Old Masters 
and by Deceased Masters of the British School, 1885, no. 
64; London, Grosvenor Gallery, A Century of British 
Art from 1737 to 1837, 1888, no. 47; Boston, Museum 
of Fine Arts, Turner, Constable and Bonington, 1946, 
no. 147, repr.; London, Royal Academy, Bicentenary 
Exhibition: 1768-1968, 1968, 1, no. 97; II, repr. p. 62; 
London, Tate Gallery, John Constable, 1st ed., 1976, 
no. 335, p. 202, 1837, n. 1 (entry by L. Parris and 
I. Fleming-Williams). 

references: C. R. Leslie, Memoirs of the Life of John 
Constable, London, 1843, pp. 109, 115, repr.; [same] 
(ed. A. Shirley), London, 1937, pp. lxxiii, lxxix, xxxv, 
353, 356, pl. 150; C. Holmes, Constable a?id His Influ- 
ence on Landscape Painting, London, 1902, pp. xiv, 217, 
222, 252, repr.; A. Jespersen, "Arundel Mill by John 
Constable," Bulletin of the California Palace of the Le- 
gion of Honor, vm, July 1950, repr. p. [2]; C. Peacock, 
John Constable, The Man and His Work, Greenwich, 
Conn., 1965, p. 40 and 40m; G. Reynolds, Consta- 
ble, The Natural Painter, London, 1965, pp. 124-25, 130, 
132, 133, 147, pl. 80; R. B. Beckett, ed., John Constable's 
Correspondence, Ipswich, 1962-70, in, pp. 134, 146, 
148-50, pl. 6; IV, p. 229; V, pp. 28n, 31, 32, 36, 37, 202; 
vi, p. 77n; M. Kitson, "Bicentenaire de la Royal Acad- 
emy," Revue de I' Art, v, 1969, p. 94; B. Taylor, Consta- 
ble: Paintings, Drawings and Watercolours, London, 
1973, pp. 10, 18, 211, pl. 168; G. Reynolds, Victoria and 
Albert Museum, Catalogue of the Constable Collection, 
2nd ed., London, 1973, p. 225; L. Parris, C. Shield and 
I. Fleming-Williams, ed., John Constable: Further Doc- 
uments and Correspondence, London, 1975, pp. 57, 100, 
101, 102 (sketch, 62); I. Fleming-Williams, Constable 
Landscape Watercolours and Drawings, London, 1976, 
pp. n, 116, fig. 123. 

In 1834 Constable first visited his friend George Con- 
stable — no relation — at Arundel, Sussex. In 1835 he 
went again, accompanied by his two oldest children. 
Early in 1836 he began a painting of Arundel Mill based 
on a drawing made in 1835, as well as two drawings in 
his 1835 sketchbook (Victoria and Albert Museum, Lon- 
don; Reynolds, 1973, nos - 379> 3^2 (pp. 33, 35), repr.; 
Fleming-Williams, fig. 84, pl. 50). He did not return to 
the painting until February 1837, when he wrote a 
friend, "... I am at work on a beautiful subject, Arundel 
Mill. ... It is, and shall be, my best picture." (Beckett, 
in, p. 37). Constable was working on this picture the 
day he died, March 31. According to the miniature 
painter Alfred Tidey (1808-1892), "I called on Constable 



39 



CORNEILLE 



on March 28th, 1837. He was then working on his 
"Arundel Castle," and seemed well satisfied with the 
result of his labours. He said while giving a touch here 
and there with his palette knife, and retiring to see the 
effect, 'It is neither too warm, nor too cold, too light 
nor to dark and this constitutes everything in a picture.' " 
(note dated Dec. 9, 1838; Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon 
collection, Upperville, Virginia). 

A small oil version is in the California Palace of the 
Legion of Honor, San Francisco. The Toledo picture was 
engraved in mezzotint by David Lucas in 1855. 



CORNEILLE DE LYON 

Ca. 1500/10— after March 1574. French. Also known as 
Corneille de la Haye, after his birthplace, The Hague. 
By 1533 in Lyons. Became painter to the Dauphin, 1541; 
in 1551 painter to Henry II, and subsequently to Charles 
IX. Specialized in small, half-length portraits. Headed a 
large workshop. Probably died at Lyons. 

Marechal Bonnivet pl. 180 

Oil on wood panel 

izH x 9H in. (31.5 x 23.8 cm.) 

Ace. no. 38.25 

collections: Count Montbrizon, Chateau St. Roche, 
Montauban; (Wildenstein, New York). 

references: "An Early French Masterpiece," Toledo 
Museum of Art Museum News, No. 84, Dec. 1938, un- 
paginated, repr. on cover; L. Reau, French Painting in 
the XlVth, XVth and XVlth Centuries, Paris, 1939, p. 
35, fig. 96; A. Chatelet and J. Thuillier, French Painting 
from Fouquet to Poussin, Geneva, 1963, p. 133. 

Reau accepted the attribution of this painting to Cor- 
neille, while Chatelet and Thuillier suggested a different, 
though related hand. 

The identification of the subject of the Toledo por- 
trait as Francois Gouffier, Marechal Bonnivet, son of the 
famous French army commander, Guillaume Gouffier, 
is based on a resemblance to a portrait drawing of Bon- 
nivet in the Musee Conde, Chantilly. 



returned there 1834 and 1843. Exhibited annually at the 
Salon from 1828. Traveled and painted throughout 
France and worked periodically with the Barbizon artists 
in the 1840s and 50s. The leading French landscape 
painter of his time; Corot also did figure paintings and 
prints. 

Canal in Picardy pl. 120 

[Ca. 1865-71] Oil on canvas 
18^ x 24 l A in. (46.7 x 61.6 cm.) 
Stamped lower right: Vente/Corot 

Ace. no. 22.20 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: (Corot sale, Hotel Drouot, Paris, May 
26-28, 1875, lot 174, repr.); Jules Chamouillet (Corot's 
grandnephew), Paris, 1875; Marczell de Nemes, Buda- 
pest, by 191 1 (Galerie Manzi, Joyant, Paris, Jun. 18, 
1913, lot 92, repr.); Arthur J. Secor, 1914-22. 

exhibitions: Budapest, Collection Marczell de Hemes, 
191 1 ; Diisseldorf, Stadtisches Kunsthalle, Die Sammlung 
des Kgl. Rates Marczell de Nemes — Budapest, 19 12, no. 
96, repr.; Art Institute of Chicago, Corot, i960, no. 104, 
repr.; New York, Wildenstein, Corot, 1969, no. 52, repr. 

references: A. Robaut and E. Moreau-Nelaton, 
L'oeuvre de Corot, Paris, 1905, 111, no. 1743, repr. (as 
1866-70). 

Robaut identified this characteristic example of Corot's 
poetic late style as a landscape in Picardy. It is probably 
near Douai and Arras, a region interlaced by canals 
which Corot often visited between 1865 and 1871. 



PIETRO DA CORTONA 

1 596-1669. Italian. Born Pietro Berrettini at Cortona, 
where he studied with Andrea Commodi, with whom he 
went to Rome in 161 2/1 3. First worked there for the 
Sacchetti family, but was soon patronized by the pow- 
erful Barberini family for whose palace he painted his 
greatest work, the ceiling of the Salone. Except for a trip 
to Florence and Venice in 1637 and work in Florence for 
the Medici, 1640-47, he remained in Rome. As a painter 
and also as an important architect he was one of the 
founders of the Roman High Baroque. 



JEAN-BAPTISTE-CAMILLE COROT 

1796-1875. French. Born in Paris. Studied briefly with 
Achille Michalon and Victor Bertin. In Italy, 1825-28; 



The Virgin with a Camaldolese Saint 

[1629/30] Oil on canvas 

57^8 x 44^ in. (146.4 x 113. 4 cm.) 

Ace. no. 60.31 



PL. 19 



40 



COSTANZI 



collections: Barberini collection, Rome, ca. 1629- 
1960; (Colnaghi, London, i960). 

exhibitions: Cortona, Mostra di Pietro da Cortona, 
1956, no. 11, pi. xi (cat. by G. Briganti); London, Col- 
naghi, Paintings by Old Masters, i960, no. 9, pi. v. 

references: F. Barberini, Registrato di mandati 1628- 
39 (MS. Arch. Barb. Armadio 42), Aug. 21, 1629, no. 
1934; F. Barberini, Libro mastro a 1623-29 (MS. Arch. 
Barb.) Oct. 3, 1629, fol. 289; F. Barberini, Ginstificazioni 
(MS. Arch. Barb. Armadio 100), Sep. 1630, no. 1602; 
Barberini Collection Inventory (MS. Barb. Lat. 5635), 
163 1, no. 63; J. A. Orbaan, Documenti sul barocco in 
Roma, Rome, 1920, p. 506; O. Pollak, Die Kunsttatig- 
keit unter Urban VIII, Vienna, 1928, 1, p. 967; E. K. Wa- 
terhouse, Baroque Painting in Rome, London, 1937, p. 
59; A. Blunt, "The Exhibition of Pietro da Cortona at 
Cortona," Burlington Magazine, xcvin, Nov. 1956, p. 
415; B. N. (B. Nicolson), "Three Old Master Exhibi- 
tions," Burlington Magazine, en, July i960, p. 334, fig. 
47; G. Briganti, Pietro da Cortona, Florence, 1962, pp. 
75, 137, 175-76, fig. 54; K. Noehles, "Rezension: Giulio 
Briganti, Pietro da Cortona" Kunstchronik, xvi, 1963, 
pp. 100, 105; I. Lavin, "Pietro da Cortona Documents 
from the Barberini Archive," Burlington Magazine, cxn, 
July 1970, pp. 446, 449, 451, fig. 24; B. Fredericksen and 
F. Zeri, Census, 1972, p. 165. 

According to documents discovered by Noehles and 
Lavin, this painting was commissioned about 1629/30 
by Cardinal Francesco Barberini, nephew of Pope Urban 
VIII, for the hermitage of the Camaldolese order at 
Frascati. 

Lavin believes the monk represents a combination of 
two Camaldolese figures, St. Peter Damian and the 
Blessed Paul Giustiniani. A cardinal's hat and the saint's 
veneration of the Virgin identify the former, while the 
monk's short cape fastened at the neck with a piece of 
wood, and the two monks in the background retreating 
to a solitary chapel may allude to Giustiniani's reform 
of the order by founding its Monte Corona branch. 
Lavin suggested this painting may have been painted to 
commemorate the centennial in 1628 of Giustiniani's 
death. 

Briganti cites two drawings in the Uffizi (nos. 84 ip 
and 939P) as preparatory studies for the landscape back- 
ground. He also believed that the painting was commis- 
sioned by Giulio Sacchetti in 1626. 



COSIMO (see PIERO) 



LORENZO COSTA 

1460-1535. Italian. Studied in Ferrara; influenced by 
Francesco del Cossa and Ercole de' Roberti. In Bologna 
by 1483, he worked for the Bentivoglio court and formed 
a partnership with Francesco Francia. From 1506 was 
Mantegna's successor as court painter in Mantua, work- 
ing for Isabella d'Este until his death. 

The Holy Family PL. 11 

[Ca. 1510] Oil (and perhaps tempera) on wood panel 

35 x 25^2 in. (88.9 x 64.8 cm.) 

Signed lower right: lavrentivs costa f 

Inscribed lower right: F. 6. 

Ace. no. 65.174 

collections: Isabella d'Este, Mantua, from ca. 1510; 
Este collection, Ferrara, to 1598; Barberini collection, 
Rome, from 1598 until at least 1936; Corsini collection, 
Florence, to 1964; (Agnew, London). 

references: B. Berenson, North Italian Painters of the 
Renaissance, New York, 1907, p. 204; T. Gerevich, "Lo- 
renzo Costa," Thieme-Becker, Leipzig, 1912, vn, p. 529; 
A. Venturi, Storia dell'arte italiana, Milan, 1914, vn, 
part in, p. 806, fig. 596; B. Berenson, Italian Pictures of 
the Renaissance, Oxford, 1932, p. 157; B. Berenson, 
Pitture italiane del Rinascimento, Milan, 1936, p. 135; 
R. Varese, Lorenzo Costa, Milan, 1967, no. 75, fig. 56 
(as in Barberini collection); B. Berenson, Italian Pictures 
of the Renaissance: Central Italian and North Italian 
Schools, London, 1968, 1, p. 97. 

Painted for Isabella d'Este about 1510, this painting re- 
mained in the Este collections until 1598, when Pope 
Clement VIII took Ferrara into the Papal dominions. 
With the ensuing looting of the Este collection, the Holy 
Family entered the Barberini collection. It later passed 
from the Barberinis to the Corsinis through marriage. 

Painted at a time when Florence and Rome were al- 
ready experiencing the High Renaissance, Costa's panel 
suggests work of the preceding century. The facial type 
of the Madonna may be compared to the Virgin in Peru- 
gino's The Virgin in Glory with Saints (Pinacoteca, Bo- 
logna), painted in 1494 for a chapel in S. Giovanni in 
Monte, Bologna. Costa painted the high altar for the 
same church in 1501—02. 



PLACIDO COSTANZI 

1701-1759. Italian. Born in Rome, son of the gem en- 
graver Giovanni Costanzi. Until about 1720 studied with 
Trevisani, then in the studio of Luti. Won early success, 



41 



COURBET 



and was patronized by Italians, Spaniards and French. 
Elected to the Academy of St. Luke, 174 1; served as 
president, 1758—59. 

The Trinity with Saints Gregory pl. 30 

and Romuald 

[1726] Oil on canvas 

62 x 30 in. (157.5 x 7&- z cm -) 

Ace. no. 75.10 

COLLECTIONS: (Paolo Rosa, Rome); (Colnaghi, London, 

1973-75)- 

REFERENCES: V. Moschini, Le chiesi di Roma illustrate: 

No. iy, San Gregorio al Celio, Rome, n.d., p. 13 (fresco); 

A. M. Clark, "An Introduction to Placido Costanzi," 

Paragone, xix, May 1968, p. 53, n. 15 (fresco). 

This is the modello for Costanzi's ceiling fresco in the 
nave of the church of S. Gregorio Magno, Rome, com- 
pleted in October 1727. According to Moschini, the 
sketches, of which this painting is the only one known, 
were presented for approval in 1726. With minor excep- 
tions, the fresco closely follows the Toledo modello. At 
the top is the Trinity; the two saints kneeling beneath 
God the Father, are (right) St. Gregory, in whose honor 
the church was built, and (left) St. Romuald, founder of 
the Camaldolese order housed in S. Gregorio. Presum- 
ably, the fresco was commissioned by the Order, and the 
sketch may have remained in their possession after the 
work was completed. 



GUSTAVE COURBET 

1819-1877. French. Born at Ornans. After study in Be- 
sancon and Paris, he copied old master paintings inde- 
pendently at the Louvre. Included in the Salon, 1844 and 
1847-70. Frequently exhibited in Belgium, Switzerland 
and Germany, where he had many admirers. During the 
1855 and 1867 Paris Worlds Fairs, he showed his work 
in private exhibitions. Entrusted with the preservation of 
art treasures during the siege of Paris, 1870-71, but was 
later charged with the destruction of the Vendome Col- 
umn and sentenced to prison. In 1873, threatened with 
further reprisals he fled to Switzerland, where he died 
in exile. 



The Trellis 

[1862] Oil on canvas 

43M x 53% in. (109.8 x 135.2 cm.) 

Signed lower left: G. Courbet. 

Ace. no. 50.309 



PL. 218 



collections: Cotel, Paris, 1878?; Jules Paton, Paris, by 
1882 (Bernheim-Jeune, Paris, Apr. 24, 1883, lot 23); T. J. 
Blakeslee, New York (American Art Galleries, New 
York, Apr. 10-11, 1902, lot 50); (Durand-Ruel, New 
York and Paris, 1902-06); Adrien Hebrard, Paris, 1906; 
Prince de Wagram, Paris, 1908; Baron Cacamizy, Lon- 
don(?); Blanche Marchesi, London, by 1909-19/20; Mrs. 
R. A. Workman, London, 1919/20-29 (Paul Rosenberg, 
Paris, 1929); (Wildenstein, New York, 1929-50). 

exhibitions: Saintes, Hotel de Ville, Explication des 
ouvrages de peinture et de sculpture exposes dans les 
salles de la mairie au profit des pauvres, 1863, no. 76 (as 
Femme aux fleurs); Paris, Ecole des Beaux- Arts, Expo- 
sition des oeuvres de Gustave Courbet, 1882, no. 128; 
London, Burlington Fine Arts Club, Pictures, Drawings 
and Sculpture of the French School of the Last 100 
Years, 1922, no. 28; Paris, Palais des Beaux Arts, Gus- 
tave Courbet, 1929, no. 41, pl. 8; Berlin, Galerie Werth- 
eim, Gustave Courbet, 1930, no. 32, repr.; Zurich, Kunst- 
haus, Gustave Courbet, 1935, no. 70, pl. 23; Baltimore 
Museum of Art, Paintings by Courbet, 1938, no. 10; 
New York, Wildenstein, Courbet, 1949, no. 19, repr.; 
Detroit Institute of Arts, From David to Courbet, 1950, 
no. 104, repr.; Venice, Biennale, Courbet, 1954, no. 21; 
Lyons, Musee de Lyon, Courbet, 1954, no. 26; Paris, 
Petit Palais, G. Courbet, 1955, no. 45, repr. on cover; 
New York, Paul Rosenberg, Gustave Courbet, 1956, no. 
8, repr.; Philadelphia Museum of Art, Gustave Courbet, 
1959, no. 39, repr. 

references: M. Conil, "L'exposition de peintre de 
Saintes, G. Courbet," Courrier des Deux Charentes, 
Saintes, Feb. 19, 1863, p. 3; Anonymous, "Exposition de 
peinture, M. Courbet," L'lndependant de la Charente- 
lnferieure, Saintes, Jan. 29, 1863, p. 3; J. Bruno, Les 
Miseres des gueux, Paris, 1872, fig. 34 (as Alice a la 
serre); A. Estignard, G. Courbet, sa vie, ses oeuvres, 
Besancon, 1896, p. 162; S. Riat, Gustave Courbet, pein- 
tre, Paris, 1906, pp. 200, 336; T. Duret, Courbet, Paris, 
1918, pp. 64, 119; J. Meier-Graefe, Courbet, Munich, 
1924, pis. 27, 29; J. Manson, "The Workman Collec- 
tion, Modern Foreign Art," Apollo, in, Mar. 1920, p. 
140, repr. opp. p. 218; P. Courthion, Courbet raconte 
par lui-meme et par ses amis, Geneva, 1948-50, 1, p. 168; 
G. Mack, Gustave Courbet, New York, 195 1, p. 172, pl. 
38; G. Delestre, Courbet dans les collections privees 
francaises, exh. cat., Paris, Galerie Claude Aubrey, 1966, 
in no. 10; R. Bonniot, "Gustave Courbet dans les col- 
lections privees francaises," Journal de I'amateur d'art, 
July 1966, p. 11; R. Fernier, Gustave Courbet, peintre de 
I'art vivant, Paris, 1969, fig. 106; J. Lindsay, Gustave 
Courbet, His Life and Art, Somerset, 1973, pp. 203-04, 



42 



COUTURE 



fig. 48; R. Bonniot, Gustave Courbet en Saintonge, Paris, 
1973, pp. 87, 229, 243, 262. 

In May 1862 Courbet went to western France on the 
invitation of the collector and amateur writer Etienne 
Baudry, in whose chateau at Rochemont, near Saintes 
he stayed until October. During this time he painted at 
least thirty pictures, including the remarkable series of 
flower still lifes to which the Toledo painting is closely 
related. After leaving Rochemont, Courbet stayed in and 
near Saintes until the following spring. 

This picture has often been dated 1863 on the basis of 
the chronological list of Courbet's paintings appended to 
the catalogue of the 1882 Paris exhibition. It has also 
mistakenly been identified with No. 108 in Courbet's 
1867 Paris exhibition, an unfinished painting with a sim- 
ilar subject (Delestre, 1966, in no. 10; Leger, Courbet, 
1925, p. 218, no. xxvi). 

In January 1863 Courbet organized an exhibition at 
the Saintes town hall that included some 40 of his own 
pictures. As reviews by local critics confirm that the To- 
ledo picture was in this exhibition, The Trellis was al- 
most certainly painted during Courbet's stay at Roche- 
mont (Bonniot, 1966; 1973, p. 243; letter, 1975). 

Landscape Near Ornans pl. 219 

[1864] Oil on canvas 

35 x 50M? in. (88.8 x 127.2 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower left: 64./G. Courbet. 

Ace. no. 64.59 

collections: Mme. de Marre, Chateau de Kergouano 
(Morbihan), France; (Sale, Baden (Morbihan), Jun. 23, 
1962); (Wildenstein, New York). 

Courbet spent much of 1864 working in the vicinity of 
his native Ornans in the Franche-Comte region of east- 
ern France. Although he often painted directly from na- 
ture, this picture is a composite of major features of the 
region, the Loue River and the Roche du Mont. 

Related landscapes which include the left two-thirds 
of the composition are in the Neue Pinakothek, Munich 
(dated 1865); Des Moines Art Center, Iowa; and a pres- 
ently unlocated canvas (J. Meier-Graefe, Courbet, Mu- 
nich, 1924, pi. 85, wrongly identified as the Munich 
picture). An etching reproducing a fragment of this com- 
position (H. d'Ideville, Gustave Courbet, Paris, 1878, pi. 
5) is inscribed "Paysage i860." This may be the date 
when Courbet, who often returned to Ornans from 
Paris, first began to paint this subject. 



THOMAS COUTURE 

1815-1879. French. Studied with Gros and Delaroche, 
and strongly influenced by the Venetian Renaissance 
painters. Exhibited at Salons frequently from 1838 to 
1855, and in 1872 and 1879. Achieved fame at the Salon 
of 1847 with Romans of the Decadence, though genre 
subjects and portraits compose most of his work. An 
influential teacher, his students included Manet, Feuer- 
bach, William Morris Hunt and Puvis de Chavannes. 



The Falconer pl. 215 

[Probably 1846] Oil on canvas 
51 x 38^ in. (129.5 x 97.7 cm.) 
Signed lower left (on balustrade): T. COUTURE 

Ace. no. 54.78 

collections: Deforge, 1846-57 (Petit, Paris, Mar. 6, 
1857); Faure, Paris; G. von Ravene, Marquard (Berlin), 
by 1869-1920; (Eduard Schulte, Berlin); (Thannhauser, 
Berlin, by 1927); (J. K. Thannhauser, New York; Parke- 
Bernet, New York, Apr. 12, 1945, lot 112); (J. K. Thann- 
hauser, New York). 

exhibitions: Paris, Exposition Universelle, 1855, no. 
2820; Munich, Glaspalast, Internationale Kunstaustell- 
ung, 1869, no. 1 194; Dresden, Grosse Kunstaustellung, 
1912; Berlin, Thannhauser, Grande exposition de chefs 
d'oeuure de Tart francais, 1927, no. 56, pl. 43; Minneap- 
olis Institute of Arts, The Past Rediscovered: French 
Painting 1800-1900, 1969, no. 19, repr. 

references: T. Gautier, Les beaux-arts en Europe — 
i8jj, Paris, 1855, 1, p. 282; J. de la Rochenoire, Le Salon 
de 1855, Paris, 1855, p. 77; E. About, Voyage a travers 
I 'exposition des beaux-arts (peinture et sculpture), Paris, 
1855, p. 190; M. du Camp, Les beaux-arts a T exposition 
universelle de 18 5 j, peinture-sculpture, Paris, 1855, p. 
187; E. Miintz, "Exposition Internationale de Munich," 
Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 11, 1869, p. 307; R. Menard, 
"Exposition Internationale de Londres," Gazette des 
Beaux-Arts, iv, 1871, p. 438; C. Biller, "Zur Erinnerung 
an Thomas Couture," Zeitschrift fiir Bildende Kunst, 
xvi, 1881, p. 106, repr. p. 102; C. Clement and L. Hut- 
ton, Artists of the 19th Century, Boston, 1884, 1, p. 166; 
C. Stranahan, A History of French Painting, New York, 
1888, p. 292 (incorrectly as in M. Raucune collection, 
Berlin); H. Knowlton, Art and Life of William Morris 
Hunt, Boston, 1900, p. 7; G. Bertauts-Couture, Thomas 
Couture, Paris, 1932, pp. x, xi, 34-5, 100, 154, repr. opp. 
p. 25 (incorrectly as in Berlin Museum); A. de Leiris, 
"Thomas Couture the Painter," Thomas Couture Paint- 
ings and Drawings in American Collections (exh. cat.), 



43 



CRANACH 



College Park, University of Maryland, 1970, pp. zi-z, 
fig- 5- 

Although it has been thought that The Falconer was 
painted in 1855 (Stranahan; Bertauts-Couture), the year 
it was exhibited at the Exposition Universelle (Salon of 
1855), Knowlton reported that William Morris Hunt, 
after seeing it in the window of the dealer Deforge in the 
fall of 1846, was inspired to become a painter and to 
study with Couture. Knowlton's account is reinforced 
by Theophile Gautier and J. de La Rochenoire, who in 
their reviews of the 1855 exhibition indicate The Fal- 
coner, which they and other critics enthusiastically 
praised, was not a recent work. A. Boime (letter, Oct. 
I 975)> who is preparing a monograph on Couture, dates 
the picture 1844-45, noting that the artist signed his full 
last name, characteristic of his early easel paintings; later 
he signed using only initials. 

The dealer Justin K. Thannhauser (letter, Apr. 1953) 
related a story told him by Max Liebermann, that he 
and all progressive young Berlin painters used to make 
a weekly pilgrimage to Marquard near Berlin where The 
Falconer could then be seen, in order to study and ad- 
mire it. 

Writing in 1876 to a collector of his work about vari- 
ous pictures just finished or in progress, including his 
own reduced replica of this painting, Couture said, "Per- 
haps you will be surprised to see The Falconer in this 
list, but I think I should make it for you as you have 
pictures of my maturity. This painting of my youth (the 
Toledo canvas) is considered, perhaps rightly, as my best 
picture; that is why I want to allow you to make the 
comparison." (Bertauts-Couture, p. 100). 

The present locations of Couture's small replica of 
1876 and of a two-color drawing done at the same time 
are unknown. 

According to Bertauts-Couture, the artist's grandson 
and biographer, a copy by another painter was brought 
to Couture in 1869 and was retouched by him after 
1870. This may be identified with the picture recently on 
the art market in New York (H. Shickman Gallery, "The 
Neglected 19th Century, Part 11," Oct. 1971) and Paris 
(Hotel Drouot, May 20, 1974, lot 53, with incorrect lo- 
cation of the original oil). A Petit fauconnier belonging 
to the singer Barroilhet was exhibited in Paris in 1852. 
As Boime found that the Toledo Falconer still belonged 
to Deforge at that time, he believes the Barroilhet ver- 
sion was also a copy, several of which were made by 
Couture's pupils, including W. M. Hunt. 



Alice Ozy 

[Ca. 1855] Oil on canvas 

44 



PL. 2l6 



43% x 3 3^8 in. (110.8 x 84 cm.) 

Ace. no. 75.82 

Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Stanley K. Levison 

COLLECTIONS: Marquess of Waterford; Mrs. de la Poer, 
his widow; (Julius Weitzner, New York); (Jacques Selig- 
mann, New York); Mr. and Mrs. Stanley K. Levison, 
Toledo, 1966. 

exhibitions: Bordeaux, Musee des Beaux-Arts, La pein- 
ture francaise, collections americaines, 1966, no. 42, 
pi. 26. 

REFERENCES: G. Bertauts-Couture, Thomas Couture, 
Paris, 1932, p. 33; J. W. Howe, "Thomas Couture, His 
Career and Artistic Development," unpublished Ph.D. 
dissertation, University of Chicago, 1951, p. 83, no. 219, 
pi. xi; G. Bertauts-Couture, "Thomas Couture," Etudes 
d'art, Musee des Beaux-Arts, Algiers, 1955-56, nos. 
11-12, p. 191 (as Belle de la Nouvelle Orleans). 

The famous actress Alice Ozy (1820-1893) had many 
admirers, including Victor Hugo and several artists, 
among them Theodore Chasseriau. This portrait has 
been identified as the portrait of her painted by Couture, 
the location of which was unknown to his biographer, 
Bertauts-Couture. 



LUCAS CRANACH THE ELDER 

1472-1553. German. Born in Kronach, where he studied 
with his father. In Vienna, ca. 1500-03. 1505 in Witten- 
berg, appointed court painter to Frederick the Wise of 
Saxony and his two successors. A friend of Luther, whose 
writings Cranach published and sold. A painter, en- 
graver and designer of woodcuts, Cranach directed a 
large workshop, collaborating with his son, Lucas. 

Saints Catherine, Margaret and Barbara PL. 64 

[Ca. 1515-20] Oil on wood panel 
48^2 x 22 in. (123.2 x 55.8 cm.) 

Ace. no. 61.32 

collections: Prince Ernest of Saxony, Ireland; (Rosen- 
berg & Stiebel, New York). 

exhibitions: Dublin, Municipal Gallery of Modern Art, 
Paintings from Irish Collections, 1957, no. 81, pi. xvn. 

This panel was probably the wing of an altarpiece. The 
attribution to Cranach the Elder has been confirmed by 
Jakob Rosenberg (letter, Sep. 1974), who relates the 
panel to several paintings datable about 1518-20. The 
pose of St. Barbara derives, in reverse, from that of St. 



CRANACH 



Barbara in the left wing of an altarpiece by Cranach 
dated 1506, The Execution of St. Catherine (Gemalde- 
galerie, Dresden). 

In Germany these three virgin martyr saints were 
among the fourteen intercessor saints. They are shown 
here with their attributes: St. Catherine with the torture 
wheel from which she was miraculously rescued, and the 
sword with which she was beheaded (the meaning of the 
letters L«w»(?) embroidered on her bodice is unclear); 
St. Margaret of Antioch with a prayer book and flaming 
brand emblematic of her death by burning; and St. Bar- 
bara with chalice and Host symbolizing her faith, for 
which she was also beheaded, as indicated by the sword 
touching her skirt. Her bodice is embroidered b-a-r-b. 



LUCAS CRANACH THE YOUNGER 

1515— 1586. German. Born in Wittenberg, Saxony. Son 
and pupil of Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472-1553). First 
mentioned in his father's workshop, 1535; became its 
head, 1550. Active in Wittenberg civic government; bur- 
gomaster, 1565. Like his father, he was a painter and 
designer of woodcuts. 

Martin Luther and the PL. 66 

Wittenberg Reformers 

[Ca. 1543] Oil on wood panel 
zjH, x 15^ in. (72.8 x 39.7 cm.) 

Ace. no. 26.55 

collections: Cornelia, Countess of Craven, Coombe 
Abbey, Warwickshire, by 1854 (Christie, London, Apr. 
13, 1923, lot 81); Edward Drummond Libbey. 

exhibitions: Manchester, England, Catalogue of the 
Art Treasures of the United Kingdom, 1857, p. 42, no. 
463. 

references: G. Waagen, Treasures of Art in Great Brit- 
ain, London, 1854, in, p. 219; W. Burger, (T. Thore), 
Tresors d'art en Angleterre, 3rd ed., Paris, 1865, p. 144; 
C. Schuchardt, Lucas Cranach d.A., Leben und Werke, 
1871, in, pp. 259-60; C. Kuhn, A Catalogue of German 
Paintings of the Middle Ages and Renaissance in Ameri- 
can Collections, Cambridge, Mass., 1936, no. 150, pi. 
xxvii, fig. 150; F. Blanke, "Ikonographie der Reforma- 
tionszeit: Fragen um ein Cranach-Bild," Theologische 
Zeitschrift, vn, Nov.-Dec. 1951, pp. 467-71, repr. opp. 
pp. 468, 469; E. Fabian, Der Reformationskanzler Dr. 
Gregor Briick als der grosse "Unbekannte," Frankfort- 
am-Main, 1951; H. Bornkamm, "Zu Cranachs Reforme- 
torenbild," Theologische Zeitschrift, vm, Jan.-Feb. 
1952, pp. 72-4; E. Fabian, "Zum 'Wittenberger Re- 



formatorenbild' Cranachs: Briick und Bugenhagen," 
Theologische Zeitschrift, vm, May-June 1952, pp. 1-4; 
E. Fabian, "Neue Goethe-Ahnenbildnisse," Zeitschrift 
fur Genealogie und Bevolk.erungh.unde, 11, 1952, pp. 42, 
46, n. 14; R. Osiander, "Portraits van Andreas Osiander," 
Theologische Zeitschrift, xv, Jan. 15, 1959, pp. 255-64, 
fig. i; H. Zimmermann, "Uber einige Bildniszeichnungen 
Lucas Cranachs d.J.," Pantheon, xx, Jan.-Feb. 1962, pp. 
8-9, figs. 1, 5; E. Fabian, "Cranach-Bildnisse des Re- 
formationskanzlers Dr. Gregor Briick," Theologische 
Zeitschrift, xx, 1964, pp. 269-78. 

This painting, a fragment from a triptych wing or per- 
haps a larger independent panel (Bornkamm), is histori- 
cally important as the only known group portrait of the 
first half of the 16th century to show solely the Saxon 
reformers (Fabian, 1964). 

In the front row, Luther appears on the left; Melanch- 
thon, an educator and close friend, is at the right; John 
Frederick the Magnanimous, Elector of Saxony, is in the 
center. The figure to the Elector's left has been accepted 
by most scholars as Georg Spalatin, secretary to John 
Frederick and court preacher, though Zimmermann 
identifies him as Justas Jonas, a legal scholar and trans- 
lator of Luther's writings. The figure on the Elector's 
right is probably his chancellor, Georg Briick (Fabian, 
1951, 1952 Theologische Zeitschrift, 1964; Bornkamm); 
however, he has also been identified as the Nuremburg 
reformer Andreas Osiander (Blanke; Osiander). The fig- 
ure between Briick and Melanchthon may be Bugen- 
hagen, a Wittenberg preacher and professor (Fabian, 
1952 and Theologische Zeitschrift, 1954). It is difficult 
to identify the remaining five figures in the back row 
since their faces are only partially visible. Attempts have 
been made (Osiander) to recognize them as, from left to 
right, Lufft, Forster, Major, Jonas and Cruciger. 

Most recent authorities attribute this painting either 
to the workshop of Cranach the Elder or to Lucas Cran- 
ach the Younger (Fabian, Zimmermann, Kuhn). 

The painting dates after 1532, when John Frederick 
became Elector, and before 1547, when he received a 
battle wound on his cheek (Fabian, "Goethe-Ahnenbild- 
nisse"). It has often been noted that the figure of John 
Frederick corresponds almost exactly to a portrait minia- 
ture of him in Cranach the Younger's 1543 album in the 
Kunstbibliothek, Berlin. Zimmermann also points to 
costume parallels in works of ca. 1539 and 1541. Recent 
scholarship has dated the Toledo panel to ca. 1543 or 
the early 1540s. 

The unidentified coat-of-arms held by a putto in the 
lower left corner of the painting probably is that of an 
unknown donor (Bornkamm). 



45 



CROSS 



HENRI EDMOND CROSS 

1856— 1910. French. Born in Douai. Studied at Lille with 
Alphonse Colas. 1881 moved to Paris. Exhibited at Salon 
des Artistes, 1881 and regularly with Independents from 
1884. Participated in exhibitions of Les Vingt in Brus- 
sels. Traveled frequently to southern France, where he 
settled in 1891. Associated with the Neo-Impressionists, 
especially Signac. 

At the Fair pl. 281 

[1896] Oil on canvas 

36H x 25M in. (92 x 65.4 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: henri Edmond Cross 96 

Ace. no. 51.308 

COLLECTIONS: (A. Vollard, Paris, 1901, from the artist); 
Prince de Wagram, Paris; Marcel Norero, Paris (Hotel 
Drouot, Paris, Feb. 14, 1927, lot 41, repr.); M. Laffon; 
(Wildenstein, New York). 

exhibitions: Paris, Societe des artistes independants, 
1896, no. 249; Paris, Galerie Druet, Peintures et aqua- 
relles de H. E. Cross et P. Signac, 191 1, no. 1; Kristiania 
(Oslo), Den Franske Utstilling i Kunstnerforbundet, 
1916; New York, Wildenstein, Seurat and his Friends, 
1953, no. 60, repr. p. 15 (cat. by J. Rewald). 

references: P. Signac, "What Neo-Impressionism 
Means," Art News, lii, Dec. 1953, repr. p. 31; I. Compin, 
H. E. Cross, Paris, 1964, pp. 42, 78, 144, no. 55, repr. p. 
145. 

Cross' mother was English, and the artist used the En- 
glish form of his surname, Delacroix, to avoid confusion 
with a contemporary painter with the same initials and 
surname. According to Compin, Cross' original title for 
this picture was Bal villageois dans le Var. Var is the dis- 
trict on the Mediterranean where Cross lived. Compin 
lists four studies for this painting, three watercolors of 
the full composition and a drawing of the woman in the 
left foreground. 



AELBERT CUYP 

1620— 1691. Dutch. Born in Dordrecht, where he spent 
his life. He was the son of the painter J. G. Cuyp, and 
in his earlier work was also influenced by Jan van Goyen. 
Cuyp's fame is based on the effects of glowing light, 
learned from the Utrecht Italianate painters, which he 
brought to remarkable development. The chronology of 
his work is rather uncertain because there are few dated 
or otherwise documented pictures. Later, his poetic 



treatment of light had a great effect on landscape paint- 
ing in England. 

River Scene at Dordrecht pl. 120 

[Ca. 1645-50] Oil on canvas 
397-2 x 55 in. (100.2 x 139.7 cm.) 
Signed lower right: A. cuijp 

Ace. no. 55.41 

COLLECTIONS: (de Winter, Amsterdam, Jan. 24, 1763, 
lot 6); E. W. Parker, Skirwirth Abbey, Cumberland 
(Christie, London, July 2, 1909, lot 98, repr.); Miss 
L. Coats, Fornethy House, Perthshire; (Duits, London, 
1954-55)- 

REFERENCES: C. Hofstede de Groot, 11, no. 648a (?); 
W. Hutton, "The Land and the Waters," Toledo Mu- 
seum of Art Museum News, 1, No. 3, Fall 1957, pp. 
7-10, repr. p. 7; W. Stechow, 1968, p. 119, fig. 236; 
S. Reiss, Aelbert Cuyp, London, 1975, no. 28, repr. (as 
ca. 1644). 

Stechow believes that the Toledo painting was painted 
shortly before 1650 when Cuyp was just beginning to 
develop the "crystalline golden luminosity" of his ma- 
ture style. 

The prominent tower in the right background belongs 
to the Groothoofdspoort as seen from the southwest 
shore of the Maas River. The tower was replaced by a 
dome in 1690. 

The Riding Lesson [color pl. vii] pl. 121 

[Ca. 1660] Oil on canvas 
46-jkt x 67 in. 118. 7 x 170.2 cm.) 
Signed lower right: A. cuyp 

Ace. no. 60.2 

COLLECTIONS: J. van der Linden van Slingeland, Dor- 
drecht, by 1752 (Yver, Delfos, Dordrecht, Aug. 22, 1785, 
lot 72); Dubois (Lebrun, Paris, Dec. 20, 1785, lot 17); 
Marquess of Linlithgow, Hopetoun House, Scotland, by 
1854-ca. 1909; Rothschild collection, Paris; (Rosenberg 
&C Stiebel, New York, i960). 

exhibitions: London, Royal Academy, Winter Exhibi- 
tion, 1883, no. 238. 

references: G. Hoet, Catalogus of Naamlyst van 
Schilderyen . . . , The Hague, 1752, 11, p. 495; J. Smith, 
1834, V, p. 288, no. n; G. Waagen, Treasures of Art 
in Great Britain, London, 1854, III, p. 309; C. Hofstede 
de Groot, II, nos. 448, 615; W. Hutton, "Aelbert Cuyp, 
The Riding Lesson," Toledo Museum of Art Museum 
Neivs, iv, No. 4, Autumn 1961, pp. 79-85; W. Stechow, 



46 



DAUMIER 



1968, p. 162; S. Reiss, Aelbert Cuyp, London, 1975, no. 
135, repr. (as late 1650s). 

As early as 1752 (Hoet) this picture was listed in the 
Van Slingeland collection together with Horsemen and 
Herdsmen with Cattle (National Gallery, Washington; 
Hofstede de Groot no. 430; Reiss no. 136). Smith and 
Hofstede de Groot (no. 448) also catalogued these pic- 
tures as pendants. According to Reiss, however, they 
were not necessarily intended as pendants despite their 
similar dimensions and early provenance. Reiss also 
points out that Hofstede de Groot nos. 448 and 615 
both describe the Toledo picture. 

The building in the left background is a variation of 
the Mariakerk at Utrecht, pulled down in 1813. 



CHARLES-FRANgOIS DAUBIGNY 

1817-1878. French. Early study with his father, a classi- 
cal landscapist, followed by travel in Italy, 1836. Briefly 
a student of Delaroche in 1840, he mainly worked as a 
graphic artist until 1848. From 1852 he worked closely 
with Corot, and increasingly from nature; most of his 
river landscapes were painted from his studio-boat. Ex- 
hibited regularly at Salons 1838-68. His style of the 
1860s influenced Monet and Pissarro. 



PL. 233 



On the Oise River 

[1865] Oil on wood panel 

14J/2 x 27 in. (36.8 x 68.6 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: Daubigny 1865 

Ace. no. 22.46 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: George I. Seney (American Art Associa- 
tion, New York, Feb. 11-13, 1891, lot 152); Charles T. 
Yerkes, New York (American Art Association, New 
York, Apr. 6, 1910, lot 32, to Scott and Fowles); Arthur 
J. Secor, 1910-22. 

references: Catalogue of Painting and Sculpture in the 
Collection of Charles T. Yerkes, Esq., New York, 1904, 
II, no. 32, repr. 

Clearing After a Storm PL. 232 

[1873] Oil on canvas 

z6Yn x 37H in. (66.4 x 94.3 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: Daubigny 1873 

Ace. no. 27.131 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: Henri Gamier, Paris (Galerie Georges 
Petit, Paris, Dec. 3-4, 1894, no. 22, repr. opp. p. 6, as 



Les hords de I'Oise); George A. Hearn, New York (Amer- 
ican Art Association, New York, Feb. 27, 1918, no. 237, 
as On the Oise); (Ehrich Gallery, New York, 1921); 
(Vose, Boston, 1921-22); Arthur J. Secor, Toledo, 

1922—27. 

exhibitions: Columbus Gallery of Fine Arts, Relation- 
ships between French Literature and Painting in the 
Nineteenth Century, 1938, no. 6. 



HONORE DAUMIER 

1808-1879. French. Born in Marseilles. To Paris, 1816. 
As a lithographer he became a leading political and so- 
cial cartoonist, producing more than 4,000 prints. Dau- 
mier painted little before 1848, but with encouragement 
from Courbet and Bonvin he entered the Salon exhibi- 
tions 1849-53. His style was influenced by Millet, Diaz 
and Decamps. Daumier was helped financially by Corot 
after 1873, as he gradually went blind. 

Children Under a Tree pl. 221 

Oil on canvas 

21^8 x 18^2 in. (55.5 x 47 cm.) 

Signed lower left: h.D. 

Ace. no. 36.86 

collections: Alexander Reid, Glasgow; Dr. de Saint- 
Germain, by 1921; Georges Viau; (Cassirer, Berlin); 
Katzenellenbogen, Berlin, by 1926; (Walter Feilchen- 
feldt, Zurich, 1936); (Knoedler, New York). 

exhibitions: Paris, Ecole des Beaux Arts, Exposition 
Daumier, 1901, no. 60; Berlin, Galerie Matthiesen, 
Honore Daumier Austellung, 1926, no. 64, repr. p. 99; 
Detroit Institute of Arts, French Fainting from David to 
Courbet, 1950, no. 91; Los Angeles County Museum of 
Art, Honore Daumier, 1958; London, Tate Gallery, 
Daumier, Paintings and Drawings, 1961, no. 22, pl. 9b 
(cat. by K. Maison). 

references: E. Klossowski, Honore Daumier, 2nd ed., 
Munich, 1923, nos. 323, 324, repr. p. 132; E. Fuchs, Der 
Maler Daumier, Munich, 1930, no. 54a, pl. 54a; M.-T. 
de Forges, Barbizon, Paris, 1963, repr. p. 36; K. Maison, 
Honore Daumier, Catalogue Raisonne of the Paintings, 
Watercolors and Drawings, New York, 1968, 1, no. n-12, 
pl. 183; L. Barzini and G. Mandel, L'opera pittorica 
completa di Daumier, Milan, 1971, no. 70, repr. (prove- 
nance incorrect). 

According to Maison, this picture was probably left not 
quite finished at Daumier's death, and he believes it was 
completed by another hand. Comparison with earlier 



47 



G. DAVID 



photographs (Klossowski; Fuchs; and Berlin cat., 192.6) 
and examination with ultra-violet light show additions 
and reinforcements to contours of figures, especially in 
the facial features. There is also some minor overpaint- 
ing in the garments. The remaining areas, including the 
background, appear to be untouched. Maison also con- 
cluded that Klossowski's catalogue numbers 323 and 
324 are both the Toledo picture. 



GERARD DAVID 

Ca. 1460-1523. Flemish. Born at Oudewater, Holland, 
where he was probably trained. By 1484 in Bruges, where 
he was active. Entered the Antwerp painters guild, 1515, 
but returned to Bruges by 1521 and died there. The last 
major master of the Bruges School, he was especially in- 
fluenced by Hugo van der Goes and Memling; his style 
also has some relationship to miniature painting at 
Bruges. 

Three Miracles of Saint Anthony 81 a-c 

of Padua 

(a) The Drowned Child Restored to Life; (b) The Mule 
Kneeling Before the Host; (c) Saint Anthony Preach- 
ing to the Fishes 

[Ca. 1500-10] Oil on wood panel 

(a) 21-11/16 x 12% in. (55.1 x 32.7 cm.); (b) 22-7/16 x 

13% in. (57.3 x 34 cm.); (c) 21% x 12-13/16 in. (55.6 

x 32.6 cm.) 

Ace. nos. (a) 59.21, (b) 59.22, (c) 59.23 

collections: Cardinal Antonio Despuig y Daneto, 
Raxa, Mallorca; Counts of Montenegro, Raxa; Leon 
Somzee, Brussels, after 1886; (Agnew, London, 1902); 
Robert James Loyd-Lindsay, Lord Wantage, Lockinge 
House, Berkshire, and descendants; Christopher Lewis 
Loyd, Lockinge House, until 1959. 

exhibitions: London, New Gallery, Catalogue of the 
Twelfth Summer Exhibition, 1899, no. 32; London, 
Royal Academy, Catalogue of the Loan Exhibition of 
Flemish and Belgian Art, A Memorial Volume, 1927, no. 
100, pi. xlvii; London, Royal Academy, Flemish Art, 
1300-iyoo, 1953, pi. 9; Bruges, Musee Communal 
Groeninge, L'art flamand dans les collections britan- 
niques, 1956, no. 25, pi. 17. 

references: C. Justi, "Altflandrische Bilder in Spanien 
und Portugal: Gerard David," Zeitschrift fur Bildende 
Kunst, xxi, 1886, p. 137-38; A Catalogue of Pictures 
Forming the Collection of Lord and Lady Wantage, 
London, 1905, no. 56B, pi. 56b; E. von Bodenhausen, 
Gerard David und seine Schule, Munich, 1905, no. 31, 



fig. 31b; F. Winkler, Die Flamische Buchmalerei des XV. 
und XVI. Jahrhunderts, Leipzig, 1925, p. 174; M. J. 
Friedlander, Die Altniederldndische Malerei, Leyden, 
1934, VI, pp. 97-8, no. 167; M. Conway, The Van Eycks 
and Their Followers, New York, 1921, pp. 286-87; 
C. Gaspar, The Breviary of the Mayer van der Bergh 
Museum at Antwerp, Brussels, 1932, p. 73, n. 1; M. J. 
Friedlander, Early Netherlandish Painting (ed. H. Pauw- 
els), New York, vib, 1971, pp. 90-1, no. 167, p. 132, n. 
in, pis. 181, 183, fig. 167. 

The Toledo paintings are companions to three similar 
panels showing episodes from the legend of St. Nicholas 
of Bari (National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh). The 
six panels probably formed the predella of the Altar- 
piece of St. Anne (Friedlander, 1971, pi. 181), consisting 
of a triptych with the Virgin and Child, St. Anthony of 
Padua, and St. Nicholas (National Gallery of Art, Wash- 
ington). The predella may have also included the Lam- 
entation (Art Institute of Chicago; Friedlander, 1971), 
in the center between the St. Nicholas and St. Anthony 
panels. 

The St. Anne Altarpiece has been consistently assigned 
to David's middle period, defined as 1499-1511 by 
Friedlander, who dated the altarpiece toward the end of 
David's middle or the beginning of his last period. 

The theme of the mule kneeling before the Host was 
a particularly popular theme in the Bruges-Ghent region 
during this period. David's composition can be found, in 
reverse, in at least seven manuscripts of ca. 1483-1520 
from this area, including the Breviary of Mayer van der 
Bergh (Gaspar) and the Hours of Ferdinand V and Isa- 
bella of Spain (W. Wixom, in Bulletin of the Cleveland 
Museum of Art, LI, 1964, pp. 60-3). 



JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID 

1748-1825. French. Born in Paris. Studied with the his- 
tory painter J. M. Vien to whom he was recommended 
by Francois Boucher, a distant relative by marriage. At- 
tended classes at the Academie; won the Prix de Rome, 
1774. In Rome, 1775-80, where he studied ancient art 
and 16th and 17th century painting. First success at the 
Salon, 1781, and from then on younger artists came to 
learn at his studio, the most popular in Europe for the 
next thirty years. In Rome, 1784-85. During the Revo- 
lution he played an important role in French artistic and 
political life, and voted for the death of the king. He was 
an early admirer of Napoleon, whom he glorified in 
many works. From 1816 he lived in exile at Brussels, 
where he died. His work includes heroic mythological 
and historical subjects and portraits. 



48 




I. Pesellino, Madonna and Child with Saint John 



49 




ii. Master of the Morrison Triptych, The Virgin and Child with Angels 
5° 



J.-L. DAVID 



The Oath of the Horatii PL. 211 

[1786] Oil on canvas 

$i r A x 6$^i in. (130.Z x 166.2 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower left: J.L. David faciebat,/Parisiis, 

anno mdcclxxxvi 
Ace. no. 50.308 

collections: Painted for the Comte de Vaudreuil, 1786 
(Lebrun, Paris, Nov. 26, 1787, lot 107; as by David, "in 
addition a distaff at the feet of the women, a detail to 
establish the originality of the picture"); (Lebrun, Paris); 
Firmin-Didot family, by 1794; Hyacinthe Didot, 1880; 
Louis Delamarre, Paris, by 1913; Baronne Eugene 
d'Huart; (Paul Roux et al sale, Paris, Dec. 14, 1936, lot 
116); (Wildenstein, Paris and New York, 1937). 

exhibitions: Paris, Galerie Lebrun, Explication des 
ouvrages de peinture exposees au profit des Grecs, 1826, 
no. 40 (as by David, entirely retouched by him five years 
after 1786); Paris, Petit Palais, David et ses eleves, 1913, 
no. 25 (as by Girodet, retouched by David); Rome and 
Milan, Mostra di capolavori della pittura francese 
dell'ottocento, 1955, no. 27 (cat. ed. by G. Bazin; as by 
David); Cleveland Museum of Art, Neo-classicism, Style 
and Motif, 1964, no. 114, repr. (as by David); London, 
Royal Academy, France in the Eighteenth Century, 
1968, no. 179, fig. 338 (as by David). 

references: L. Thiery, Guide des amateurs et des Gran- 
gers voyageurs a Paris, 1787, II, p. 548 (as a reduction by 
David of the Louvre painting); C. Landon, "Exposition 
publique des tableaux du cabinet de M. Didot," Journal 
de Paris, Mar. 26, 1814, p. 4 (as "excellent copy by Giro- 
det"); P. Chaussard, Notice sur la vie et les ouvrages de 
M. Jacques-Louis David, Paris, 1824, p. 43 (as by David); 
A. Thome de Gamond, Vie de David, premier peintre 
de Napoleon, Brussels, 1826, p. 162 (as by David); A. Pe- 
ron, "Examen du tableau du serment des Horaces peint 
par David, suivi d'une notice historique du tableau," 
Annales de la societe libre des beaux-arts, ix, 1839-40, 
fig. 1 (engraving); J. du Seigneur, "Appendice a la notice 
de P. Chaussard sur L. David," Revue universelle des 
arts, xviii, 1863, p. 364 (listed as by David); J. L. Jules 
David, Notice sur le Marat de Louis David, suivie de la 
liste de ses tableaux dressee par lui-meme, Paris, 1867, 
p. 34, no. 24, p. 41 (as by David in list also transcribed 
by Wildenstein, 1973, p. 266); Bellier de la Chavignerie, 
Dictionnaire general des artistes de I'ecole francais, 
Paris, 1868, p. 354 (as nearly wholly by Girodet); J. L. 
Jules David, Le peintre Louis David, 1748-1825, sou- 
venirs et documents inedits, Paris, 1880, 1, pp. 59, 636 
fas by Girodet, retouched by David); M. Dumoulin, "Les 
salons d'autrefois," L'art, lxviii, 1907, repr. p. 91 (en- 
graving); R. Cantinelli, Jacques-Louis David, Brussels, 



1930, no. 48 (as by Girodet); K. Holma, David, son evo- 
lution et son style, Paris, 1940, pp. 48, 126, no. 54 (as 
by David); M. Florisoone, Exposition en I'honneur du 
deuxieme centenaire de sa naissance (exh. cat.), Orange- 
rie, Paris, 1948, p. 48; J. Canaday, Mainstreams of Mod- 
ern Art, New York, 1959, pp. 11-2, repr.; D. L. Dowd, 
"Art and the Theater During the French Revolution: 
The Role of Louis David," Art Quarterly, xxm, Spring 
i960, fig. 3; R. Rosenblum, "Neoclassicism Surveyed," 
Burlington Magazine, cvn, Jan. 1965, pp. 30-3, n. 1; 
O. Wittmann, "Letters: Jacques-Louis David at Toledo," 
Burlington Magazine, cvn, June 1965, pp. 323-24, fig. 1 
(detail); R. Rosenblum, "Letters: 'Jacques-Louis David 
at Toledo,' " Burlington Magazine, cvn, Sep. 1965, pp. 
473-75; R. Rosenblum, "Letters: The Toledo Horatii," 
Burlington Magazine, cvn, Dec. 1965, p. 633; O. Witt- 
mann, "Letters: The Toledo Horatii," Burlington Mag- 
azine, cviii, Feb. 1966, pp. 90, 93; (B. Nicolson), 
"Editorial: Frivolity and Reason at Burlington House," 
Burlington Magazine, ex, Feb. 1968, p. 62, no. 179 (as 
by Girodet); R. Rosenblum, "Girodet," Revue de l'art, 
No. 3, 1969, p. 101, n. 1; P. Rosenberg, "Le XVIIIe 
siecle francais a la Royal Academy," Revue de l'art, No. 
3, 1969, p. 99, no. 179 (as by Girodet); A. Serullaz, in 
The Age of Neo-Classicism (exh. cat), Arts Council of 
Great Britain, London, 1972, p. 41; R. Verbraeken, 
Jacques-Louis David juge par ses contemporains et par 
la posterite, Paris, 1973, p. 245 (in David's list of ca. 
1819); D. and G. Wildenstein, Documents complemen- 
taires au catalogue de I'oeuvre de Louis David, Paris, 
1973, pp. 23 (no. 176), 209 (in no. 1810), 226, 227 (23, 
in no. 1938); F. Cummings, in French Painting 1774- 
1830: The Age of Revolution (exh. cat.), Detroit Institute 
of Arts, 1975, p. 41 (as by Girodet). 

Following the commission in 1783 from Louis XVI to 
paint a history picture, David went to Rome, where he 
lived in 1784-85 and painted The Oath of the Horatii 
(Louvre, Paris). This is his most famous composition, 
and probably the most famous French neo-classical pic- 
ture. Severe and uncompromising in its subordination of 
color to drawing, it was also highly topical in its impli- 
cations of republican virtue. 

Taken from Roman history, the subject represents the 
ideal of heroic self-sacrifice for one's country. The three 
Horatii brothers are shown taking the oath given by 
their father Horatius before their combat with the Cu- 
ratii in which two of the Horatii were slain. 

Toledo's picture is a reduced version of the large paint- 
ing with life-size figures (Louvre) which caused a sensa- 
tion at the Salon of 1785. The compositions are similar, 
except that a distaff lying on the floor near the group of 



51 



DEGAS 



grieving women was added in the Toledo canvas. The 
latter, painted in 1786 for the Comte de Vaudreuil, was 
included by David in two autograph lists of his own 
works, one drawn up about 1817 ("les Horaces, repeti- 
tion en petit"), the other about 1822 (as painted at Paris, 
"24. Une repetition des Horaces en petit" and "Tableaux 
d'Histoire: Les Horaces, repetition en petit " both, Wil- 
denstein, 1973). 

The question whether this picture, on the high quality 
of which there is general agreement, is correctly attrib- 
uted to David or was painted by Anne-Louis Girodet- 
Trioson (1767-1824), among David's best students, has 
been set forth in some detail (R. Rosenblum, O. Witt- 
mann, Burlington Magazine, 1965—66). According to 
Rosenblum, and to other recent scholars as noted under 
References, this picture is the work of Girodet, based on 
opinions of style and certain older written sources. On 
the other hand, the Toledo picture was fully signed and 
dated by David, and only a year after it was painted for 
a man of high rank it was publicly sold in Paris as by 
David, while the artist was living there, for the high price 
of 5,700 livres. From what is known of David's studio 
practice (see especially Rosenblum, Burlington Maga- 
zine, Sep. 1965), it is entirely possible that Girodet or 
other pupils could have assisted David with this replica, 
just as another pupil, J.-G. Drouais, is known to have 
assisted David in Rome with the large version in the 
Louvre (Rosenblum, Sep. 1965, p. 473). Nevertheless, it 
seems reasonable to consider the Toledo painting as the 
work of David. 

The Toledo version was engraved as by David by 
A. A. Morel in 1810. 



EDGAR DEGAS 

1834-1917. French. Born in Paris. Studied drawing with 
Lamothe at Fcole des Beaux-Arts and met Ingres, 1855. 
In Italy, 1854-59, an d New Orleans, 1872-73. Exhibited 
at the Salon, 1865-70, and at seven of the Impressionist 
exhibitions. Degas painted contemporary Parisian life, 
emphasizing draughtsmanship, daring compositions, and 
movement. Influenced by photography and Japanese 
prints, he also worked in pastels and made small 
sculptures. 



Victoria Dubourg 

[1865-68] Oil on canvas 

32 x 25^ in. (81.3 x 64.8 cm.) 

Signed lower right: Degas 

Ace. no. 63.45 

Gift of Mr. and Mrs. William E. Levis 



PL. 244 



collections: Edgar Degas (Georges Petit, Paris, May 
6-8, 1918, lot 87, as Portrait d'une jeune femme en robe 
brune); Mme. Lazare Weiller, Paris; Paul-Louis Weiller, 
Paris; (Paul Rosenberg, New York); Mr. and Mrs. Wil- 
liam E. Levis, Perrysburg, Ohio. 

exhibitions: Paris, Georges Petit, Degas, 1924, no. 23, 
repr.; Paris, Orangerie, Degas, portraitiste, sculpteur, 
1931, no. 36, repr.; San Francisco, M. H. de Young 
Memorial Museum, The Painting of France Since the 
French Revolution, 1940, no. 29, repr.; New York, Met- 
ropolitan Museum of Art, French Painting from David 
to Toulouse-Lautrec, 1941, no. 35, fig. 41; The Hague, 
Mauritshuis, In the Light of Vermeer, 1966, no. 43, repr. 

references: A. Alexandre, "Degas, nouveaux apercus," 
L' Art et les artistes, No. 54, Feb. 1935, p. 155, repr.; 
P. A. Lemoisne, Degas et son oeuvre, Paris, 1946, 1, p. 
56; 11, no. 137, repr.; J. S. Boggs, Portraits by Degas, 
Berkeley, 1962, pp. 31, 48, 92m, 117, fig. 50; T. Reff, 
"The Chronology of Degas's Notebooks," Burlington 
Magazine, cvn, Dec. 1965, p. 609, n. 14; J. S. Boggs, 
Drawings by Degas, City Art Museum of St. Louis, 
1966, p. 86; F. Russoli, L'opera completa di Degas, Mi- 
lan, 1970, no. 211, repr. p. 96. 

Victoria Dubourg (1840-1926), a still life and portrait 
painter, was a student of the painter Fantin-Latour whom 
she married in 1878. In a Degas notebook inscribed "21 
February 1866 ... 27 February ... 30 June ... 4 July 
1866" (formerly M. Guerin collection, Paris, Carnet 3), 
there is a preparatory sketch on the basis of which Boggs 
dated this portrait 1866. Reff has recently stated that 
since the notebook seems to have been used from 1865 
to 1868, it is difficult to date the Toledo picture more 
precisely without other evidence (letter, Sep. 1975). There 
are three other studies for the Toledo picture: a full- 
length drawing and a study of the hands (Boggs, 1966, 
nos. 49, 50; Paul-Louis Weiller collection, Paris); a 
sketch of the head and shoulders (Cleveland Museum of 
Art). Like many of Degas' portraits of his friends, the 
Toledo painting remained in the artist's possession until 
his death. 

Dancers at the Bar pl. 243 

[Ca. 1889] Pastel on paper 
i8J4 x 40 in. (46.4 x 101.6 cm.) 
Stamped lower left: Degas 

Ace. no. 50.69 

Gift of Mrs. C. Lockhart McKelvy 

collections: Edgar Degas, ca. 1889-1917 (Galerie 
Georges Petit, Paris, May 6-8, 1918, lot 226); Georges 
Viau (Hotel Drouot, Paris, Dec. n, 1942, lot 73); (Ethel 



52- 



DELACROIX 



Hughes, Versailles); Mrs. C. Lockhart McKelvy, Perrys- 
burg, Ohio. 

references: P. A. Lemoisne, Degas et son oeuvre, Paris, 
1946, in, no. 997, repr. p. 579. 

Dated by Lemoisne about 1889, this pastel is a study for 
a larger oil sketch and is related to two other drawings 
(Lemoisne, in, nos. 996, 998, 999). 

The Dancers pl. 245 

[Ca. 1899] Pastel on paper 
2.^/2 x 25^ in. (62.2 x 64.8 cm.) 

Ace. no. 28.198 

collections: Paul Durand-Ruel, Paris, 1899-1928; (Du- 
rand-Ruel, New York). 

exhibitions: London, Grafton Galleries, A Selection 
from the Pictures of Paul Durand-Ruel, 1905, no. 64 (as 
Ballet Girls); Paris, Galerie Georges Petit, Degas, 1924, 
no. 164; Paris, Orangerie, Degas, 1937, no. 78, pl. XXXII; 
New York, Paul Rosenberg & Co., zi Masterpieces by 
Seven Great Masters, 1948, no. 9, repr. p. 37. 

references: G. Grappe, Degas, Paris, 1908, p. 30, repr.; 
J. Meier-Graefe, Degas, London, 1923, pl. xcvni; A. Vol- 
lard, Degas, An Intimate Portrait, 2nd ed., New York, 
1937, fig. 17; C. Mauclair, Degas, Paris, 1937, p. 167, pl. 
137; P. A. Lemoisne, Degas et son oeuvre, Paris, 1944, 
in, no. 1344, repr. p. 787; D. Rouart, Degas a la re- 
cherche de sa technique, Paris, 1945, p. 35, repr.; 
L. Browse, Degas Dancers, London, 1949, p. 408, no. 
227, repr.; D. Cooper, Pastelle von Edgar Degas, Basel, 
1952, p. 27, no. 30, repr.; A. Werner, Degas Pastels, New 
York, 1968, pp. 42-3, repr.; F. Russoli, L'opera com- 
pleta di Degas, Milan, 1970, no. 1134, pl. lxii. 

As early as 1868, Degas began his methodical study of 
the ballet. This picture, dated 1899 by Meier-Graefe as 
an example of Degas' late style, appears to be a captured 
moment, but is actually the result of the artist's careful 
observation of the same model who posed for all three 
figures. There are at least eight studies for this finished 
pastel (Lemoisne, in, nos. 1345-51), as well as several 
drawings closely related to it. 



EUGENE DELACROIX 

1798-1863. French. Student of Guerin and contempo- 
rary of Gericault and Gros, he was influenced by Con- 
stable and Lawrence on a visit to England in 1825. He 
drew lifelong inspiration from Rubens and the Venetian 
Renaissance masters. A journey to Morocco and Spain 



in 1832 was critical to his use of light and color. Exhib- 
ited regularly at the Salons 1822-59, and received major 
decorative commissions. A gifted writer, his famous 
Journal covers the years 1822-24 and after 1847. His 
easel paintings include all types of subjects, and he was 
an important lithographer. He also carried out several 
large-scale mural commissions. 

The Return of Christopher Columbus PL. 214 

[1839] Oil on canvas 

33H x 45^ in. (85.1 x 115. 6 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower left: Eug. Delacroix 1839 

Ace. no. 38.80 

Gift of Thomas A. DeVilbiss 

collections: Prince Anatole Demidoff, who commis- 
sioned it from Delacroix in 1839 for San Donato Palace, 
Florence (San Donato sale, Paris, Feb. 21-22, 1870, lot 
26, repr. etching by Bracquemond); Hollender, Paris, 
1873; E. Secretan, Paris, by 1885 (Paris, Secretan Collec- 
tion, July 1, 1889, lot 16); (Boussod-Valadon, Paris); 
Edouard Andre, Paris; Mrs. William A. Slater, New 
York, by 1928; Dr. Harold Tovell, Toronto, 1929-38; 
(C. W. Kraushaar, New York). 

exhibitions: New York, Knoedler, A Century of French 
Painting, 1928, no. 9A, repr.; Paris, Louvre, Exposition 
Eugene Delacroix, 1930, no. 92; New York, Knoedler, 
Gros-Gericault-Delacroix, 1938, no. 44, repr.; New 
York, Wildenstein, Eugene Delacroix, 1944, no. 14, repr.; 
Detroit Institute of Arts, French Painting from David to 
Courbet, 1950, no. 33, repr.; Venice, XXVIII Biennale, 
Eugene Delacroix, 1956, no. 21; Paris, Louvre, Cente- 
naire d'Eugene Delacroix, 1798-1863, 1963, no. 285, 
repr.; Cleveland Museum of Art, The European Vision 
of America, 1975, no. 278, repr. 

references: A. Moreau, E. Delacroix et son oeuvre, 
Paris, 1873, pp. 94, 259; A. Robaut, L'oeuvre complet 
de Eugene Delacroix, Paris, 1885, no. 690, repr.; E. Mo- 
reau-Nelaton, Delacroix raconte par lui-meme, Paris, 
1916, 1, pp. 192-93, fig. 181; L. Rudrauf, Eugene Dela- 
croix et le probleme du romantisme artistique, Paris, 
1942, pp. 249-50; E. Lambert, "Delacroix et l'Espagne," 
La Revue des arts, Sep. 1951, pp. 159-71; L. John- 
son, "Delacroix at the Biennale," Burlington Magazine, 
xcvni, Sep. 1956, p. 327; L. Rudrauf, "Delacroix et le 
Titien," Actes du XIXe congres international d'histoire 
de I'art, 1958, Paris, 1959, pp. 527-28; L. Johnson, Dela- 
croix, London, 1963, pp. 5, 113, 121, pl. 33; R. Huyghe, 
Delacroix, London, 1963, pp. 294, 303-04; M. Serul- 
laz, Memorial de I 'exposition Eugene Delacroix, Paris, 
1963, no. 282, repr.; P. Pool, Delacroix, London, 1969, 
pp. 10, 18, 35, pl. 27; F. Trapp, The Attainment of Dela- 



53 



DELAUNAY 



croix, Baltimore, 1971, pp. 193, 194, 196, fig. 114; L. R. 
Bortolatto, L'opera pittorica completa di Delacroix, Mi- 
lan, 1972, no. 340, repr. 

The Return of Christopher Columbus was one of two 
works, probably pendants, painted for Prince Anatole 
Demidoff. The other, Columbus and His Son at La Rd- 
bida (1838; National Gallery, Washington) shows the 
explorer on a visit to a Spanish monastery seeking sup- 
port for his future voyage of discovery. 

Delacroix apparently based the composition of the 
right side of the Toledo picture on Titian's Presentation 
of the Virgin (Accademia, Venice), and the left side on 
Titian's Ecce Homo (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna; 
see Rudrauf, 1942 and all thereafter). Pool notes the 
importance of the geometric architectural framework 
characteristic of Delacroix at this time. Although the 
Washington pendant clearly reflects sketches made by 
Delacroix in Spain, except for the architecture at the 
left, the Toledo canvas shows little of this influence and 
is predominantly Venetian in inspiration. 



According to Hoog, who considers the Toledo canvas 
a study for the Paris painting (letter, 1968), the Three 
Graces in the center symbolize the elegance and youth- 
fulness of Paris, while the lower part of the left section 
of the composition with its abstracted theater curtain, 
sun and buildings, was inspired by a view with a Seine 
bridge and boat prow in a self-portrait by Douanier 
Rousseau (National Gallery, Prague). The Eiffel Tower 
at the right was a favorite theme of Delaunay on which 
he painted and drew many variations. 

A drawing of the full composition dated 1911 is closely 
related to the Toledo and Paris paintings (Richard S. 
Davis collection, Wayzata, Minnesota). 



ANDRE DERAIN 

1 880-1954. French. Born at Chatou. Studied in Paris at 
the Academie Carriere. He was one of the original Fauves 
who exhibited at the Salons des Independants and d'Au- 
tomne in 1905. In London, 1906. After 1919 his style 
became more traditional, and he changed from strong 
colors to subdued greens and browns. 



ROBERT DELAUNAY 

1885-1941. French. Born in Paris. Initially impressed by 
the analytic use of color by Seurat and Cezanne. Exhib- 
ited at the Salon des Independants, 1911. From Cubism 
and his own color theories he developed a style of pris- 
matic and dynamic images, named "Orphism" by the 
poet Guillaume Apollinaire. Delaunay's color theories 
influenced several of the German Expressionists. 

The City of Paris PL. Z87 

[Ca. 1911] Oil on canvas 
47-1/16 x 67-13/16 in. (119. 5 x 172.2 cm.) 
Signed and inscribed lower right: la ville de Paris/ 
r. delaunay 

Ace. no. 55.38 

collections: (Flechtheim, Berlin, to 1920s); Streit col- 
lection, Germany, from 1920S-1955; (Matthiesen, Lon- 
don, 1955). 

This canvas is closely related to the composition of one 
of Delaunay's most famous works, the large City of Paris 
painted in 1911-12 (Musee d'Art Moderne, Paris). Be- 
cause the Toledo painting was unknown to scholars un- 
til recently, it is not included in either G. Habasque's 
catalogue of Delaunay's work (1957) or the study of the 
sources and development of The City of Paris by 
M. Hoog [La Revue du Louvre, 1965, no. 1, pp, 29-38). 

54 



Landscape at Carrieres-Saint-Denis pl. 283 

[1909] Oil on canvas 

21 x 31M in. (53.3 x 80.6 cm.) 

Signed lower left: Derain 

Ace. no. 51.379 

collections: (Alex Reid & Lefevre, London). 

references: G. Hiliare, Derain, Geneva, 1959, no. 77, 
repr. (as Pay sage, Carrieres-Saint-Denis, 1909). 

Derain and Braque spent the summer of 1909 painting 
at Carrieres-Saint-Denis. 



NARCISSE-VIRGILE DIAZ DE LA PEftA 

1808-1876. French. Born at Bordeaux of Spanish par- 
ents. Began as a porcelain painter at Sevres together with 
Dupre and Raffet about 1823. In 1837 met Theodore 
Rousseau, who was the primary influence on his work. 
Exhibited at Salons from 1831 until 1859. 



Forest of Fontaineblean 

[1858] Oil on wood panel 

19% x 29 in. (50.5 x 73.6 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower left: N. Diaz 58 

Ace. no. 22.27 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 



PL. 227 






DORE 



COLLECTIONS: Arthur J. Secor /Toledo, 1906-22. 

exhibitions: Columbus Gallery of Fine Arts, Relation- 
ships Between French Literature and Painting in the 
Nineteenth Century, 1938, no. 5; Boston, Museum of 
Fine Arts, Barbizon Revisited, 196}, no. 41, p. 126, repr. 

Deep Woods PL. 231 

Oil on wood panel 

jY& x 9^2 in. (18. 1 x 24.1 cm.) 

Ace. no. 31.47 

collections: Edward Drummond Libbey, 1906-25. 

Robert Herbert (letter, Jan. 1975) is of the opinion that 
the rather thick pigment of this picture is indicative of 
the first half of Diaz's career. 

Woodland Scene near Fontainebleau pl. 230 

[Ca. 1870-72] Oil on wood panel 
i2iHs x 16 in. (32.1 x 40.6 cm.) 
Signed lower left: N. Diaz 

Ace. no. 66.138 

Gift of Howard P. DeVilbiss and Virginia DeVilbiss 
Gordon 

collections: Thomas A. Dissel, Winchester, Mass., 
-1925; (Vose, Boston); Thomas A. DeVilbiss, Toledo, 
1926-; Mrs. C. O. Miniger, Perrysburg, Ohio, -1966. 

Dating of this picture is based on its similarity to a much 
larger picture in the Louvre, the Foret de Fontainebleau 
(Enceinte Palissadee), (see Peintures, ecole francaise 
XIXe siecle, Paris, 1959, II, no. 776, pl. 274), signed and 
dated 1868, which appears to represent the same wooden 
palisade at Fontainebleau. The Toledo panel is also 
stylistically similar to the Louvre picture in the strong 
tonal contrasts and free brushwork characteristic of Diaz 
at this time. Robert Herbert (letter, Jan. 1975) suggests 
a date of about 1870-72. 

Edge of the Wood pl. 228 

[1871] Oil on wood panel 
25^ x 30^ in. (65.4 x 77.8 cm.) 
Signed and dated lower left: N. Diaz 71 

Ace. no. 22.43 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: Henry Graves, New York (American Art 
Association, New York, Feb. 26, 1909, lot 22); Herman 
Schaus, New York (American Art Association, New 
York, Jan. 15-17, 1912, lot 284); Arthur J. Secor, To- 
ledo, 1912-22. 



Fontainebleau pl. 229 

[1872] Oil on wood panel 

19M x 26 in. (50.2 x 66 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower left: N. Diaz 72 

Ace. no. 30.1 

Gift of Jefferson D. Robinson 

collections: C. J. Morrill, Boston; (Vose, Boston); Jef- 
ferson D. Robinson, Toledo, 1923-30. 



KEES VAN DONGEN 

1877-1968. Dutch. Born Cornelis Theodorus Marie van 
Dongen near Rotterdam. After five years at the Acad- 
emy of Fine Arts there and work as an illustrator, he 
went to Paris in 1897; he lived most of his life in France. 
An original member of the Fauve group in 1905, he 
also exhibited with the German Expressionist Briicke 
group in 1908. Known before 1914 as the painter of 
Paris night life; after the war he became famous as the 
portraitist of stage, society and political celebrities, his 
work, often startling in color, reflecting the restless, 
glittering life of the 1920s. 

Deauville pl. 298 

[1920] Oil on canvas 

39^2 x 31M in. (100.3 x 80.6 cm.) 

Signed lower center: van Dongen 

Ace. no. 75.55 

Gift of Mrs. William E. Levis 

collections: (Galerie Maurice Chalom, Paris, i960); 
Mr. and Mrs. William E. Levis, Perrysburg, Ohio. 

Deauville, on the coast of Normandy, was one of the 
favorite watering places of the international smart set 
in the 1920s. Van Dongen often went there, and in this 
canvas a few strokes sufficed to record his witty view of 
contemporary high life. 



PAUL-GUSTAVE DORE 

1832-1883. French. Born in Strasbourg. In 1847 moved 
to Paris, where he began his career as an illustrator. 
Achieved first popular success in 1854 with engraved il- 
lustrations to Rabelais. In London, 1868 and several 
times thereafter. Though best known as a graphic artist, 
Dore did many paintings, exhibiting at the Salon from 
1851. 



55 



DUBUFE 



The Scottish Highlands pl. 263 

[1875] Oil on canvas 

42M x 7Z l A in. (108.6 x 183.2 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower left: Gve. Dore/1875 

Ace. no. 22.108 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: Arthur A. Crosby; (Goupil & Company, 
New York); (Vose, Boston); Arthur J. Secor, Toledo. 

exhibitions: Minneapolis Institute of Arts, The Past 
Rediscovered: French Painting 1800-1900, 1969, no. 
32, repr. 

references: G. Viatte, "Gustave Dore peintre," Art de 
France, iv, 1964, p. 350, repr. p. 349. 

This is one of several pictures probably painted from 
sketches made during Dore's second trip to Scotland in 
1874. After his first visit in 1873 he had written to Miss 
Amelie Edwards: "Henceforth, when I paint landscapes, 
I believe that five out of every six will be reminiscences 
of the Highlands. . . ." (B. Jerrold, Life of Gustave 
Dore, London, 1891, p. 313). 

The Mocking of Christ PL. 264 

[Ca. 1872-83] Oil on canvas 
48M x 38-^ in. (123.8 x 98.1 cm.) 
Signed lower right: G. Dore 

Ace. no. 26.146 
Gift of Rene Gimpel 

collections: Rene Gimpel, Paris. 

According to B. Jerrold (Life of Gustave Dore, London, 
1 89 1, p. 276) and B. Roosevelt [Life and Reminiscences 
of Gustave Dore, London, 1885, p. 333), Dore's first re- 
ligious painting, begun in 1867, was not finished until 
1872. Dore later painted other religious subjects, and 
The Mocking of Christ was probably done between 1872 
and his death. Jerrold (p. 410) lists a pen and ink draw- 
ing of this subject dated 1881 (whereabouts unknown). 



Portrait of a Man pl. 212 

[Ca. 1835-45] Oil on canvas 
5i54 x 38^ in. (130.2 x 97.8 cm.) 
Signed lower right: Dubufe 

Ace. no. 75.1 

collections: Private collection, Paris; (Heim, London). 

A prolific artist, Dubufe reportedly exhibited 130 por- 
traits at the Salons (C. H. Stranahan, A History of French 
Painting, New York, 1888, p. 357). Most of his portraits 
are still in private hands. The Toledo portrait can be 
dated approximately 1835-45 from the costume. 



RAOUL DUFY 

1877-1953. French. Born in Le Havre. Studied there at 
the Fcole des Beaux-Arts under C. Lhullier, and then at 
Paris Fcole des Beaux-Arts under Bonnat. Influenced by 
Fauvism. Worked with Braque at L'Estaque in 1908. 
Traveled to Venice, Italy and England. Settled at Perpi- 
gnan in 1940. Also an illustrator and designer of textiles. 

Threshing with a Blue Machine pl. ^00 

[Ca. 1948] Oil on canvas 
■lxYz x 26 in. (54 x 66 cm.) 
Signed lower left: Raoul Dufy 

Ace. no. 49.110 

collections: (Louis Carre, Paris). 

exhibitions: San Francisco Museum of Art, Raoul Dufy, 

1954, no. 76, pp. 37, 40. 

references: J. Canaday, Mainstreams of Modern Art, 

New York, 1959, p. 409, repr. 

This painting is one of a series of threshing subjects by 
Dufy painted in the late 1940s and 50s in the south of 
France. 



DUNOYER (see SEGONZAC) 



CLAUDE-MARIE DUBUFE 

1790-1864. French. A student of Jacques-Louis David, 
Dubufe exhibited regularly at the Salons from 1810 until 
1863. At first he painted history and genre pictures, but 
from about 1830 he devoted himself to portraiture, 
achieving great success. His sitters included many of the 
French nobility and the wealthy Paris bourgeoisie. His 
son, Edouard Dubufe, was also a noted portraitist. 

56 



JULES DUPRE 

1811-1889. French. Studied briefly in 1823 with the land- 
scapist Diebolt, and worked as a porcelain painter in 
Saint-Yrieix and at Sevres. Studied the work of Con- 
stable while in England in 183 r. Exhibited regularly at 
the Salon 1831-39, but seldom thereafter. 1841-49 
worked closely with Rousseau, but retired in 1850, to 






EECKHOUT 



Isle-Adam, after which he worked alone. Although im- 
portant for the Barbizon movement in the 1840s, Du- 
pre's influence diminished after 1850, when he aban- 
doned his initial practice of painting directly from 
nature. 

Return of the Fisherman PL. 234 

[Late 1870s] Oil on canvas 
iz 7 A x 9M in. (32.5 x 25 cm.) 
Signed lower left: J. Dupre 

Ace. no. 30.2 

Gift of Jefferson D. Robinson 

collections: C. J. Morrill, Boston; (Vose, Boston, by 
1923); Jefferson D. Robinson, Toledo, 1923-30. 

references: M.-M. Aubrun, Jules Dupre, catalogue 
raisonne de I'oeuvre peint, dessine, et grave, Paris, 1974, 
no. 633, repr. (as late 1870s). 

Morning PL. 235 

[1880s] Oil on canvas 

15H x z6}i in. (40 x 67.9 cm.) 

Signed lower left: J. Dupre 

Ace. no. 22.21 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: Arthur J. Secor, Toledo, 1909-22. 

exhibitions: Iowa City, University of Iowa Gallery of 
Art, Impressionism and its Roots, 1964, p. 4, no. 13, 
repr. 

references: M.-M. Aubrun, Jules Dupre, catalogue 
raisonne de I'oeuvre peint, dessine et grave, Paris, 1974, 
no. 675, repr. (as 1880s). 



ANTHONY VAN DYCK 

1599-1641. Flemish. Born in Antwerp. Probably before 
1618 he was an assistant to Rubens, with whom he later 
collaborated. Member of the Antwerp painters' guild, 
1618. He worked for King James I in England, 1620-21. 
In Italy 1621-26, chiefly in Genoa. In Antwerp 1627-32. 
To England in 1632, where he was knighted and made 
court painter by Charles I the same year. Van Dyck re- 
turned briefly to the Low Countries in 1634 and 1640 
and went to Paris in 1641. He died in London. Painted 
religious and mythological subjects and portraits. 



Portrait of a Man 

[Ca. 1630] Oil on canvas 
41^2 x 33 in. (105.3 x 83.7 cm.) 
Ace. no. 64.33 



PL. 103 



collections: Earls of Dalhousie, Dalhousie Castle, 
Scotland; by descent to Colin Broun-Lindsay, 1963; (Ag- 
new, London). 

exhibitions: King's Lynn, Fermoy Art Gallery, Pictures 
by Sir Anthony van Dyck, 1963, no. 11 (cat. by G. Ag- 
new). 

After returning from Italy in 1627, Van Dyck worked in 
Antwerp until leaving for England in 1632. According to 
M. Jaffe (letter, Dec. 1963) and O. Millar (letter, Jan. 
1964), this portrait was painted at that time, his second 
Antwerp period. During it Van Dyck enjoyed great suc- 
cess, his sitters including leading Antwerp citizens and 
members of the Hapsburg governors' court at Brussels. 
The subject of this portrait is unidentified. The easy 
grace, patrician reserve and elegance learned from Titian 
which Van Dyck imparted to his sitters remained the 
ideal of European portraiture for more than two cen- 
turies after his death. 



GERBRAND VAN DEN EECKHOUT 

1621-1674. Dutch. Born in Amsterdam. Studied with 
Rembrandt during the late 1630s. Worked in Amster- 
dam as a portrait, history and genre painter. 

The Magnanimity of Scipio PL. 134 

[1650s] Oil on canvas 

54^ x 6j l /2 in. (138. 1 x 161. 5 cm.) 

Signed lower right: G.V. Eeckhout fe/Ano i65(?) 

Ace. no. 23.3155 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: Sir John Cotterell (Christie, London, 
June 7, 1912, lot 9); (Asher Wertheimer, London); T. J. 
Blakeslee, 1912-23; (Vose, Boston, 1923). 

exhibitions: Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, Five Cen- 
turies of Dutch Art, 1944, no. 64. 

references: S. P. Noe, "Two Paintings by Pupils of 
Rembrandt in the New- York Historical Society," New- 
York Historical Society Quarterly Bulletin, xi, No. 2, 
July 1927, pp. 38-9, repr.; T. M. D. Wit-Klinkhamer, 
"Een vermaarde zilveren beker," Nederlands Kunst- 
Historisch Jaarboek, xvn, 1966, p. 92. 

The subject is taken from the Roman historian Livy 
(Book XXVI, 50) and illustrates the moment when 
Scipio, commander of the Spanish provinces, returns a 
captive woman to her fiance and parents after learning 
of their devotion to her, only requiring their continued 
friendship with the Roman people. 



57 



ESPAGNAT 



Three other versions of this subject are known: (i) 
formerly New York Historical Society (1669); (2) Lille, 
Musee des Beaux-Arts; (3) Munich, art market ca. 1947 
(W. Bernt, Die niederlandischen Maler des siebzelmten 
Jahrhunderts, 1, no. 262, repr.). 

The fact that the faces of the parents and the betrothed 
couple are different in each version is evidence that these 
are portraits. Eeckhout frequently introduced such por- 
traits into history pictures. 



GEORGES D'ESPAGNAT 

1870-1950. French. A student of Courtois and Rixens, 
d'Espagnat began exhibiting regularly about 1890. From 
1899 to 1905 worked with Valtat, Andre, Denis, Bon- 
nard and Vuillard. One of the founders of the Salon 
d'Automne in 1903. His work includes portraits, land- 
scapes, still lifes and large decorative schemes for public 
buildings. 

Le Lavandoit PL. 279 

[Ca. 1899-1905] Oil on canvas 
29 x 36^4 in. (73.7 x 92.1 cm.) 
Signed lower left: G d E 

Ace. no. 06.252 

Gift of 100 Members of the Museum 

collections: (Durand-Ruel, New York). 

exhibitions: Toledo Museum of Art, Exhibition of One 
Hundred Paintings by the Impressionists from the Col- 
lection of Durand-Ruel & Sons, Paris, 1905, no. 24. 

Le Lavandou is a town on the Mediterranean coast near 
Toulon. This picture was probably painted between 1899 
and 1905, when d'Espagnat was working with several 
artists of the Fauve and Nabis groups, many of whom 
were attracted by the strong light and vivid colors of this 
region. This and the Museum's painting by Moret were 
the first Impressionist works acquired by the Museum. 



HENRI FANTIN-LATOUR 

1830-1902. French. Student of Lecoq de Boisbaudran, 
and briefly, of Courbet. Close friend of Manet and Whis- 
tler. Lived in Paris except for short visits to London in 
1859, 1861 and in 1864. Exhibited at the Salons from 
1861 to 1899. Painter of still lifes, portraits and imagina- 
tive scenes inspired by the music of Wagner, Berlioz and 
other composers. He was also a lithographer. 



Flowers and Fruit PL. 239 

[1866] Oil on canvas 

28-K x 233/2 in. (73 x 59.7 cm.) 

Signed and dated upper left: Fantin 1866 

Ace. no. 51.363 

collections: C. S. Gulbenkian, Paris; (Wildenstein, 
New York). 

exhibitions: New York, Wildenstein, Birth of Impres- 
sionism, 1963, no. 44, repr.; Northampton, Smith Col- 
lege Museum of Art, Henri Fantin-Latour, 1836-1904, 
1966, no. 9, repr. 

references: Mme. Fantin-Latour, Catalogue de 
Foeuvre complet (1849-1904) de Fantin-Fatour, Paris, 
1911, no. 289; W. Chiego, "Two Paintings by Fantin- 
Latour," Toledo Museum of Art Museum News, xvn, 
No. 2, 1974, p. 27 ff., repr. cover and fig. 3. 

In 1866 the artist painted a group of closely related still- 
lifes. Two of these are horizontal compositions (Na- 
tional Gallery of Art, Washington; Gulbenkian Founda- 
tion, Lisbon); their relation to the Toledo painting is 
discussed by Chiego. A second vertical painting with the 
same tray and similar sugar bowl and orange is in the 
National Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. 

Portrait of the Artist's Sister pl. 240 

[Ca. 1880] Oil on canvas 

I9>4 x 15^2 in. (49.5 x 39.3 cm.) 

Ace. no. 55.84 

collections: Mrs. Clifford Addams (Inez Bates); Dr. 
Charles Peacock; (Ernest Brown and Phillips, Leicester 
Galleries, London). 

exhibitions: Northampton, Smith College Museum of 
Art, Henri Fantin-Fatour, 1836-1904, 1966, no. 5, repr. 

references: W. Chiego, "Two Paintings by Fantin- 
Latour," Toledo Museum of Art Museum News, XVII, 
No. 2, 1974, p. 33 ff., fig. 7. 

Marie Fantin-Lator Yanovski became the wife of a Rus- 
sian army officer in 1866, when she went to live in St. 
Petersburg. The 1966 exhibition catalogue suggested that 
this is a study for Fa Fiseuse (1861; Louvre, Paris), for 
which Marie was the model. However, as the dress and 
hair style were not current until twenty years later, it 
was probably painted about 1880, a date which also 
agrees with the artist's treatment of light in this portrait 
(Chiego). 



5' 



FRAGONARD 



FLEMISH, ANONYMOUS 

Marriage of a Saint pl. 77 

("The Marriage of Henry VI") 

[Ca. 1475-1500] Oil on wood panel 
37/4 x 34% in. (94.6 x 88.6 cm.) 

Undeciphered inscription lower center (on border of 
skirt): . . . VOL: SALV . . . beg(?) . . . 

Ace. no. 26.74 

collections: Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, 
Strawberry Hill, Twickenham; George, 4th Earl of 
Waldegrave, Strawberry Hill (George Robins, Strawberry 
Hill, 1842, lot 25); Duke of Sutherland, by 1861; Ed- 
ward Drummond Libbey, 1916-25. 

exhibitions: London, Royal Academy, Art of the Mid- 
dle Ages, 1861; London, South Kensington Museum, 
Exhibition of National Portraits, 1866, no. 16 and ap- 
pendix, p. 194 (as Marriage of the Virgin and St. Joseph, 
Flemish, ca. 1500). 

references: H. Walpole, Anecdotes of Painting in En- 
gland, Twickenham, 1762, 1, repr. pp. 34-5 (engraving); 
W. Lewis, Horace Walpole, Washington, i960, p. 122, 
n. 30; R. Wilenski, Flemish Painters, 1430-1830, New 
York, i960, 1, p. 670; 11, pl. 147; R. Strong, Tudor and 
Jacobean Portraits, London, 1969, 1, p. 148. 

This painting once hung over the fireplace of Walpole's 
library at Strawberry Hill, as shown in an engraved view 
of the library by Richard Godfrey in Anecdotes. It was 
probably Walpole who first named the subject The Mar- 
riage of Henry VI, an unfounded identification that was 
accepted until fairly recently. Probably it shows the mar- 
riage of a minor male saint who is still unidentified. 

Equal uncertainty surrounds the attribution. While 
French and even Spanish origins have been suggested, 
the weight of scholarly opinion, including Friedlander's 
(letter, Nov. 1936), favors a Flemish authorship. Re- 
cently, Sterling (letter, Aug. 1974) has suggested it may 
be the work of a Cologne painter about 1485. Opinions 
of date have ranged from 1470 to 1500, with some pref- 
erence for the decade 1480-90. 



FLEMISH, ANONYMOUS 

Saint Jerome in His Study 

[Early 16th century] Oil on wood panel 
13^ x 10-7/16 in. (34 x 26.9 cm.) 

Ace. no. 57.36 

collections: Dr. Curt Benedict; (Pardo, Paris). 



PL. 88 



This painting, which is almost certainly Flemish, is a free 
copy after Diirer's engraving, St. Jerome in His Study 
dated 1514. Clifton Olds (letter, Apr. 1974) has sug- 
gested that the grouping of skull, crucifix and stoppered 
carafe may have Marian significance, demonstrating St. 
Jerome's doctrine of Mors per Evam, vita per Mariam 
(As death came through Eve, so life came through Mary). 

JEAN-HONORE FRAGONARD 

1732-1806. French. Born in Grasse, and raised in Paris. 
After brief study with Chardin, he entered Boucher's 
studio in 1748, remaining until 1752, when he won the 
Prix de Rome. At the Ecole des Eleves Proteges under 
Carle Van Loo, 1753-55; in Italy at the French Academy 
at Rome, 1756-61. Admitted as an associate by the 
Academie, 1765; soon changed from historical and reli- 
gious themes to portraits, landscapes and refined amo- 
rous subjects, which found success at court and with rich 
financiers and the theatrical world. In Italy 1773-74. A 
versatile artist, he was active as a painter, etcher and 
illustrator, who was inspired by many sources, includ- 
ing Rubens, the Dutch genre painters, Rembrandt and 
Watteau. 

Blind-Mans Buff [color pl. ix] pl. 203 

[Ca. 1750-52] Oil on canvas 
46 x 36 in. (116.8 x 91.4 cm.) 

Ace. no. 54.43 

collections: Baron de Saint-Julien, Paris (Lebrun, Paris, 
June 21, 1784, lot 75, with pendant); M(orel), Paris 
(Lebrun, Paris, Apr. 19 (May 3), 1786, lot 177, with 
pendant); Comte de Sinety, Paris; Baron Nathaniel de 
Rothschild, Vienna; Baron Maurice de Rothschild, Cha- 
teau de Pregny, Switzerland; (Rosenberg and Stiebel, 
New York). 

exhibitions: London, Royal Academy, France in the 
Eighteenth Century, 1968, no. 229, pl. vi; Toledo Mu- 
seum of Art, The Age of Louis XV: French Painting 
1710-1774, 1975, no. 36, pl. 82 (cat. by P. Rosenberg). 

references: E. and J. de Goncourt, L'art du dix-hui- 
tieme siecle, 3rd ed., Paris, 1882, 11, pp. 325, 374; R. Por- 
talis, Honore Fragonard, Paris, 1889, 1, pp. 15, 62; 11, p. 
273, repr. p. 20 (Beauvarlet engraving); L. Reau, "Les 
colin-maillard de Fragonard," Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 
xv, Mar. 1927, pp. 148-49; P. de Nolhac, Fragonard 
1731-1806, 3rd ed., Paris, 1931, p. 150; L. Reau, Fra- 
gonard, Paris, 1956, pp. 39, 158; G. Wildenstein, The 
Paintings of Fragonard, New York, i960, no. 47, fig. 31; 
C. Sterling, in The Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection (ed., 
R. Heinemann), Castagnola (Switzerland), 1969, p. 113; 



59 



FRENCH 



D. Wildenstein and G. Mandel, L'opera completa di 
Fragonard, Milan, 1972, no. 53, repr. 

According to Sterling and Rosenberg (Toledo, 1975), 
Blind-Man s Buff (Le Colin-Maillard) and its companion 
The See-Saw [La Bascule; Thyssen collection, Lugano) 
were painted about 1750-52, while Fragonard was still 
in the studio of Boucher, whose romantic pastoral themes 
and tones of blue and rose are reflected in this canvas. 
"One senses, however, a freshness of expression, a taste 
for movement and a verve which anticipate the mature 
Fragonard" (Rosenberg). In fact, when these early works 
were engraved (in reverse) by J. F. Beauvarlet in 1760, 
the first state named Boucher as the painter, later cor- 
rected to Fragonard (M. Roux, Bibliotheque Nationale, 
Graveurs du XVIUe siecle, Paris, 1933, II, p. 218, nos. 

31, 32.)- 

The catalogue of the 1784 Saint-Julien sale lists six 
Fragonards, almost certainly including the Toledo- 
Thyssen pair. However, the dimensions given there are 
almost twice the present heights. The latter are similar 
to those in the 1786 Morel sale, only two years later. The 
present compositions also correspond to the Beauvarlet 
engravings, mentioned in both sales catalogues as after 
these paintings. This puzzle might be explained by ex- 
ceptionally tall and narrow wall decorations having been 
reduced to easel pictures between 1784 and 1786, or the 
Saint-Julien dimensions may have been wrong. Wilden- 
stein (i960), however, believes that Fragonard painted 
two pairs of pictures in different sizes. 

Several copies, some of them after the engraving, are 
listed by De Nolhac and Reau (1956). 



references: S. Reinach, Repertoire de peintures du 
moyen age et de la renaissance, Paris, 1907, 11, p. 612, 
repr.; "A French Primitive Acquired," Toledo Museum 
of Art Museum News, June 1943, no. 102, unpaginated, 
repr. on cover; G. Ring, A Century of French Painting, 
1400-1500, London, 1949, no. 200. 

The attribution of this panel is a puzzle. Bouchot (Paris, 
1904) noted French characteristics and suggested the art- 
ist may have been Burgundian. Later (New York, 1927; 
London, 1932), it was attributed to the French painter 
Simon Marmion (active 1449-89). Ring published the 
Toledo panel as northern French, and its French charac- 
ter was affirmed by Charles Sterling (verbally, 1961), 
though he suggested the artist may have worked along 
the German or Swiss borders. 

The castles have been identified with two on the 
Rhone River, the larger at Tarascon, the smaller on the 
opposite side of the river at Beaucaire. 



THOMAS GAINSBOROUGH 

1727-1788. British. In London, 1740-48; then to his na- 
tive Suffolk where he painted many portraits. His early 
work reflects the Rococo style of Hayman and Gravelot. 
At Bath from 1759, the influence of Van Dyck is appar- 
ent in portraits and that of Rubens in landscapes. In 
London from 1774 until his death. A founding member 
of the Royal Academy, he and Reynolds were the lead- 
ing British portrait painters of their time. Gainsborough 
was also an important landscape painter. 



FRENCH, ANONYMOUS 

Sabit George and the Dragon pl. 179 

[Ca. 1480-90] Oil on wood panel 
nyVi x 14^4 in. (49.5 x 36.2 cm.) 
Ace. no. 43.30 

collections: (Henri Haro, Paris); Mr. and Mrs. Otto 
Kahn, New York; Dr. Preston Pope Satterwhite, Louis- 
ville, Kentucky; (French & Co., New York). 

exhibitions: Paris, Louvre and Bibliotheque Nationale, 
Exposition des primitifs francais (cat. by H. Bouchot), 
1904, no. 91; New York, Kleinberger, Loan Exhibition 
of French Primitives and Objects of Art, 1927, no. 20, 
repr. p. 57; London, Royal Academy, Commemorative 
Catalogue of the Exhibition of French Art, 1200-1900, 
1932, no. 31, pl. xii. 

60 



The Shepherd Boy PL. 314 

[Ca. 1757-59] O'l on canvas 

(oval) 32^2 x 25^ in. (82.5 x 64.8 cm.) 

Ace. no. 33.21 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

COLLECTIONS: Painted for Robert Edgar, Ipswich, Suf- 
folk, and his descendants; Mrs. M. G. Edgar, Ipswich, 
1888; (Sir George Donaldson, London, 1890s?); H. 
Darrell Brown, London, by 1903 (Christie, London, 
May 23, 1924, lot 20, repr.); (Hugh Blaker, London); 
(D. Croal Thomson, Barbizon House, London); (How- 
ard Young, New York); Arthur J. Secor, 1926-33. 

exhibitions: London, British Institution, 1861, no. 214; 
London, Grosvenor Gallery, A Century of British Art, 
ij3y-i83j, 1887, no. 218 (by F. G. Stephens); Paris, 
Exposition universale, 1900, Royal Pavilion, no. 48; 
London, Royal Academy, Exhibition of Old Masters, 



GALLEGO 



1903, no. 122; London, Kenwood House, The French 
Taste in English Painting, 1968, no. 41. 
references: G. W. Fulcher, Life of Gainsborough, Lon- 
don, 1856, p. 235; W. Armstrong, Life of Gainsborough, 
London, n.d., p. 205; E. K. Waterhouse, Gainsborough, 
London, 1958, p. 35, no. 836, pi. 34; R. Riefstahl, "What 
is Conservation," Toledo Museum of Art Museum 
News, vii, Autumn 1965, p. 57, repr.; J. Hayes, The 
Drawings of Thomas Gainsborough, London, 1970, p. 
27, in no. 865. 

Gainsborough painted this picture for his friend Robert 
Edgar at Ipswich, before moving to Bath in 1759. Water- 
house considers The Shepherd Boy one of the early fore- 
runners of the "fancy pictures" of the artist's late career. 
Waterhouse dates the picture in the early 1750s; Hayes, 
about 1757-59. 

The free handling in the distant landscape and the 
touches of red in the foreground grass are characteristic 
of this short period in the late 1750s (Hayes, letter, 
1975). A drawing for the composition and two studies 
of sheep are illustrated by Hayes (pis. 323-26). 

The Road from Market PL. 316 

[1767-68] Oil on canvas 
47M x 67 in. (121. 3 x 170.2 cm.) 
Ace. no. 55.221 

collections: Lord Shelburne, later 1st Marquess of 
Lansdowne, Bowood, Wiltshire (Coxe, Burrell and Fos- 
ter, London, Feb. 26, 1806, lot 105, repr.); William 
Esdaile (died 1837) and descendants; William C. H. Es- 
daile, Cothelestone House, Taunton, Somerset, until 
1955; (Edward Speelman, London). 
exhibitions: London, Royal Academy, Exhibition of 
Works by Old Masters and by Deceased Masters of the 
British School, 1887, no. 147; London, Royal Academy, 
Bicentenary Exhibition, 1968, no. 146. 
references: Anonymous (J. Britton), The Beauties of 
Wiltshire, 1801, 11, p. 218; E. K. Waterhouse, Gainsbor- 
ough, London, 1958, p. 24, no. 906, pi. 98; J. Woodward, 
"Wilkie's Portrait of Esdaile," Burlington Magazine, civ, 
Mar. 1962, p. 117; J. Hayes, "Gainsborough and Ru- 
bens," Apollo, lxxvii, Aug. 1963, pp. 90, 91, fig. 4 and 
cover (detail); J. Hayes, "Gainsborough," Journal of the 
Royal Society of Arts, Apr. 1965, pp. 320-21, 324, figs. 
9, 10; J. Hayes, "British Patrons and Landscape Paint- 
ing," Apollo, lxxxvi, Nov. 1967, p. 358, repr.; M. Wood- 
all, Thomas Gainsborough, New York, 1970, pp. 77-8, 
repr. p. 36; J. Hayes, The Drawings of Thomas Gains- 
borough, London, 1970, no. 283; J. Hayes, "A Turning 
Point in Style: Landscape with Woodcutter," Museum of 
Line Arts, Houston Bulletin, iv, Summer 1973, fig. 3. 



The Road from Market was almost certainly one of the 
three landscapes commissioned in the 1760s by Lord 
Shelburne for his drawing room at Bowood that were 
intended "to lay the foundation of a school of British 
landscapes" (Hayes, 1963), as recounted by John Britton, 
who visited Bowood in 1798. 

Hayes (1963) characterizes this painting as the key 
picture of Gainsborough's new style of about 1767. He 
attributes this change to more brilliant colors, bolder 
brushwork and more impasto to the inspiration of Ru- 
bens' landscapes of the 1630s. Hayes further suggests 
(letter, Nov. 1975) a slightly later date of 1767-68 in- 
stead of Waterhouse's 1766-67. 

A watercolor, Wooded Landscape with Horseman 
(Hayes, 1970, no. 865), is close to Toledo's painting in 
composition and handling of light. The Road from Mar- 
ket was engraved by Francesco Bartolozzi in 1802. 

Lady Frederick Campbell PL. 315 

[Ca. 1770-75] Oil on canvas 
30H x 25^4 in. (77.5 x 64 cm.) 
Ace. no. 33.20 
Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: Lady Frederick Campbell; Viscountess 
Curzon (her sister); Lord Curzon (her stepson); Lord 
Zouche (his great-grandson), 1863; (Lewis and Sim- 
mons); (Agnew, London, 1912); Gerard Le Bevan, Lon- 
don, 1912-23 (Christie, London, May 11, 1923, lot 90); 
(Agnew, London, 1923-24); (John Levy, New York, 
1924); (Howard Young, New York, 1924-25); Arthur 
J. Secor, 1925-33. 

references: E. K. Waterhouse, "Preliminary Check List 
of Portraits by Thomas Gainsborough," The Walpole 
Society, xxxm, Oxford, 1953, p. 17; E. K. Waterhouse, 
Gainsborough, London, 1958, p. 58. 

The sitter was Mary Meredith (1727-1807) who in 1769 
married Lord Frederick Campbell, brother of the 4th 
Duke of Argyll, after her first marriage to Earl Ferrers. 
This portrait was probably painted during Gainsbor- 
ough's last years in Bath. 



FERNANDO GALLEGO 

Active 1466-1507. Spanish. Birthplace unknown, per- 
haps Galicia or Salamanca. Active mainly in Salamanca, 
but also in Zamora, Plasencia and Coria. Gallego was 
widely imitated in northwestern Spain. His chief fol- 
lower and collaborator was Francisco Gallego, his son 
or brother. 



61 



GAUGUIN 



The Adoration of the Magi pl. 49 

[Ca. 1480-90] Oil on wood panel 
50 x 40H in. (127 x 102.9 cm -) 
Ace. no. 40.173 

collections: De Miro collection, Madrid, by 1888; 
H. Pacully, Paris, by 1903. 

exhibitions: Barcelona, Exposition Universal, Album 
de la instalacion artistica-arqueologica de la Real Casa 
. . . con un catalogo razonado, 1888, p. 109, pi. 8; Toledo 
Museum of Art, Spanish Painting, 1941, no. 25, p. 38, 
figs. 25, 26 (cat. by J. Gudiol). 

references: C. R. Post, A History of Spanish Painting, 
Cambridge, Mass., 1933, iv (1), p. 136, fig. 31; F. Sanchez 
Canton, Los grandes temas del arte cristiano en Espaha, 
I: Nacimiento e infancia de Cristo, Madrid, 1948, p. 126; 
T. Rousseau, Jr., "A Flemish Altarpiece from Spain," 
Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, ix, June 195 1, 
p. 275; J. Gaya Nuno, La pintura espanola fuera de 
Espaha, Madrid, 1958, no. 798; J. Gaya Nuho, Fer- 
nando Gallego, Madrid, 1958, pp. 19, 37, pi. 26; J. Gu- 
diol, The Arts of Spain, New York, 1964, fig. 92. 

Post placed this painting at the beginning of Gallego's 
career, about 1475-80. More recently, scholars have 
dated it about 1480 (Gaya Nuno, Gallego) or 1490 (Gu- 
diol, 1941). However, these dates now seem to fall in 
the middle of his career, as these scholars agree that Post 
dated Gallego's early works 10 to 15 years too late. 

The Vision of the Magi in the background is a rare 
subject made rarer by both the Virgin and Child shown 
as appearing to the Magi rather than the Child alone. 

The influence of Flemish art on Gallego, the foremost 
Castilian representative of the Hispano-Flemish style in 
the late 15th century, is particularly evident in the To- 
ledo panel, which probably formed part of a large 
retable. 



Street in Tahiti [color pl. xi] pl. 262 

[1891] Oil on canvas 

4^/2 x 34% in. (115. 5 x 88.5 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: P. Go/91 

Ace. no. 39.82 

collections: (Ambroise Vollard, Paris); Hugo Nathan, 
Frankfurt, by 1913; Martha Nathan, Frankfurt; (Galerie 
Thannhauser, Berlin); (Wildenstein, New York). 

exhibitions: Berlin, Galerie Thannhauser, Paul Gau- 
guin, 1928, no. 50, repr. (as Die Berge); New York, 
Wildenstein, Paul Gauguin, 1946, no. 16, repr. p. 30; 
Edinburgh, Royal Scottish Academy, Gauguin, 1955, no. 
42; Art Institute of Chicago, Gauguin, 1959, no. 31, 
repr. p. 40. 

references: W. Barth, Gauguin, Basel, 1929, pp. 113- 
17, pl. xxviii (as Die Berge); A. Alexandre, Paul Gau- 
guin: sa vie et le sens de son oeuvre, Paris, 1930, p. 103, 
repr. (as Pay sage de la Martinique); M. Malingue, Gau- 
guin: le peintre et son eouvre, Paris, 1948, pl. 173; 
C. Estienne, Gauguin, Geneva, 1953, p. 62, repr. p. 63; 
B. Dorival, ed., Paul Gauguin, carnet de Tahiti, Paris, 
1954, pp. 20, 28, 41; D. Sutton, "Notes on Paul Gauguin 
apropos a Recent Exhibition," Burlington Magazine, 
xevm, Mar. 1956, p. 91; G. Wildenstein, Gauguin, 
Paris, 1964, p. 174, no. 441, repr. 

Painted in Tahiti soon after Gauguin's arrival in June 
1891. There are sketches of the hut, horse, and two walk- 
ing figures in the Carnet de Tahiti (Musee National d'Art 
Moderne, Paris; Dorival, pp. 9 recto, 12 recto, 13 verso, 
18 recto, 22 verso, and 52 verso). There is a pastel sketch 
for the seated woman (private collection, Paris), who 
also appears in another oil of 1891, The Sulking Woman 
(Worcester (Mass.) Art Museum), and in a slightly dif- 
ferent pose, in Te Rerioa, 1897 (Courtauld Institute, 
London). 



PAUL GAUGUIN 

1848-1903. French. Born in Paris. Lived four years in 
Peru when a child. Served in navy and merchant marine, 
1865-71, and made several visits to South America. 
Painting part-time from 1871, he resigned his position 
with a brokerage firm in 1883 to devote himself to art. 
Exhibited with the Impressionists, 1879-86. In Brittany 
at Pont-Aven in 1880s with Emile Bernard, and at Aries 
in 1888 with Van Gogh. To Martinique in 1887; in Ta- 
hiti 1891-93 and 1895-1903. Although primarily a 
painter, Gauguin also made prints, sculpture and 
ceramics. 



GELLEE {see CLAUDE) 

PIER LEONE GHEZZI 

1674-1755. Italian. Son and pupil of Giuseppe Ghezzi; 
godson of Maratti. Became official painter to the Pope 
in 1708. Remained at the papal court throughout his ca- 
reer. Also active as an engraver, caricaturist and deco- 
rator. 



An Augnstinian Nun 

[Ca. 1725-30] Oil on canvas 
29^ x 24^ in. (75 x 62.3 cm. 



PL. 



6z 



GOGH 



Acc. no. 71.4 

collections: Princes Corsini, Rome and Florence; Bar- 
ons Ricasoli, Florence; Princes Corsini, Florence, since 
1927 (Galleria Giorgi, Florence, May 7-12, 1970, lot 
275) (Heim, London). 

exhibitions: London, Heim, Paintings and Sculptures of 
the Baroque, 1970, no. 21. 

In various Corsini inventories this picture was identified 
as School of Pietro da Cortona or by Carlo Maratti. 
Anthony M. Clark believes the painting is by Ghezzi, 
painted about 1725-30 (letter, Jan. 1975; see also A. M. 
Clark, "Pierleone Ghezzi's Portraits," Paragone, No. 
165, Sep. 1963, pp. n-21). The sitter has been tenta- 
tively identified as the daughter of Bartolomeo Corsini 
and Vittoria Altoviti, Maria Lucrezia (in religion Suor 
Maria Eletta), a nun in the Augustinian convent of 
S. Gaggio who died in 1736; there were three Corsini 
nuns in this convent in the first decades of the 18th cen- 
tury (Heim catalogue). 



LUCA GIORDANO 

1634-1705. Italian. Born in Naples, the son of a painter 
who was his first teacher. Later studied with Ribera, the 
influence of whose naturalism was succeeded by that of 
Veronese, whose work he may have seen on a trip to 
Venice, Lombardy and Rome, ca. 1650-53. Giordano's 
dramatic style was synthesized from his study of these 
and other masters, including Pietro da Cortona and Mat- 
tia Preti; and his virtuoso speed of execution resulted in 
a very large production of oil paintings and fresco deco- 
rations. Famous in Naples by age 20, he worked else- 
where much of his life; in 1680-82 at Florence and from 
1692 to 1702 in Spain, where Charles II appointed him 
Court Painter. Giordano made Naples internationally 
important in the development of Baroque painting, and 
his work inspired painters in Italy and elsewhere far into 
the 1 8th century. 



The Rest on the Flight into Egypt pl. 22 

[Ca. 1660] Oil on canvas 

69% x 112H in. (177.4 x 2.85.4 cm -) 

Acc. no. 71.158 

collections: (Heim, London). 

exhibitions: London, Heim, Fourteen Important Nea- 
politan Paintings, 1971, no. 8, repr. (cat. entry by O. Fer- 
rari). 



This recently discovered painting was unknown to Oreste 
Ferrari at the time of his monograph on Giordano 
(O. Ferrari and G. Scavizzi, Luca Giordano, Naples, 
1966). According to his catalogue entry for the 1971 
exhibition, it was painted about 1660, and "its overall 
stylistic character is that of the neo-Venetianism of the 
end of the 1650s, when Giordano was updating all he 
had learned during his first visit to Venice (ca. 1653), by 
merging it with a renewed interest in the art of Rubens." 
In this connection, Ferrari mentions Rubens Painting the 
Allegory of Peace (Prado, Madrid), two altarpieces in 
the church of S. Agostino degli Scalzi in Naples (1658), 
Venus, Mars and Vulcan (Denis Mahon collection, Lon- 
don) and The Sacrifice of Elijah and Massacre of the 
False Prophets (Schonborn collection, Pommersfelden) 
(Ferrari-Scavizzi, 1, p. 47 ff.; 11, p. 36 ff.). Ferrari also 
points out that two Bacchanals (Villa Albani-Torlonia, 
Rome), which probably date from the early 1660s, have 
"the same figures of putti and the same brilliant and in- 
tense colorism" as the Toledo painting, which, however, 
is not identifiable with any of the compositions of this 
subject mentioned by Giordano's first biographers or in 
other contemporary documentary sources. 

The subject is a traditional variation on the theme of 
the Rest on the Flight into Egypt in its inclusion of the 
infant St. John the Baptist and a host of angels and 
cherubs who are present to serve and amuse the Christ 
Child. 



VINCENT VAN GOGH 

1853-1890. Dutch. After working for an art dealer in 
The Hague 1869-76, he studied theology, becoming a 
lay preacher in 1879. Began to draw seriously in 1880 
and studied painting with Anton Mauve in 1882. To 
Paris, 1886, living with his brother Theo, who intro- 
duced him to Impressionism. Briefly entered Atelier 
Cormon where he met Toulouse-Lautrec. The direction 
of his painting was greatly influenced by Degas, Seurat 
and Gauguin. In 1888 was with Gauguin at Aries, where 
he suffered his first mental breakdown. Voluntarily en- 
tered the asylum at St.-Remy, May 1889. He committed 
suicide in July 1890 at Auvers, near Paris. 

The Wheat Field pl. 176 

[1888] Oil on canvas 

29 x 36^3 in. (73.6 x 93 cm.) 

Acc. no. 35.4 

collections: Mrs. J. van Gogh, Amsterdam; Julian 
Leclerq, Paris; Gustave Fayet, Igny; Mrs. Alban d'An- 
doque de Seriege, Beziers; (Wildenstein, New York). 



63 



GORE 



exhibitions: Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Vincent 
van Gogh, 1905, no. 106; New York, Paul Rosenberg, 
Masterpieces by Van Gogh, 1942, no. 6; New York, 
Wildenstein, Art and Life of Vincent van Gogh, 1948, 
no. 41; Cleveland Museum of Art, Work by Vincent van 
Gogh, 1948, no. 8, pi. viii. 

references: J. B. de la Faille, L'oeuvre de Vincent van 
Gogh, 1st ed., Brussels, 1928, 1, no. 559; 11, pi. cliv; 
M. Denis, L'epoque du symbolisme," Gazette des Beaux- 
Arts, xi, Mar. 1934, p. 172, fig. 7; W. Scherjon and 
J. de Gruyter, Vincent van Gogh's Great Period, Amster- 
dam, 1937, p. 76, no. 47, repr.; C. Dekert, H. Eklund 
and O. Reutersvard, "Van Gogh's Landscape with Corn 
Shocks," Konsthistorisk Tidskrift, xvi, Dec. 1946, pp. 
121-33, fig s - r > 3 a > 4 a ; C. Nordenfalk, The Life and 
Work of Van Gogh, New York, 1953, p. 179; The Com- 
plete Letters of Vincent van Gogh, Greenwich (Conn.), 
1959, 11, no. 501, p. 591; J. B. de la Faille, The Works of 
Vincent van Gogh: His Paintings and Drawings, 3rd ed., 
Amsterdam, 1970, pp. 236, 633, 666, no. F559, repr.; 
P. Lecaldano, L'opera pittorica completa di Van Gogh, 
Milan, 1971, no. 527, repr. 

Painted at Aries, the Toledo landscape is characteristic 
of Van Gogh's mature style. The date of this picture is 
based on a letter written to his brother Theo in June 
1888: "Among the studies of wheat fields there is one 
of the stacks, of which I sent you the first sketch; it is 
on a square size 30 canvas" (Complete Letters, no. 501). 
The Toledo painting corresponds precisely to these mea- 
surements. Another version of this subject in the Nation- 
almuseum, Stockholm was until 1946 generally consid- 
ered 'the first sketch' mentioned in the letter. However, 
as Dekert suggested, it now appears that the Stockholm 
picture is a replica of the Toledo landscape. 



PL. 177 



Houses at Anvers 

[1890] Oil on canvas 

23^ x 28M in. (60 x 73 cm.) 

Ace. no. 35.5 

collections: Andre Bonger, Amsterdam; (Durand- 
Ruel, New York). 

exhibitions: Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Vincent 
van Gogh, 1905, no. 209b; New York, Durand-Ruel, 
Great French Masters of the Nineteenth Century, 1934, 
no. 24, repr.; New York, Wildenstein, Art and Life of 
Vincent van Gogh, 1948, no. 63; Cleveland Museum of 
Art, Work by Vincent van Gogh, 1948, no. 31, pi. xxx; 
New York, Wildenstein, Van Gogh, 1955, no. 73, repr. 
p. 16. 

64 



references: J. B. de la Faille, L'oeuvre de Vincent van 
Gogh, 1st ed., Brussels, 1928, 1, no. 759; 11, pi. ccxn; 
W. Scherjon and J. de Gruyter, Vincent van Gogh's Great 
Period, Amsterdam, 1937, p. 319, no. 125, repr.; J. Rew- 
ald, Post-Impressionism from Van Gogh to Gauguin, 
New York, 1956, p. 402, repr.; The Complete Letters of 
Vincent van Gogh, Greenwich (Conn.), 1959, III, no. 
640, p. 280; L. Reidermeister, Auf den Spuren der Maler 
der He de France, Berlin, 1963, p. 165, repr.; J. B. de la 
Faille, The Works of Vincent van Gogh: His Paintings 
and Drawings, 3rd ed., Amsterdam, 1970, pp. 293, 641, 
no. F759, repr.; P. Lecaldano, L'opera pittorica completa 
di Van Gogh, Milan, 1971, no. 817, repr. 

In the last two months of his life at Auvers, Van Gogh 
did no less than seventy oils, including this painting. Van 
Gogh wrote that "the modern villas and the middle class 
houses are almost as pretty as the old thatched cottages 
which are falling into ruin" (Complete Letters, no. 636), 
and that "Since Sunday I have done two studies of 
houses among trees," June 10, 1890 (Complete Letters, 
no. 640). The houses in this painting still exist and have 
been identified by Reidermeister as 5 Rue de Gre. 



SPENCER FREDERICK GORE 

1878-1914. British. Student at the Slade School, London, 
1896-99. In 191 1 elected first president of the Camden 
Town Group, which included W. R. Sickert. Exhibited 
at Paris Salon des Independents. Corot, Pissarro, Ce- 
zanne and Sickert variously influenced Gore's work. 

Mornington Crescent pl. 340 

[1911] Oil on canvas 

25 x 30 in. (63.5 x 76.2 cm.) 

Ace. no. 52.91 

collections: Samuel Carr; (Leicester Galleries, Lon- 
don). 

exhibitions: Columbus Gallery of Fine Arts, British Art 
1890-1928, 1971, no. 36, fig. 76. 

Gore painted several impressionistic views of Morning- 
ton Crescent in the Camden Town district of London. 



JAN GOSSAERT, called MABUSE 

Ca. 1478-ca. 1536. Flemish. Born Jan Gossaert, though 
he was called Mabuse because he or his family were 






GOSSAERT 



from Maubeuge in Hainault. Member of the Antwerp 
painters guild, 1503. In 1508-09 he accompanied Philip 
of Burgundy to Italy. Worked in Malines, Brussels, 
Bruges, Utrecht; he lived mainly at Middelburg. His 
early work derives from Gerard David and Diirer, but 
after 1508 he created a style that fused late Gothic deco- 
ration with Italiante forms. He first introduced classical 
subjects with nude figures to Flanders. 

Jean de Carondelet PL. 85 

[Ca. 1508] Oil on wood panel 
15-9/16 x u 7 A in. (39.6 x 30.3 cm.) 

Ace. no. 35.58 

Gift of William E. Levis 

collections: Charles T. D. Crews, London; (Colnaghi, 
London, 1910); Leopold Hirsch (Christie, London, May 
11, 1934, lot nz). 

exhibitions: London, Royal Academy, Catalogue of the 
Loan Exhibition of Flemish and Belgian Art, A Memo- 
rial Volume, 1927, no. zoo, pi. lxxx. 

references: W. H. J. Weale, "Portraits of Archbishop 
John Carondelet," Burlington Magazine, xvi, Mar. 1910, 
p. 342, pi. i; G. Ring, Beitrage zur Geschichte nieder- 
landische Bildnismalerei im 15. und 16. Jahrhundert, 
Leipzig, 1913, p. 147; E. Weisz, /. Gossart gen. Mabuse, 
Parchim, 1913, p. 77; M. Conway, The Van Eycks and 
Their Followers, New York, 1921, pp. 362-63; A. Se- 
gard, Jan Gossart dit Mabuse, Brussels, 1923, pp. 111-12, 
114, 181, repr. opp. p. 112; M. J. Friedlander, Die alt- 
niederlandische Malerei, Berlin, 1934, vm, pp. 36, 38, 
59, no. 51, pi. xliii, fig. 51; E. Michel, Catalogue rai- 
sonne des peintures . . . : peintures flamandes du XVe 
et du XVIe siecle, Musee du Louvre, Paris, 1953, p. 129; 
P. Fierens, L'art en Belgique du Moyen Age a nos jours, 
Brussels, n.d., p. 245; Rotterdam, Museum Boymans-van 
Beuningen, Jan Gossaert genaamd Mabuse, 1965, in no. 
11; G. von der Osten, "Studien zu Jan Gossaert," De 
Artibus Opuscula XL, Essays in Honor of Erwin Panof- 
sky, New York, 1961, pp. 454, 457-58; S. Herzog, "Jan 
Gossart, called Mabuse (ca. 1478-1532), A Study of his 
Chronology with a Catalogue of his Works," unpub- 
lished Ph.D. dissertation, Bryn Mawr College, 1968, I, 
pp. 128-29; 11, no. 2; M. J. Friedlander (ed. H. Pauwels 
and S. Herzog), Early Netherlandish Painting, New York, 
1972., vm, pp. 25, 27, 28, no. 51, pi. 45, fig. 51. 

Jean Carondelet (1469-1545), one of the leading clerical 
dignitaries in Flanders, held the posts of Provost of St. 
Donatian Cathedral at Bruges, Secretary to Emperor 
Charles V, Archibishop of Palermo, and Chancellor of 
Flanders. Gossaert, who received his patronage over 



many years, painted three portraits of Carondelet, of 
which Toledo's is the earliest. 

Friedlander and Fierens dated the Toledo painting 
about 1 5 14 because a copy at Besancon bears that date. 
Based on style and Carondelet's apparent age, Conway, 
Segard and Von der Osten believed it was painted be- 
fore Gossaert left for Italy in 1508. Herzog observes that 
Carondelet was elected to the Privy Council at Malines 
in 1508, and as Gossaert was probably also there in Oc- 
tober, it may have been painted at that time. 

Later portraits of Carondelet are in the Louvre, Paris 
(dated 15 17) and the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Fine 
Arts, Kansas City (undated, but probably later). Besides 
the copy in Besancon, another copy of the Toledo por- 
trait was in an American private collection in 1953. 

Wings of the Salamanca Triptych pl. 8za-d 

Left wing: Saint John the Baptist; verso: Angel Annun- 
ciate 
Right wing: Saint Peter; verso: Virgin Annunciate 

[1521] Oil on wood panel 

Left wing: 47^x18^ in. (120x47 cm.); right wing: 

47K x 18^ in. (120 x 47 cm.) 
Left wing: Signed lower left and right: IOAES MALBodl 

PINGEBAT; Inscribed lower center (on tablet): IOANES 

LVCERNA/ARds ET LVCENS 

Right wing: Dated lower left and right: anno 1521; In- 
scribed lower center (on tablet): petre pasce oveis 

MEAS 

Acc. no. 52.85 

collections: Salamanca chapel, Augustinian Church, 
Bruges, by 1609 to ca. 1796; Abbaye des Dunes, Bruges, 
1796; St. Donatian Cathedral, Bruges, 1802-10; Edward 
Solly, London, 1814-37; (C. J. Nieuwenhuys, 1838); 
King William II of The Netherlands, 1838-50 (De Vries, 
Roos, Brondgeest, The Hague, Aug. 12, 1850, lots 36 
and 37, not sold and withdrawn; De Vries, Roos, 
Brondgeest, The Hague, Sep. 9, 1851, lots 21 and 22); 
Schneider collection, France; (Speelman, London); (Ag- 
new, London). 

exhibitions: Rotterdam, Musee Boymans-van Buen- 
ingen, Jan Gossaert genaamd Mabuse, 1965, no. 14, repr. 
pp. 115-16 (cat. by H. Pauwels, H. R. Hoetink and 
S. Herzog). 

references: C. J. Nieuwenhuys, Description de la gal- 
erie des tableaux S. M. le Roi des Pays-Bas, Brussels, 
1843, pp. 92-5; E. Weisz, Jan Gossaert gen. Mabuse, 
Parchim, 1913, p. 123; A. Segard, Jean Gossaert dit Ma- 
buse, Brussels, 1923, p. 177, no. 9; J. Held, "Overzicht 
der Litteratur betreffende nederlandsche Kunst," Oud 



65 



GOYA 



Holland, l, 1933, pp. 138-39; M. J. Friedliinder, Die 
altniederlandiscbe Malerei, Leyden, 1934, vin, no. 7; 
G. von der Osten, "Studien zu Jan Gossaert," De Arti- 
bus Opuscula XL, Essays in Honor of Erwin Panofsky, 
New York, 1961, p. 464, figs. 10, 11; J. Marechal, "La 
chapelle fondee par Pedro de Salamanca, bourgeois de 
Burgos, chez les Augustins a Bruges, 1513-1805." Aca- 
demie Royale de Belgique, Classe des Beaux-Arts, Me- 
moires, xm, Brussels, 1963, pp. 12-5, 81, doc. XVII; 
H. Borsch-Supan, "Jan Gossaert gen. Mabuse zu den 
Ausstellung im Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, Rot- 
terdam und im Groeningemuseum, Brugge," Kunst- 
cbronik, xvm, 1965, pp. 199-200; G. Marlier, La Ren- 
aissance flamande, Pierre Coeck d'Alost, Brussels, 1966, 
p. 80, n. 22; S. Herzog, "Jan Gossart, called Mabuse 
(ca. 1478-1532), A Study of his Chronology with a 
Catalogue of his Works," unpublished Ph.D. disserta- 
tion, Byrn Mawr College, 1968, 1, pp. 102-06; II, no. 
24, pis. 29, 31, 32; C. Cuttler, review of G. Marlier, "La 
Renaissance flamande, Pierre Coeck d'Alost," Art Bul- 
letin, Lin, Sep. 1971, p. 410; M. J. Friedlander (ed. 
H. Pauwels and S. Herzog), Early Netherlandish Paint- 
ing, New York, 1972, vm, no. 7, p. 120, nn. 53, 54, pis. 
15, 17, fig. 7. 

Ten 17th, 18th, and early 19th century manuscripts and 
published documents cited by Marechal (1963) support 
Held's proposal (1933) that these wings once formed a 
triptych with the Deposition from the Cross in the Her- 
mitage, Leningrad. These documents trace the Toledo 
wings and a central Deposition back to 1609 in the 
Salamanca chapel of the Augustinian Church at Bruges, 
and while the documents do not prove this, it seems 
likely this altarpiece was commissioned by Pedro de 
Salamanca for his family chapel, founded in 1513 and 
completed in 15 16. A copy (Ayuntamiento, Segovia) of 
the Toledo Annunciation panels, if correctly attributed 
to the Bruges painter Ambrosius Benson, suggests that 
Gossaert's panels were in Bruges before Benson's death 
in 1550. 

Moreover, in 1641 Sanderus identified Gossaert's St. 
Peter as a portrait of Pedro de Salamanca (A. Sanderus, 
Flandria lllustrata, The Hague, 1641; 1735 ed., 11, p. 
113). While unconfirmed, the author's other claim that 
St. John is a self-portrait of Gossaert seems plausible 
(cf. Rotterdam cat.). Both wings have been slightly cut 
down on top to make the tops symmetrical. 

In spite of the documents published by Marechal, re- 
construction of the triptych is still problematical. The 
lack of visual continuity between the open landscape 
and agitated movement in the Leningrad painting and 
the architectural setting and static sculptural figures in 



the Toledo panels is perplexing. Marlier suggests the 
Toledo and Leningrad panels were probably united after 
1521, and he also sees merit in the old attribution of the 
Leningrad panel to Bernard van Orley (ca. 1488-1541). 
Cuttler has also cited features of the Deposition related 
to Van Orley's style. 

Von der Osten and the authors of the Rotterdam ex- 
hibition catalogue speculate that the Toledo-Leningrad 
altarpiece may provide a clue to the appearance of Gos- 
saert's famous Middelburg altarpiece (15 16), destroyed 
in 1568. 



FRANCISCO DE GOYA 

1746-1828. Spanish. Born near Saragossa. His full name 
was Francisco Jose de Goya y Lucientes. By 1766 a stu- 
dent of Bayeu in Madrid, where he spent most of his life 
except for a visit to Rome in 1771. Early work such as 
tapestry cartoons, influenced by Tiepolo, and later by 
Velazquez. Painter to the Spanish court from 1786, he 
was a major portraitist, as well as a painter of religious 
and contemporary history subjects. Suffered a severe ill- 
ness in 1792 which left his deaf. In 1824 became a vol- 
untary exile in France, settling in Bordeaux. Goya was 
also a master printmaker, producing etchings, aquatints 
and lithographs. 

Children with a Cart pl. 60 

[1778] Oil on canvas 
57^4 x 37 in. (145.4 x 94 c m -) 
Ace. no. 59.14 

collections: Royal Tapestry Factory, Madrid, 1779- 
ca. 1850; Royal Palace, Madrid, to 1868; Philip Hofer, 
Boston; (Wildenstein, New York). 

references: D. G. Cruzada Villaamil, L05 tapices de 
Goya, Madrid, 1870, pp. 27-8, no. xvn; C. de la Vinaza, 
Goya, su tiempo, su vida, sus obras, Madrid, 1887, no. 
17; Z. Araujo Sanchez, Goya, Madrid, 1896, no. 17; 
P. Lafond, Goya, Paris, 1902, p. 145, no. 17; V. von 
Loga, Francisco Goya, Berlin, 1903, nos. 589, 592; A. F. 
Calvert, Goya, London, 1908, p. 173, no. 17; A. de 
Beruete y Moret, Goya, composiciones y figuras, Ma- 
drid, 1917, 11, p. 14, no. 17, p. 163, no. 70; A. L. Mayer, 
Francisco de Goya, Munich, 1923, p. 50, no. 17, p. 218, 
nos. 713, 716 (same cartoon; incorrectly as in Prado 
Museum); Exposicion de pinturas de Goya (exh. cat.), 
Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1928, p. 99; V. de Sambricio, 
Tapices de Goya, Madrid, 1946, pp. 108, 111-12, 227- 
28, nos. 26, 296, n. 25, xxix-xxx, clxxvi; X. Despar- 
met Fitz-Gerald, L'oeuvre peint de Goya, Paris, 1928- 



66 




in. Hans Muelich, Portrait of a Man 



67 




iv. El Greco, The Agony in the Garden 



68 



GOYA 



50, i, p. 76, no. 17; F. J. Sanchez Canton, Vida y obras 
de Goya, Madrid, 1951, p. 166; J. Gudiol, Goya, New 
York, 1971, 1, pp. 40, 43, no. 80; 11, figs. 148-49; P. Gas- 
sier and J. Wilson, Goya, His Life and Work, London, 
1971, pp. 76, 89, no. 1. 129, repr.; R. de Angelis, L'opera 
pittorica completa di Goya, Milan, 1974, no. 86, repr. 

Between 1775 and 1792 Goya painted 63 tapestry car- 
toons or designs for the Royal Tapestry Factory of 
Santa Barbara. On January 6, 1779 he delivered six 
cartoons illustrating "diversions and costumes of the 
present time" (Gassier and Wilson, p. 88). This cartoon 
for an overdoor tapestry is number six of that group, 
which belongs to a series of 20 cartoons for tapestries to 
decorate the private quarters of the Prince and Princess 
of Asturias in the Palace of El Pardo, just outside Ma- 
drid; all of these except the Toledo painting and one 
other (National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh) are in 
the Prado, Madrid. In Goya's manuscript invoice, the 
standing boy with a drum is described as in "Dutch 
dress" (Sambricio, p. xxx, Gassier and Wilson, p. 76). 
The Toledo painting was one of six cartoons removed 
from the Royal Palace, Madrid in 1869 (Sambricio, p. 

CLXXVl). 

According to Sambricio, four tapestries were actually 
woven from this cartoon; one for El Prado (completed 
1785; still in situ); a second for the apartments of the 
Infante Gabriel and his wife in the Escorial (completed 
1796; whereabouts unknown); and two others recorded 
in the 1834 Testament of Ferdinand VII (one lost; the 
second in the Tapestry Museum, Cathedral of Santiago 
de Compostella). 



FRANCISCO DE GOYA, Attributed to 

The Bullfight pl. 61 

[Ca. 1824] Oil on canvas 
24% x 36/^ in. (63 x 93 cm.) 
Ace. no. 29.139 

collections: Edwards, Paris (Hotel Drouot, Paris, May 

25, 1905, lot 18, repr.); Feral, Paris; Xanroff, Paris; 
(Wildenstein, New York). 

exhibitions: San Francisco, California Palace of the Le- 
gion of Honor, Francisco Goya, 1937, no. 26, repr.; To- 
ledo Museum of Art, Spanish Painting, 1941, p. 146, no. 
102, repr. (cat. by J. Gudiol); New York, Wildenstein, 
Goya, 1950, no. 47, repr. p. 42; Richmond, Virginia 
Museum of Fine Arts, The Work of Francisco Goya, 
1953- 



references: X. Desparmet Fitz-Gerald, L'oeuvre peint 
de Goya, Paris, 1928-50, 11, p. 270, May 25, 1905, lot 18 
(1905 Edwards sales catalogue entry); E. Trapier, Eu- 
genio Lucas y Padilla, New York, 1940, p. 58, pl. xliii 
(as by Lucas); J. Gudiol, Goya, New York, 1941, p. 116, 
repr. p. 112; E. Lafuente Ferrari, Antecedente, coinci- 
dentias e influencias del arte de Goya, Madrid, 1947, p. 
230 (as by Lucas); J. Gaya Nuho, Eugenio Lucas, Barce- 
lona, 1948, p. 33 (as by Lucas); J. Gaya Nuno, La pintura 
espanola fuera de Espana, Madrid, 1958, no. 1119 (as 
Goya, with incorrect provenance); Goya and His Times 
(exh. cat.), London, Royal Academy, 1963, p. 75, in no. 
133; J. Gudiol, Goya, New York, 1971, I, pp. 221, 349, 
no. 757; iv, figs. 1252, 1253 (detail); P. Gassier and 
J. Wilson, Goya, His Life and Work, London, 1971, p. 
356, notes 1672-75 (as attributed to Lucas); R. de An- 
gelis, L'opera pittorica completa di Goya, Milan, 1974, 
no. 781 (as attributed to Goya). 

According to a contemporary source (T. Lopez, "Me- 
morias tradicionales de D. F. Goya," in Vihaza, Goya, su 
tiempo, su vida y sus obras, Madrid, 1887), in his last 
years Goya painted eight or ten bullfight subjects with- 
out brushes, using slivers or knives of cane to lay on 
color. Paintings believed to belong to this series include 
those in the Marquesa de Baroja Collection, Madrid, 
with a contemporary inscription giving Goya's name and 
the year 1824, and a somewhat smaller painting similar 
in style and handling in the Prado, Madrid. Two others 
in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford were formerly at- 
tributed to Eugenio Lucas. They have been re-attributed 
to Goya because their small dimensions and combina- 
tion of thickly painted figures with thinly painted back- 
grounds is similar to the Baroja and Prado paintings 
(X. de Salas, "A Group of Bullfighting Scenes by Goya," 
Burlington Magazine, evi, Jan. 1964, pp. 37-8). As these 
four paintings are reversals of compositions in the Bulls 
of Bordeaux lithograph series (1825), it has been thought 
that the paintings were the basis for the prints. 

The Toledo Bullfight is one of two larger paintings, 
also related to the Bulls of Bordeaux lithographs, both 
of which were in the Edwards collection. Their compo- 
sitions and those of the lithographs are nearly identical. 
The Toledo painting is related to the lithograph Bravo 
Toro, while the companion picture in the Edwards sale, 
of nearly the same dimensions, corresponds to El Famoso 
Americano Ceballos (Mujica Gallo collection, Lima, 
Peru; Trapier, pl. xlii; Gudiol, 1971, fig. 12.51; Gassier 
and Wilson). 

Considered as the work of Goya by Gudiol (1941, 
1971), the Toledo painting has also been attributed to 
Eugenio Lucas (1824-1870), who often copied Goya's 



69 



GOYEN 



work (Trapier; Lafuente Ferrari; X. de Salas, letter, 
1961), and who made a tempera sketch of the central 
motif of this composition dated 1864 (Trapier, p. 57, pi. 
XLI; Gaya Nuno, 1948, p. 33). 



JAN VAN GOYEN 

1 596-1656. Dutch. Began his apprenticeship as a painter 
at age 10. Studied with several artists, including Esaias 
van de Velde in Haarlem (ca. 1617). Traveled exten- 
sively in the Lowlands and France. Lived and worked in 
his native Leyden until ca. 1632-34, when he moved to 
The Hague. Van Goyen was the leading representative 
of the tonal phase of Dutch landscape painting. 

View of Dordrecht PL. 113 

[1649] Oil on wood panel 

z6 7 A x 39^4 in. (68.2 x 99.6 cm.) 

Signed and dated center foreground (on boat): VG 1649 

Ace. no. 33.27 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: C. Butler, London; (Charles Sedelmeyer, 
Paris, 1894); (J. Eastman Chase, Boston, 1897); David 
P. Kimball, 1897-1924; (Vose, Boston); Arthur J. Secor, 
1924-33. 

references: C. Sedelmeyer, Catalogue of 100 Paintings 
of Old Masters, Paris, 1894, no. 13, repr.; C. Hofstede 
de Groot, vin, no. 95 (description combines TMA paint- 
ing with Beck no. G300); H.-U. Beck, Jan van Goyen, 
1596-1656, Amsterdam, 1973, 11, no. 310, repr. p. 152. 

It is certain that Van Goyen was in Dordrecht several 
times. There is a drawing of this view of Dordrecht in 
the Dresden sketchbook of ca. 1648 (Beck, 1, no. 846/72). 
Dordrecht is seen here from the southwest shore of the 
Dordtse Kil. The large tower in the center belongs to 
the Gothic Groote Kerk. 

Van Goyen painted this view of Dordrecht from the 
southwest no less than 22 times (Beck, 11, nos. 292-305, 
307-10, 312-16). In most of them he included the nar- 
row channel of the Kil, the widening expanse of the 
Oude Maas (left background), several boats and the 
promontory on which Dordrecht stands. 



The River Shore 

[1651] Oil on wood panel 
16% x zo l /> in. (41.2 x 52 cm.) 
Signed and dated on boat: VG 165 1 

Ace. no. 25.47 



PL. 114 



collections: (Galerie Pro Arte, Basel, 1920); (N. Beets, 
Amsterdam, 1921). 

references: C. Hofstede de Groot, vm, no. 498a; H.-U. 
Beck, Jan van Goyen, 1596-1656, Amsterdam, 1973, 11, 
no. 553, repr. p. 255. 

This panel has evidently been cut down on both sides, 
thus accounting for the strong horizontal emphasis, un- 
like the diagonal recession which Van Goyen usually 
employed. 



DUNCAN GRANT 

1885-. British. Born in Scotland. Briefly attended West- 
minster School of Art, 1902. In Italy 1902-03; in 1906-07 
in Paris where he was a pupil of Jacques-Emile Blanche. 
Later in London was a member of the "Bloomsbury 
Set," and was influenced by the Post-Impressionist exhi- 
bition of 1910, as well as by Matisse and Picasso. Asso- 
ciated with Roger Fry's Omega Workshops. His work 
includes portraits, landscapes, still lifes, interior deco- 
ration and stage and costume designs. 

A Sussex Farm PL. 348 

[1936] Oil on canvas 

2.$yk x 30H in. (46 x 76.8 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: D. Grant 36 

Ace. no. 39.87 
Museum Purchase 

collections: (Alex Reid & Lefevre, London). 

exhibitions: Boston, Institute of Contemporary Art, 
Contemporary British Artists, 1946, no. 9. 



WALTER GREAVES 

i84i?-i93o. British. Born in London. Began sketching 
as a youth. Met Whistler in 1863 and became his stu- 
dent and assistant for over fifteen years. Exhibited in- 
frequently. First major exhibition, 191 1. Obscured by 
the reputation of his teacher, Greaves painted primarily 
portraits and Thames views. 



James Abbott McNeill Whistler 

[1877] Oil on canvas 

30^4 x 25^ in. (76.8 x 63.8 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower left: W. Greaves/77 

Ace. no. 10.14 

Gift of Carl B. Spitzer 



PL. 337 



70 



GRECO 



COLLECTIONS: (Walter T. Spencer, London). 

references: "Portrait of Whistler," Toledo Museum of 
Art Museum News, iv, Nov. 1910, repr. 

Greaves painted several portraits of Whistler (1834- 
1903) in the style of Whistler's self-portraits, such as the 
one of ca. 1871-73 in the Detroit Institute of Arts. Ver- 
sions of the Toledo portrait are in the Art Institute of 
Chicago (1869) and National Portrait Gallery, London. 



EL GRECO 

1541-1614. Spanish. Born in Crete as Domenikos The- 
otocopoulos. In Spain he came to be known as El Greco, 
"the Greek." Possibly first trained in Byzantine style of 
Cretan icons. By 1560 in Venice as a pupil of Titian; 
also influenced by Tintoretto and the Bassani. In 1570 
in Rome, where his patrons included Cardinal Alessan- 
dro Farnese and Fulvio Orsini. In 1577 in Toledo, where 
he remained until his death. Received his only royal 
commission from King Philip II in 1580. Primarily a 
painter of religious subjects and portraits. He often 
made several versions of his compositions, many of 
which were copied by assistants. 

The Agony in the Garden [color pl. iv] pl. 53 

[1590s] Oil on canvas 
40M x 44M in. (102.2 x 113. 7 cm.) 

Signed lower right (in Greek characters): domenikos 
theotokopoulos kres e'poiei 

Ace. no. 46.5 

collections: Cacho collection, Madrid, until ca. 1919; 
(Lionel Harris, London); (Durlacher Bros., New York); 
Arthur Sachs, New York, by 1928-46. 

exhibitions: New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 
Spanish Paintings from El Greco to Goya, 1928, no. 26, 
repr.; New York, Knoedler, El Greco, 1941, no. 4, repr.; 
Toledo Museum of Art, Spanish Painting, 194 1, p. 66, 
no. 44, repr. (cat. by J. Gudiol); Art Institute of Chicago, 
Masterpieces of Religious Art, 1947, no. 19, repr.; Am- 
sterdam, Rijksmuseum, Le triomphe du manierisme 
europeen, 1955, no. 60, pl. 31; Cleveland Museum of 
Art, The Venetian Tradition, 1956, p. 14, no. 14, pl. 37. 

references: A. L. Mayer, El Greco, Munich, 1916, p. 
30, pl. 59; A. L. Mayer, Dominico Theotocopuli El 
Greco, Munich, 1926, No. 55, repr. p. 10; A. L. Mayer, El 
Greco, Berlin, 1931, p. 120, fig. 11; M. Legendre and 
A. Hartmann, Domeniko Theotokopoulos, called El 



Greco, Paris, 1937, pp. 176, 503, repr.; J. Camon Aznar, 
Dominico Greco, Madrid, 1950, 11, p. 821, no. 109, fig. 
634; P. Guinard, El Greco, Geneva, 1956, p. 44, repr. 
p. 46; H. Soehner, "Greco in Spanien, i: Grecos Stilent- 
wicklung in Spanien," Miincher Jahrbuch der Bildenden 
Kunst, viii, 1957, pp. 141, 144, 146, 148, 149, 151, fig. 
20; J. A. Gaya Nufio, La pintura espahola fuera de Es- 
paha, Madrid, 1958, no. 1294; G. Kubler and M. Soria, 
Art and Architecture in Spain and Portugal and their 
American Dominions, 1500 to 1800, Harmondsworth, 
i 959j PP- 2 - i 3 _i 5> pl- IIQ ; H. E. Wethey, El Greco and 
his School, Princeton, 1962, 1, p. 47, fig. 162; 11, no. 29 
(as ca. 1590-95); G. Manzini and T. Frati, L'opera com- 
pleta del Greco, Milan, 1969, no. 90a, repr.; N. Mac- 
Laren, National Gallery Catalogues: The Spanish School, 
2nd ed., London, National Gallery, 1970, pp. 37, 38, 39, 
n. 14; J. Gudiol, El Greco 1541-1614, Barcelona, 1971, 
p. 204, no. 169, fig. 186. 

According to Wethey, this composition has no proto- 
type, even though the general iconographic elements 
were used by Titian and others. Combining the four 
Gospel texts, El Greco represented Christ kneeling in 
prayer with the angel who strengthens Him (Luke xxn: 
41, 43). The cup held by the angel refers to Christ's 
words, "My Father if this cannot pass unless I drink it, 
thy will be done" (Matthew xxvi:42). The disciples 
Peter, James and John (Matthew xxvi:37 and Mark 
xiv:33) are sleeping, enveloped by the cloud supporting 
the angel. In the background, Judas approaches with 
the guards of the High Priest carrying lanterns and 
torches (John xvm:3). 

El Greco and his studio painted at least eight versions 
of The Agony in the Garden in two different forms: the 
first, corresponding to the horizontal format of the To- 
ledo painting (other versions, possibly studio works, in 
the National Gallery, London, and F. V. Izaguerre col- 
lection, Bilbao), and the second, a vertical composition 
in which the sleeping Apostles occupy the foreground, 
while Christ and the angel are moved to the middle 
ground (Church of Santa Maria, Andujar). The Toledo 
painting is uniformly considered an autograph work, 
and the finest and earliest of known versions of this 
composition. Mayer dated it 1590-98. This has been 
generally followed by most writers, although Soria dated 
it 1580-86 (possibly as early as 1582), while Gudiol has 
proposed 1597-1603. 

Three paintings of this subject appear in the inven- 
tory of El Greco's possessions drawn up in 1614. Al- 
though two pictures corresponding to the horizontal 
dimension are recorded in the 1621 inventory of poses- 
sions belonging to his son, this painting cannot be iden- 



71 



GUARDI 



tified with either of these with any certainty (Wethey, 
p. 28). 



PL. 54 



The Annunciation 

[Ca. 1600] Oil on canvas 
49% x 32 in. (126. 1 x 81.3 cm.) 

Ace. no. 51.362 

collections: Marques de Corvera; F. Ortiz de Pinedo, 
Madrid; Stanislas Baron, Paris; (Durand-Ruel, Paris and 
New York); Ralph M. Coe, Cleveland, 1928-51. 

exhibitions: Toledo (Spain), Third Centennial of El 
Greco, 1914; Paris, Durand-Ruel, Spring, 1916; Brook- 
lyn Museum, Spanish Fainting, 1935, no. 37, repr.; Paris, 
Gazette des Beaux-Arts, El Greco, 1937, no. 33, repr.; 
Toledo Museum of Art, Spanish Painting, 1941, p. 66, 
no. 41, repr. (cat. by J. Gudiol); San Francisco, M. H. de 
Young Memorial Museum, El Greco, 1947, no. 8, repr. 

references: M. Barres and P. Lafond, El Greco, Paris, 
n.d., p. 142; M. B. Cossio, El Greco, Madrid, 1908, 1, 
no. 301; A. L. Mayer, Domenico Theotocopuli El Greco, 
Munich, 1926, no. 7, repr. p. 3; M. Legendre and A. Hart- 
mann, Domenikos Theotokopoulos, called El Greco, 
Paris, 1937, pp. 102, 503, repr.; L. Goldscheider, El 
Greco, New York, 1938, p. 24, pi. 131; J. Babelon, El 
Greco, Paris, 1946, pi. 78; L. Rudrauf, "The Annuncia- 
tion: Study of a Plastic Theme and its Variations in 
Painting and Sculpture," journal of Aesthetics and Art 
Criticism, vn, June 1949, p. 342, fig. 7; J. Camon Aznar, 
Dominico Greco, Madrid, 1950, 11, p. 773, nos. 29, 41, 
fig. 580; J. A. Gay a Nuno, La pintura espahola fuera de 
Espana, Madrid, 1958, no. 1339; H. Soehner, "Greco in 
Spanien, 1: Grecos Stilentwicklung in Spanien," Miinch- 
ner Jahrbuch der Bildenden Kunst, vn, 1957, pp. 158, 
160, 164, 167; H. E. Wethey, El Greco and his School, 
Princeton, 1962, 1, fig. 169; 11, no. 42; G. Manzini and 
T. Frati, L'opera completa del Greco, Milan, 1969, no. 
126a, repr.; J. Gudiol, El Greco 1541-1614, Barcelona, 
1971, pp. 188, 197, no. 144, fig. 174. 

This painting is a variation on the theme of the Annun- 
ciation (Luke 1:26-38), one of the most popular themes 
in El Greco's iconographic repertory. Wethey catalogues 
three versions painted by El Greco in Italy, and six in 
Spain. In the Toledo picture, as in the earliest versions, 
only the Virgin and Angel are depicted with the Holy 
Spirit in the form of a dove. In contrast to the pictures 
painted in Italy, earthly reality has been abandoned in 
favor of the mystery. The lilies held by the Archangel 
Gabriel are a symbol of the purity of the Virgin, while 
the sewing basket with scissors is included because it is 



related that after the departure of the angel, Mary "took 
the purple linen, and sat down to work it" (A. Jameson, 
Legends of the Madonna, London, 1872, p. 177). The 
flaming flowers in the vase are a further reference to 
Mary's virginity: "The bush which burned and was not 
consumed." 

This picture is widely accepted as an autograph work, 
although Wethey believes the figure of the Virgin is by 
an assistant. Cossio was the first to publish the Toledo 
painting with a date of 1594-1604. These dates have 
been generally followed, although more recent opinion 
(Mayer, 1 597-1600; Soehner, 1599; Wethey, ca. 1600- 
06) favors placing the Toledo picture after 1596. This 
canvas, or another lost original of the same composi- 
tion, was copied repeatedly by El Greco's son and assist- 
ants (Wethey, 11, nos. x 17-22). Although five paintings 
of this subject are recorded in each of the two inven- 
tories discussed under The Agony in the Garden, the 
Toledo picture cannot certainly be identified with any 
of those listed. 



FRANCESCO GUARDI 

1712-1793. Italian. Born and died in Venice. Trained in 
the studio of his elder brother, Giovanni Antonio (Gian- 
antonio), Francesco's early work consisted of figural 
painting. After his brother's death in 1760, he devoted 
himself to the painting of actual and imaginary views of 
Venice and its vicinity, for which he is best known. He 
may have studied with Canaletto in the mid-i76os, and 
was probably influenced by Marco Ricci and Marieschi. 
Elected to the Academy of Fine Arts as a painter of ar- 
chitectural perspective in 1784. 

The Holy Family pl. 35 

[Ca. 1740-45] Oil on canvas 
45^2 x 37% in. (115. 7 x 96.2 cm.) 

Ace. no. 26.71 

COLLECTIONS: Parish Church of Strigno di Valsugana 
(near Trento), to unknown date during World War I; 
(D. Barozzi, Venice, by 1922); Edward Drummond Lib- 
bey, 1925. 

exhibitions: Florence, Palazzo Pitti, Mostra della pit- 
tura Italiana del sei e del settecento, 1922, no. 534 (as 
Francesco); City Art Museum of St. Louis, Exhibition 
of Eighteenth Century Venetian Painting, 1936, no. 15, 
repr. p. 40 (as Gianantonio); Toledo Museum of Art, 
Four Centuries of Venetian Painting, 1940, no. 31, repr. 
(cat. by H. Tietze, as Gianantonio, with qualifications); 
Museum of Fine Arts of Houston, The Guardi Family, 



72 



GUARDI 



1958, no. 1, repr. (introd. by J. Byam Shaw, as Gianan- 
tonio); Venice, Palazzo Grassi, Mostra dei Guardi, 1965, 
no. 69, repr. (cat. by P. Zampetti, as Francesco); Art 
Institute of Chicago, Painting in Italy in the Eighteenth 
Century: Rococo to Romanticism, 1970, no. 25, repr. 
(cat. entry by B. Hannegan under Gianantonio, but with 
attribution to Francesco). 

references: G. Fiocco, Francesco Guardi, Florence, 
1923, p. 69, no. 39, pi. xxix (as Francesco); U. Ojetti, 
L. Dami and N. Tarchiani, La pittnra italiana del sei- 
cento e del settecento alia mostra di Palazzo Pitti, Flor- 
ence, 1924, repr. p. 157 (as Gianantonio); V. Lasareff, 
"Francesco and Gianantonio Guardi," Burlington Maga- 
zine, lxv, Aug. 1934, p. 58 (as Gianantonio); M. Goer- 
ing, "Francesco Guardi als Figurenmaler," Zeitschrift 
fur Kunstgeschichte, Berlin, vn, 1938, p. 289 (as Gian- 
antonio); F. De Maffei, Gian Antonio Guardi, pittore di 
figura, Verona, [1951], pi. xv (detail) (as Gianantonio); 
A. Morassi, "Conclusioni su Antonio e Francesco 
Guardi," Emporium, cxiv, Nov. 195 1, pp. 195, 202, fig. 
6 (as Gianantonio); G. Fiocco, "II problema di Fran- 
cesco Guardi," Arte Veneta, vi, 1952, p. 120 (as Fran- 
cesco); V. Moschini, Francesco Guardi, Milan, 1952, p. 
14 (as Francesco); C. L. Ragghianti, "Epiloghi Guar- 
deschi," Annali della Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, 
xxn, 1953, pp. 75, 76; N. Rasmo, "Recenti contributi a 
Gianantonio Guardi," Cultura Atesina, ix, 1955, p. 156, 
n. 20, pi. lxiv, no. 4; V. Moschini, Francesco Guardi, 
London, 1956, p. 18 (as Francesco); D. Gioseffi, "Per 
una datazione tardissima delle storie di Tobiolo in S. Raf- 
faele di Venezia con una postilla su Bonifacio Veronese," 
Emporium, cxxvi, Sep. 1957, p. 109 (as Francesco); 
J. Byam Shaw, "Guardi and His Brothers and His Son," 
Art News, lvi, Feb. 1958, pp. 33, 35, fig. 3 (as Gianan- 
tonio); R. Pallucchini, La pittura Veneziana del sette- 
cento, Venice, i960, p. 139 (as Gianantonio and Fran- 
cesco); B. Kerber, " 'Die Ruhe auf der Flucht' Ein 
Jugendwerk Andrea Pozzos. Wiederholungen, Varianten 
Und Kopien," Cultura Atesina, xvn, 1963, p. 8, pi. 5, 
no. 7 (as Gianantonio); R. M. Riefstahl, "What is Con- 
servation?," Toledo Museum of Art Museum News, 
viii, Autumn, 1965, p. 66, repr.; G. Fiocco, Guardi, Mi- 
lan, 1965, pp. 24, 26, pi. xiii (as Francesco); R. Palluc- 
chini, "Note alia mostra dei Guardi," Arte Veneta, xix, 
1965, p. 216 (as Gianantonio with intervention of Fran- 
cesco); B. Hannegan, "Guardi at Venice," Art Bulletin, 
xlviii, June 1966, p. 252 (as Guardiesque); A. Morassi, 
"Altre novita e precisazioni su Antonio e Francesco 
Guardi," Atti dell' Accademia di Udine, vm, 1966/69, p. 
287 (as Gianantonio); D. Mahon, "The Brothers at the 
Mostra dei Guardi: Some Impressions of a Neophyte," 
in Prohlemi Guardeschi, Venice, 1967, pp. 81-2, pi. 5 



(detail) (as Francesco); B. Fredericksen and F. Zeri, 
Census, pp. 98, 351, 641 (as Gianantonio); A. Morassi, 
Guardi: Antonio e Francesco Guardi, Venice, 1973, 1, 
p. 315, no. 46, pi. X; II, fig. 51 (as Gianantonio). 

This painting, originally in the parish church of Strigno 
di Valsugana in the Italian Tyrol, is a copy after an 
altarpiece by Andrea Pozzo (1642-1709) formerly in 
Trento (Church of the Carmelitani alle Laste). 

Until 1760 Francesco worked closely with his brother 
Gianantonio, or Giovanni Antonio (1698— 1760), pro- 
ducing religious subjects and allegories. The precise di- 
vision between their work has been widely studied and 
debated. Until the 1965 Guardi exhibition at Venice, the 
Toledo picture was usually attributed to Gianantonio, 
and it was thus catalogued by the Museum until re- 
cently. Since 1965 scholars have generally attributed it 
to Francesco because of the style and arrangement of 
figures, stacatto brushwork and Piazzetta-like color. A 
date ca. 1740-45 is generally accepted. 

San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice PL. 36 

[1791] Oil on canvas 

i8J4 x 30-1/16 in. (46.5 x 76.3 cm.) 

Signed and dated at extreme left of the front of San 

Giorgio terrace. The rubbed inscription appears to 

read: f(g)/i79(i?) 

Ace. no. 52.62 

collections: Maurice Kahn, Paris; Adolph Mayer, The 
Hague, by 1936; (Rosenberg & Stiebel, New York). 

exhibitions: The Hague, Gemeentemuseum, Oude 
Kunst uit Haagsch Bezit, 1936, no. 89; Rotterdam, Mu- 
seum Boymans, Meesterwerken uit Vier Eeuwen, 1400- 
1800, 1938, no. 187, repr. p. 121; Detroit Institute of 
Arts, Venice 1700-1800, 1952, no. 30, repr. p. 34; Ven- 
ice, Palazzo Ducale, J vedutisti Veneziani del settecento, 
1967, no. 145, repr. (cat. by P. Zampetti); Art Institute 
of Chicago, Painting in Italy in the Eighteenth Century: 
Rococo to Romanticism, 1970, no. 24, repr. (cat. entry 
by B. Hannegan; as after 1780). 

references: A. Morassi, "Una mostra del settecento 
Veneziano a Detroit," Arte Veneta, vn, 1953, p. 61, repr. 
(as ca. 1770-80); U. Ferroni, "Los 'vedutisti' Venecianos 
del setecientos," Goya, No. 80, Sep.-Oct. 1967, p. 74, 
repr. p. 69; Wallace Collection Catalogues: Pictures and 
Drawings, 16th ed., London, 1968, p. 140 (ed. F. J. B. 
Watson); T. Pignatti, Francesco Guardi, Brescia, 1971, 
p. 29, repr.; B. Fredericksen and F. Zeri, Census, pp. 97, 
641; A. Morassi, Guardi: Antonio e Francesco Guardi, 
Venice, 1973, 1, pp. 242, 391, no. 428; 11, fig. 447. 



73 



HALS 



In this view across the harbor of St. Mark, at the left is 
the island with the church and monastery of S. Giorgio 
Maggiore built by Andrea Palladio; at the right is the 
island of Giudecca with Palladio's church of the Reden- 
tore. Guardi painted this view several times; related pic- 
tures are at Temple Newsam House, Leeds; Wallace 
Collection, London; Schaffer collection, Zurich; Ac- 
cademia, Venice and Accademia Carrara, Bergamo. 
There are also drawings in the Wallraf-Richartz Mu- 
seum, Cologne and in Venice at the Fondazione Giorgio 
Cini, which now occupies part of the former monastery 
attached to S. Giorgio. 

Signed and dated late works by Guardi are rare. 



FRANS HALS, Follower of 

Dutch. Hals (ca. 1580-1666) was probably born in Ant- 
werp. By 1590 his parents settled in Haarlem, where he 
remained for the rest of his life. Portrait and genre painter. 

The Flute Player PL. 11 1 

Oil on canvas 

2.5H x 25^ in. (65 x 64.7 cm.) 

Ace. no. 26.67 

collections: Lady de Clifford, London; (E. Warneck, 
Paris, 1878); J. Orrock, London; (Christie, London, Dec. 
1, 1906, lot 80); Sir J. Linton, 1906-; (Colnaghi, Lon- 
don); (Knoedler, London, 1908); (Henry Reinhardt, New 
York); Edward Drummond Libbey, 1908-26. 

exhibitions: Detroit Institute of Arts, Frans Hals, 1935, 
no. 14, repr. 

references: W. Bode, Studien zur Geschichte der Hol- 
landiscben Malerei, Brussels, 1883, no. 76; E. W. Moes, 
Frans Hals, sa vie et son oeuvre, Brussels, 1909, no. 222; 
C. Hofstede de Groot, in, no. 85; W. Bode and M. J. 
Binder, Frans Hals, His Life and Work (trans. M. Brock- 
well), Berlin, 1914, no. 59A, pi. 26; W. R. Valentiner, 
Frans Hals (Klassiker der Kunst), Berlin, 1921, p. 78 
(Nyon version); W. R. Valentiner, Frans Hals Paintings 
in America, Westport, Connecticut, 1936, no. 56, repr.; 
S. Slive, Frans Hals, London, 1974, III, no. D28-2, fig. 
146; C. Grimm and E. C. Montagni, L'opera completa 
di Frans Hals, Milan, 1974, no. 317. 

Although earlier authorities (Bode, Moes, Hofstede de 
Groot) accepted this painting as by Hals, Slive believes 
that it is probably by a follower familiar with the artist's 
late style. Another version (Count de Bendern, Nyon, 
Switzerland) is also doubted by Slive for the same 
reason. 



74 



When the Toledo picture is hung as a lozenge, the 
position of the figure is identical with that of the Nyon 
version. Although this canvas is exceptionally large for 
the lozenge format, the correctness of this position is 
supported by Bode, Hofstede de Groot and Slive. 

During cleaning in 1959, the monogram FH (?), for- 
merly at the lower right, was found to be a later addi- 
tion, and was removed. 



HENRI-JOSEPH HARPIGNIES 

1819-1916. French. Born in Valenciennes. Studied with 
the landscapist Jean-Alexis Achard, 1846. Did not paint 
regularly until he was 29. In Italy, 1852-54 and 1863-65. 
Exhibited annually at the Salon from 1853. A disciple of 
Corot, he prolonged the Barbizon landscape tradition 
into the 20th century. Frequently exhibited watercolors 
at the Royal Watercolor Society, London. 

Souvenir of Dauphine PL. 274 

[1898] Oil on canvas 

32 x 25% in. (81.3 x 65.7 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower left: H J Harpignies«i898 

Ace. no. 22.18 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: (Henry Reinhardt, Milwaukee, 1907); 
Arthur J. Secor, 1907-22. 

In a note to Arthur Secor, Harpignies described this 
painting as "Souvenir du Dauphine pres la riviere d'Ain," 
implying that it is a composed landscape painted from 
memory in a manner recalling Corot's late "souvenirs." 
The Ain River is in the Dauphine region of southeastern 
France. 

The Mediterranean Coast pl. 275 

[1900] Oil on canvas 

32MS x 25M in. (81.6 x 65.4 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower left: H J Harpignies- 1900 

Ace. no. 22.44 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: (Thomas McLean, London); E. H. Cuth- 
erbertson, London, by 1908; (Christie, London, May 21, 
1909, lot 80, repr. opp. p. 20); (Scott &c Fowles, New 
York, 1909); (Henry Reinhardt, New York, 1909); Ar- 
thur J. Secor, 1909-22. 

When Arthur Secor acquired this picture, Harpignies 
wrote to him that it was painted on the Cote d'Azur. 






HELST 



Probably this was near the town of Beaulieu, where 
Harpignies spent winters at this time. 



JAN DAVIDSZ. DE HEEM 

1606-1684. Dutch. Son and pupil of the Utrecht artist 
David de Heem the Elder; also studied under Balthasar 
van der Ast. In Leyden ca. 1626; in Antwerp, 1636. In 
Utrecht, 1669-72, then in Antwerp until his death. 

Still Life with a View of the Sea pl. 123 

[1646] Oil on canvas 

23^ x 36^ in. (59.3 x 92.6 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower left: J. de Heem.f. Ao 1646 

Ace. no. 55.33 

COLLECTIONS: Lady Cochran, Abingdon, to ca. 1914; 
(Lempertz, Cologne, 1930); Private collection, Paris; 
(Speelman, London, 1955). 

exhibitions: Brussels, Musees Royaux des Beaux Arts 
de Belgique, Le Steele de Rubens, 1965, no. 106, repr. 

references: I. Bergstrom, Dutch Still-Life Painting in 
the Seventeenth Century, London, 1956, p. 204, n. 18, 
fig. 169. 

J. R. Judson has suggested (letter, July 1975) that this 
combination of still life and seascape points a moral. 
Thus, the marine view may show the Ship of Fools sail- 
ing blindly through the dangerous waters of life, its goal 
to reach the Land of Cockayne, a land of frivolity and 
gluttony, here represented by a sumptuous display of 
food. The rays of sun falling on the church symbolize 
the salvation of the soul after death (J. R. Judson, "Ma- 
rine Symbols of Salvation," Essays in Memory of Karl 
Lehmann, Locust Valley, New York, 1964, pp. 136-52). 
Bergstrom suggests that the Toledo painting is a col- 
laborative work. The possibility that the seascape is by 
the Antwerp marine artist Bonaventura Peeters (1614- 
1652) has been verbally suggested by several scholars. 

Still Life with a Lobster PL. 125 

[Late 1640s] Oil on canvas 

25 x 33H in. (63.5 x 84.5 cm.) 

Signed lower left (on table edge): J D. De Heem f. 

Ace. no. 55.25 

collections: Gsell, Vienna; Max Strauss, Vienna 
(Gliickselig, Wawra, Vienna, Mar. 1926, no. 18); (Mont, 
New York). 

exhibitions: Paris, Orangerie, La nature morte de I'an- 
tiquite a nos jours, 195Z, no. 47 (cat. by C. Sterling). 



references: C. Sterling, La nature morte de I'antiquite 
a nos jours, Paris, 1952, p. 49, pl. 42; E. Greindl, Les 
peintres Flamands de nature morte au Wile siecle, 
Brussels, 1956, p. 104, pl. 69. 



BARTHOLOMEUS VAN DER HELST 

161 3-1670. Dutch. Born at Haarlem. Specialized in im- 
posing group and family portraits. Moved to Amsterdam 
by 1636. Painted first in the style of his teacher Nicolaes 
Elias. From the 1640s influenced many Dutch portraitists 
with his adaptation of Van Dyck's elegant style. Founder 
in 1654 of the "Brotherhood of Painting." 



Portrait of a Young Man pl. ioi 

[1655] Oil on canvas 

38 x 39 in. (96.5 x 99 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower center: B. van der Heist. 1655. 

Ace. no. 76.12 

collections: Leboeuf de Montgermont (Georges Petit, 
Paris, June 16, 1919, lot 192); A. W. M. Mensing, Am- 
sterdam (Frederik Muller, Amsterdam, Nov. 15, 1938, 
lot 45, repr.); (Gebr. Douwes, Amsterdam, ca. 1940); B. 
de Geus van den Heuvel, Nieuwersluis (Sotheby Mak 
van Waay, Amsterdam, Apr. 26, 1976, lot 22). 

exhibitions: Madrid, 1921; Eindhoven, Stedelijk van 
Abbe Museum, 1949-52; Schiedam, Stedelijk Museum, 
1952, no. 30; Dordrecht, Dordrechts Museum, 1953; 
Rome, Palazzo degli Esposizioni, Le XVlleme siecle euro- 
peen, 1956, no. 130; Arnhem, Gemeentemuseum, i960, 
no. 22, fig. 39. 

references: J. J. van Gelder, Bartholomeus van der 
Heist, Rotterdam, 1921, nos. 176, 527 (probably identi- 
cal with nos. 285, 290 and 347); H. van Hall, Portretten 
va Nederlandse Beeldende Kunstenaars, Amsterdam, 
1963, p. 134, no. 5. 

Catalogued by Van Gelder as a portrait of an unknown 
man, this painting has more recently been described as 
a self-portrait (Mensing sale; Van Hall). Since Van der 
Heist would have been about the age of the sitter in 
1655, and as the man's features are similar to those in 
Van der Heist's depictions of himself, the Toledo paint- 
ing may be a self-portrait, although the rather casual, 
indirect gaze of the sitter is unlike Van der Heist's other 
self-portraits. The work is typical of his lively, elegant 
later style. 



75 



HENNER 



JEAN- JACQUES HENNER 

1829-1905. French. Born in Alsace. Paris in 1847 where 
he studied with Drolling and Picot. Prix de Rome, 1858. 
Italy, 1858-64, where influenced by Venetian painting. 
Exhibited in Salons from 1863; lived in Paris from 1864. 

Mary Magdalene PL. 265 

[1880] Oil on canvas 

48^ x ^6 3 A in. (123.2 x 93.3 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: J.J. Henner/1880 

Ace. no. 30.213 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: Sarah M. Hitchcock, New York, 1880- 
1930; Mrs. Julia L. Peabody, Westbury, New York, 
1930; (E. C. Babcock, New York); (Vose, Boston); Ar- 
thur J. Secor, 1930. 

exhibitions: New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 
(on loan 1891-1929); Minneapolis Institute of Arts, The 
Fast Rediscovered; French Paintings 1800-1900, 1969, 
no. 48, repr. (intro. by R. Rosenblum). 

This painting was commissioned from Henner by Miss 
Hitchcock, who lent it to the Metropolitan Museum 
from 1891 to 1929. An earlier version of this composi- 
tion was in the Salon of 1878. A study for the Toledo 
painting is reproduced in The Studio, xvm, Nov. 1899, 
p. 82. 



PATRICK HERON 

1920-. British. Attended Slade School, London, 1937-39; 
later studed in Paris and taught at the Central School of 
Arts and Crafts, London. Heron has also designed tex- 
tiles and written art criticism. 



Pink Table with Lamp and Jug 

[1948] Oil on canvas 

28 x 36 in. (71.2 x 91.5 cm.) 

Signed and dated upper right: P. Heron 1948 

Ace. no. 52.96 

collections: (Redfern, London). 



PL. 352 



England. Specialized in town views; he also painted still 
lifes and landscapes. Also invented fire-fighting and 
street-lighting devices. 

The Garden of the Old Palace, Brussels pl. 140 

[Ca. 1670] Oil on wood panel 
19^ x 24^ in. (49.9 x 62.6 cm.) 
Ace. no. 72.1 

collections: David Ietswaart (Beukelaar, v.d. Land, 
Amsterdam, Apr. 22, 1749, lot 33); A. J. Bosch, Vienna 
(Plach, Kohlbacher, Kaeser, Vienna, Apr. 28, 1885, lot 
23); Baron Konigswarter, Vienna (Eduard Schulte, Ber- 
lin, Nov. 20, 1906, lot 27); (Kleinberger, Paris, 1911); 
(D. Katz, Dieren, by 1934); H. E. ten Cate, Almelo, by 
1937; Frits Markus, New York, by 1954-72; (G. Cra- 
mer, The Hague). 

exhibitions: Amsterdam, Amsterdamsch Historisch 
Museum, Jan van der Heyden, 1937, no. 19; Toledo 
Museum of Art, Dutch Painting, The Golden Age, 1954- 
55, no. 40, repr.; Brussels, Palais des Beaux Arts de 
Bruxelles, Rembrandt et son temps, 1971, no. 53, repr. 

references: G. Hoet, Catalogus of Naamlyst van 
Schilderyen . . . , The Hague, 1770, p. 240, no. 33; C. Hof- 
stede de Groot, in, no. 50; W. Stechow, 1968, p. 126, 
fig. 256; H. Wagner, Jan van der Heyden, 1637-1712, 
Amsterdam, 1971, no. 28, p. 73, repr. 

The Old Palace of the Dukes of Brabant and its gardens 
were the subjects of all but one of Van der Heyden's 
views of Brussels. The Toledo painting shows the gar- 
dens looking west from the Palace, destroyed by fire in 
1731, toward the so-called House of Isabella and Church 
of St. Gudule on the left and the House of Archduke 
Albert on the right. Archduke Albert of Austria and Isa- 
bella, daughter of Philip II of Spain, ruled the Spanish 
Netherlands from 1596 to 1633. 

Wagner believes that the Toledo painting can be dated 
slightly earlier than another view of the same subject 
dated 1673 i n the Wernher collection, Luton Hoo. 

The monogram "vdh" recorded by Hofstede de Groot 
and Wagner proved on cleaning in 1972 to be a later 
addition and was removed. 



JAN VAN DER HEYDEN 

1637-1712. Dutch. Born in Gorinchem, the son of a glass 
painter, who moved to Amsterdam with his family in 
1650. Traveled to Flanders, the Rhineland and possibly 



IVON HITCHENS 

1893-. British. Born in London. Studied at Royal Acad- 
emy Schools; influenced by Sargent and Orpen. Active 
in reforming the Seven and Five Society, 1922-35. Moved 
to Sussex, 1940. Painted several large murals, 1954-63. 



76 



HOFER 



Hut in Woodland pl. 357 

[Ca. 1949] Oil on canvas 

20 T A x 41M in. (51.4 x 104.6 cm.) 

Signed lower left: Ivon Hitchens 

Ace. no. 50.256 

collections: Howard Bliss, England; (Leicester Gal- 
lery, London). 

Arched Trees pl. 358 

[Ca. 1958] Oil on canvas 

16 x 35^2 in. (40.6 x 90.2 cm.) 

Signed lower right: Hitchens 

Ace. no. 59.2 

Gift of Mrs. Webster Plass 

collections: (Leicester Gallery, London); Mrs. Web- 
ster Plass, Philadelphia. 



MEYNDERT HOBBEMA 

1638-1709. Dutch. Lived and worked in Amsterdam. 
Student of Jacob van Ruisdael for several years ca. 
1657-60. In 1668 he married, and in the same year be- 
came a wine-gauger for the Amsterdam tax authorities, 
a position he held for the rest of his life. Most of his 
paintings are datable to the 1660s, although several pic- 
tures carrying later dates have recently been discovered. 

The Water Mill pl. 139 

[1664] Oil on canvas 

37^ x 51-13/16 in. (94.9 x 131. 7 cm.) 

Signed and dated center left: M. Hobbema/1664 

Ace. no. 67.157 

collections: Louis Bernhard Coders (v.d. Schley . . . 
de Vries, Amsterdam, Aug. 7, 1811, lot 30)?; Gerrit 
Muller, Amsterdam, 181 1-2.7 (de Vries, Brondgeest, . . . 
Roos, Amsterdam, Apr. 2, 1827, lot 25); Baron Jan 
Gijsbert Verstolk van Soelen, 1827-46; Samuel Jones 
Loyd, Lord Overstone, London, 1846-83; Col. Robert 
James Loyd-Lindsay, Lord Wantage, London, 1883- 
1901; Lady Wantage, London, 1901-20; David Alexan- 
der Edward Lindsay, Earl of Crawford, Balcarres House, 
Fife, 1920-36; (D. Katz, Dieren, 1936); Hendrikus Eg- 
bertus ten Cate, De Lutte, Holland, 1936-67 (G. Cramer, 
The Hague, 1967). 

exhibitions: Toledo Museum of Art, Dutch Painting, 
The Golden Age, 1954, no. 41, repr.; Rotterdam, Mu- 
seum Boymans, Kunstschatten uit nederlandse Verzamel- 
ingen, 1955, no. 77, repr. 



references: J. Smith, vi, no. 67; G. F. Waagen, Gal- 
leries and Cabinets of Art in Great Britain, Supplement, 
iv, 1857, p. 141; F. T. Kugler, Handbook of Painting: 
German, Flemish and Dutch Schools (ed. J. A. Crowe), 
London, 1898, 11, p. 478; Lady Harriet Wantage, A Cata- 
logue of Pictures forming the Collection of Lord and 
Lady Wantage, London, 1905, no. 103; W. Bode, Great 
Masters of Dutch and Flemish Painting, London, 1909, 
p. 170; C. Hofstede de Groot, iv, no. 86; G. Broulhiet, 
Meindert Hobbema, 1638-1709, Paris, 1938, no. 22, 
repr. p. 113; D. Hannema, Catalogue of the H. E. ten 
Cate Collection, Rotterdam, 1955, no. 7; W. Stechow, 
1968, p. 77, fig. 152. 

According to Stechow (p. 76), the mill which appears in 
several Hobbemas was directly inspired by Jacob van 
Ruisdael's painting of 1661 at the Rijksmuseum, Am- 
sterdam. The mill in the Toledo painting appears again 
in landscapes at the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam; Wallace 
Collection, London; and Art Institute of Chicago, 
though as Stechow points out, they all differ greatly in 
color and compositional emphasis. 



KARL HOFER 

1878-1955. German. Studied at Karlsruhe Academy 
where he was influenced by Thoma and Bocklin. In 
Rome, 1903-08 where he looked to Hans von Marees. 
In Paris, 1908-12; he became a member of and ex- 
hibited with the Neue Kunstlervereinigung in 1909. A 
professor at the Berlin Academy, 1920-33, he left when 
his art was classified as "degenerate" by the Nazis. 
Turned briefly to abstraction around 1930, but is best 
known for melancholy, angular figures influenced by 
Picasso and Cezanne that reflected the spirit of Germany 
after the war. 



Flower Girl pl. 76 

[1935] Oil on canvas 

39% x 32/^ in. (101.2 x 81.8 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower left: ch 35 

Ace. no. 38.43 
Museum Purchase 

collections: (Nierendorf Galleries, New York). 

exhibitions: Pittsburgh, Carnegie Institute, The 1937 
International Exhibition of Paintings, 1937, no. 353-, pl. 
25; Boston, Institute of Modern Art, Contemporary Ger- 
man Art, 1939, p. 17, repr. p. 18; Springfield (Mass.), 
George Walter Vincent Smith Art Gallery, Karl Hofer, 



77 



HOGARTH 



1941, no. 9, repr.; Oberlin, Allen Memorial Art Mu- 
seum, Five Expressionists, 1946, p. 14, no. 12. 



WILLIAM HOGARTH 

1697-1764. British. Born in London. Apprenticed to a 
silver-plate engraver at fifteen. Studied at Sir John 
Thornhill's art school and St. Martin's Lane Academy. 
His work ranged from portraiture, the originality of 
which was largely unrecognized by contemporaries, and 
history paintings to the social and moral satires for 
which he is best known. The wide circulation of his en- 
gravings of the latter brought him fame. He is regarded 
as the leading English painter of the first half of the 
eighteenth century. 

Joseph Porter PL. 308 

[Ca. 1740-45] Oil on canvas 

35-11/16 x 27-13/16 in. (90.6 x 70.6 cm.) 

Ace. no. 26.54 

collections: Joseph Porter, Mortlake and London; 
Miss Lucy Porter (his niece), Lichfield, 1749 to 1807; 
Rev. J. B. Pearson, by 1808; George Granville, 2nd Mar- 
quess of Stafford, later 1st Duke of Sutherland, by 1814; 
Cromartie, 4th Duke of Sutherland, 1888 to 1913; Lady 
Millicent Hawes (his widow), 1913; (Knoedler, New 
York); Edward Drummond Libbey. 

exhibitions: London, British Institution, 1814, no. 126; 
1843, no. 171; London, South Kensington Museum, Sec- 
ond Special Exhibition of National Portraits, 1867, no. 
341 (as Captain Thomas Coram); London, New Gallery, 
Exhibition of the Royal House of Guelph, 1891, no. 320 
(as Captain Thomas Coram); London, Tate Gallery, 
Hogarth, 1971, no. 116, repr. 

references: J. Nichols, Biographical Anecdotes of Wil- 
liam Hogarth, London, 1785, p. 99; J. Nichols and 
G. Steevens, The Genuine Works of Hogarth, London, 
1808, 1, pp. 422-3; 11, 1810, p. 287, repr. engraving; 
W. Hogarth, Anecdotes of William Hogarth, London, 
1833, pp. 288, 381; A. Dobson and W. Armstrong, Wil- 
liam Hogarth, London, 1902, pp. 185, 232; A. Dobson, 
William Hogarth, London, 1907, pp. 209, 219, 280 (as 
Captain Coram); A. L. Reade, Johnsonian Gleanings, 
London, 1935, pp. 109-10; R. B. Beckett, Hogarth, Lon- 
don, 1949, p. 59, pi. 58. 

This forthright portrait of the London merchant Joseph 
Porter (1688/89-1749) is an example of Hogarth's insis- 
tence on the individuality of his sitter, rather than upon 
stylistic convention. The dating is based upon compari- 



son with portraits such as Captain Thomas Coram 
(1740; Thomas Coram Foundation for Children, Lon- 
don), with whose portrait Porter's was confused in the 
late 19th century, and Theodore Jacobsen (1742; Allen 
Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College, Ohio). 



HANS HOLBEIN THE ELDER 

Ca. 1460/65-1524. German. Born in Augsburg. Prob- 
ably studied in Ulm or Augsburg. Presumed trip to 
Netherlands 1490-93. Worked mainly in Augsburg, but 
also Frankfurt and Isenheim. Headed a large workshop 
which included his brother Sigmund and Leonhard Beck; 
taught sons Ambrosius and Hans the Younger. Designed 
stained glass and executed many drawings. 

Head of the Virgin PL. 65 

[1500-01] Oil on wood panel 
ij]4 x 14^ in. (43.8 x 36.5 cm.) 

Ace. no. 51.341 

COLLECTIONS: Princes von Lichtenstein, Seebenstein, 
Austria and Vaduz, Liechtenstein, by 1914-51. 
exhibitions: Lucerne, Kunstmuseum, Meisterwerke aus 
den Sammlungen des Fursten von Liechtenstein, 1948, 
no. 59; Augsburg, Rathaus, Hans Holbein der Altere 
und die Kunst der Splitgotik, 1965, no. 31, fig. 31. 

references: W. Suida, ed., Osterreichische Kunst- 
schatze, III, 1914, pi. 73; E. Schilling, "Die Marientafeln 
Holbeins des Alteren am Frankfurter Dominikaneraltar," 
Staedel Jahrbuch, vi, 1930, pp. 21, 23, fig. ixc; A. Stange, 
Deutsche Malerei der Gotik, Munich, 1957, vm, pp. 
65-7; C. Beutler and G. Thiem, Hans Holbein d.A., die 
Spdtgotische Altar-und Glasmalerei, Augsburg, i960, 
pp. 48, 53; N. Lieb and A. Stange, Hans Holbein der 
Altere, Munich, i960, pp. 15-8, no. 17L, figs. 57, 59; 
P. Strieder, "Hans Holbein der Altere und die Kunst des 
Spatgotik," Kunstchronik, xvm, Nov. 1965, p. 294; 
B. Bushart, Hans Holbein der Altere, Bonn, 1965, pp. 
23-4; G. von der Osten, Painting and Sculpture in Ger- 
many and The Netherlands, ijoo-1600, Harmonds- 
worth, 1969, p. 109; F. Koreny, " 'Das Marienleben' des 
Israhel van Meckenem: Israhel van Meckenem und 
Hans Holbein d.A.," in Israhel van Meckenem und der 
Deutsch Kupferstich des 15. Jahrhunderts, Bocholt, 
1972, p. 60, fig. 79. 

This is a fragment from the great double-winged altar- 
piece painted by Holbein and his assistants for the high 
altar of the Dominican church at Frankfurt-am-Main in 



78 



HOLBEIN 



1500-01. It was Holbein's largest altarpiece, extending 
some twenty-one feet across when opened. Although 
dismembered in the 18th century, all but three of the 
nineteen painted panels have survived. The complete 
altarpiece is described by Lieb and Stange, following 
the accepted reconstruction by Weizsacker (Die Kunst- 
scbdtze der ehemaligen Dominikaner Klosters in Frank- 
furt, 1923). 

The Toledo head of the Virgin and the head of the 
angel Gabriel (private collection, Basel) are the only 
fragments known of the Annunciation panel, one of four 
with scenes from the life of the Virgin inside the inner 
pair of wings. Although Sigmund Holbein and Leonhard 
Beck collaborated with Holbein on the altarpiece, these 
four panels are attributed to Holbein himself by most 
scholars except Beutler and Thieme. 

Removal of an overpainted background when the To- 
ledo panel was cleaned following its acquisition revealed 
a bench and hourglass, partial landscape and red-robed 
figure in the background. The similarity of the cleaned 
panel to an Annunciation by Israhel van Meckenem sup- 
ports Koreny's view that this engraving may give an idea 
of the original appearance of Holbein's Annunciation. 



HANS HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER 

x 497/98-i543. German. Born in Augsburg. Son of the 
painter Hans Holbein the Elder. In Basel by 1515, where 
he was employed by the printer and publisher Johann 
Froben. He may have gone to Italy about 1519; in 
France, 1524. From 1526 to 1538 he worked in England. 
After nearly four years in Basel, Holbein returned to 
England, where he was later (by 1536) appointed court 
painter to Henry VIII. Died in London. Primarily a por- 
traitist, Holbein was also a book illustrator and de- 
signer of jewelry, frescoes and stained glass. 

A Lady of the Cromwell Family pl. 67 

[Ca. 1535-40] Oil on wood panel 
28^ x 19^ in. (72 x 49.5 cm.) 
Inscribed upper third: etatis svae 21 

Ace. no. 26.57 

collections: Oliver Cromwell (1742-1821); by descent 
to Cromwell-Bush family, 1909; (Colnaghi, London, 
1909); James H. Dunn, Canada, 1911-14; (Knoedler, 
New York); Edward Drummond Libbey, 1915-25. 
references: L. Cust, "A Portrait of Queen Catherine 
Howard by Hans Holbein the Younger," Burlington 
Magazine, XVII, July 1910, pp. 193-99; A. Chamberlain, 
Hans Holbein the Younger, New York, 1913, 11, pp. 192, 



194-96, 348; P. Ganz, Holbein, 1921, p. 243, pl. 126; 
V. Christoffel, Hans Holbein d.J., Berlin, 1926, p. 118; 
W. Stein, Holbein, Berlin, 1929, pp. 296, 302; C. Kuhn, 
A Catalogue of German Paintings of the Middle Ages 
and Renaissance in American Collections, Cambridge, 
Mass., 1936, p. 83, no. 273, pl. lxxviii; K. Parker, The 
Drawings of Hans Holbein in the Collection of His Maj- 
esty the King at Windsor Castle, London, 1945, p. 53, 
no. 62; P. Ganz, The Paintings of Hans Holbein, New 
York, 1950, p. 254, no. 118, pl. 157; H. Grohn, Hans 
Holbein d.J. als Maler, Leipzig, 1956, pp. 40, 47, pl. 31; 
W. Waetzoldt, Hans Holbein der Jiingere, Konigstein 
im Taunus, 1958, pp. 23, 80, repr. p. 69; C. Adams, "Por- 
traiture and Geneology," Genealogists Magazine, xiv, 
Sep. 1964, pp. 386-87; R. Strong, "Holbein in England 
— I and II," Burlington Magazine, cix, May 1967, pp. 
278, 281, fig. 19; R. Strong, Tudor and Jacobean Por- 
traits, London, 1969, 1, pp. 41-4; 11, pl. 76; R. Salvini, 
L 'opera pittorica completa di Holbein il Giovane, Milan, 
1971, p. 108, pl. LIX. 

The firm attribution of this picture to Holbein has never 
been doubted. However, until recently, this painting was 
considered a portrait of Catherine Howard, fifth wife of 
King Henry VIII of England. The identification as Cath- 
erine Howard was first made in 1898, when the copy in 
the National Portrait Gallery, London was acquired as 
a portrait of her, and in 1910 Cust published the Toledo 
portrait as Catherine Howard, basing his identification 
on two miniatures (Windsor Castle; Duke of Buccleuch) 
and a Holbein drawing (Windsor Castle), traditionally 
known as portraits of her. As the identification of the 
sitters in the Windsor and Buccleuch miniatures is no 
longer accepted, no authentic portrait of Catherine How- 
ard is now known. 

The Toledo picture once bore a label dated 1817 
identifying the sitter as "mother to the Protector Oliver 
Cromwell." While this is impossible, the portrait did 
belong to his descendant, a later Oliver Cromwell (1742- 
1821), and the London copy also has a Cromwell-related 
provenance. The Cromwells were descendants of Thomas 
Cromwell, the powerful minister of Henry VIII. Work- 
ing from this evidence, Adams and Strong have sought 
a Cromwell-related sitter in the court circle for which 
Holbein worked. A plausible candidate is Elizabeth, sis- 
ter of Jane Seymour (Queen 1536-37), who married 
Gregory, son of Thomas Cromwell. This identification 
is unproven because no portrait of Elizabeth is known, 
and although the inscription on the Toledo portrait gives 
the subject's age as 21, the birth date of Elizabeth is also 
unknown. It seems unlikely that the Cromwell family 
would have kept a portrait of Catherine Howard (Queen 



79 



HONDECOETER 



1540-42) long after the death of Thomas, as the How- 
ards were instrumental in his downfall and execution in 
1540. 

Strong (1967, 1969) dates the painting about 1535-40, 
comparing the distinctive cut of the sleeves to the cos- 
tume worn by Christina of Denmark (1538; National 
Gallery, London). 

The pendant hanging from the neckline depicting Lot 
and his wife fleeing from Sodom is based on a drawing 
by Holbein in the British Museum. The pendant does 
not survive, and the meaning of its iconography in rela- 
tion to the sitter is unknown (Strong, 1969). 

A second copy formerly belonged to the Duke of 
Sutherland (Christie, Oct. 27, 1961, lot 45), and another 
is in the collection of H. H. Black, Kingswood, Surrey. 



MELCHOIR D'HONDECOETER 

1636-1695. Dutch. Grandson of the landscape painter 
Gillis d'Hondecoeter, and son and pupil of the landscape 
and bird painter Gysbert d'Hondecoeter. Also studied 
with his uncle, Jan Baptist Weenix. Apparently left his 
native Utrecht for The Hague, ca. 1659. By 1663 settled 
in Amsterdam, where he remained. 

Poultry in a Landscape pl. 141 

Oil on canvas 

36M x 44% in. (93.7 x 113. 3 cm.) 

Signed right center (on board): M d'hondecoeter 

Ace. no. 49.102 

collections: (H. Van der Ploeg, Amsterdam). 

D'Hondecoeter's earliest known work is dated 1668; 
though he did not consistently date his work, his style 
seems to have changed little during his career. Com- 
parison between the Toledo painting and one dated 
1686 in Karlsruhe (J. Lauts, Katalog Alte Meister bis 
1800, Karlsruhe, 1966, no. 346) shows similar types and 
poses. It is, however, difficult to date the artist's work 
with any certainty. 

Still Life with Birds pl. 142 

Oil on canvas 

ziji x 18% in. (55.5 x 47.8 cm.) 

Signed lower right: M. d'Hondecoeter 

Ace. no. 62.69 

COLLECTIONS: Ghisberti Hodenpijl, Rotterdam or Viruly 
family, Rotterdam, before 1800; H. J. H. Nauta, The 
Rague, 1962; (Nystad, The Hague). 



The trompe l'oeil type of dead bird still life gained pop- 
ularity in the second half of the seventeenth century. 
Other artists who excelled in this category were William 
Gowe Ferguson, Cornelis Lelienbergh and d'Hondecoe- 
ter's teacher, Jan Baptist Weenix. Ferguson's dated still 
life of 1678 (Cramer, The Hague, cat. xvm, 1970-71, 
no. 6) includes a very similar arrangement of a partridge, 
kingfisher and bullfinch in a niche. 



GERRIT VAN HONTHORST, Follower of 

Dutch. Honthorst (1590-1656) was one of the leading 
masters of the Utrecht school of painters influenced by 
Caravaggio. 

A Musical Party pl. 98 

[Ca. 1630] Oil on canvas 

45 x 6z x /k in. (114. 3 x 157.6 cm.) 

Ace. no. 55.60 

collections: Mine. A. Feyouie, London, -1950; (Rob- 
ert Frank, London). 

The quality of this picture indicates that it is a decora- 
tive panel by one of Honthorst's many followers. The 
composition is a typical illusionistic one of the kind 
Honthorst painted in the 1620s and was meant to be 
placed well above eye level, perhaps set into wooden 
panelling. 



PIETER DE HOOCH 

1629-after 1684. Dutch. Born in Rotterdam. According 
to Houbraken, he was a pupil of Nicolaes Berchem in 
Haarlem. By 1654 he was in Delft, and by 1663 was 
working in Amsterdam. The date and place of his death 
are not known. A leading painter of interiors and genre 
scenes. 

Courtyard, Delft pl. 131 

[Late 1650s] Oil on wood panel 

2.6M x zzfyi in. (68 x 57.4 cm.) 

Signed lower left (on door sill): P d Hooch 

Ace. no. 49.27 

collections: (J. van der Kellen, Rotterdam); (Cottier, 
London, ca. 1889-92); W. B. Thomas, Boston; J. Pier- 
pont Morgan, New York; (Rosenberg & Stiebel, New 
York, 1948). 

references: C. Hofstede de Groot, 1, no. 287; W. R. 
Valentiner, Pieter de Hooch (Klassiker der Kunst), New 



80 



HUGHES 



York, n.d., p. 271, repr. p. 40; C. Briere-Misme, "Tab- 
leaux inedits ou peu connus de Pieter de Hooch," Ga- 
zette des Beaux-Arts, xvi periode 5, 1927, p. 65; N. Mac- 
Laren, The Dutch School, National Gallery, London, 
i960, p. 185; W. Stechow, 1968, p. 125, fig. 252. 

Although Valentiner dated this picture 1656, no date 
actually appears on it. Stylistically, it belongs among de 
Hooch's early work at Delft in the late 1650s, such as 
Courtyard of a House at Delft (1658; National Gallery, 
London). The tower in the background is that of the 
Oude Kerk at Delft. 



Interior PL. 132 

[Ca. 1660] Oil on canvas 
zoY% x 23% in. (52.3 x 67 cm.) 
Signed lower right: P D Hoog 

Ace. no. 26.79 

collections: Private collection, England; (Henry Rein- 
hardt, New York); Edward Drummond Libbey, 1913- 

2-5- 

references: C. Hofstede de Groot, 1, in no. 78; J. Lauts, 
ed., Hollandische Meister aus der Staatlichen Kunst- 
halle, Karlsruhe, i960, in no. 25; J. Lauts, Staatliche 
Kunsthalle Karlsruhe, Katalog Alte Meister bis 1800, 
Karlsruhe, 1966, p. 152. 

This painting is one of four versions of this subject. Oth- 
ers are in the Staatliche Kunsthalle, Karlsruhe (HdG 72); 
National Gallery of Art, Washington (HdG 78); and 
formerly Philadelphia Museum of Art (HdG 84; Parke- 
Bernet, Feb. 29, 1956, lot 17). Lauts considers the Karls- 
ruhe painting to be the best preserved, and he and 
W. Valentiner (Pieter de Hooch, New York, n.d., pp. xv, 
58, 59) date it about 1660. Hofstede de Groot and Lauts 
consider all four pictures to be autograph. W. Stechow 
(letter to Karlsruhe, i960 paraphrased by Lauts, 1966) 
felt that they may all be replicas by de Hooch after a 
lost original. 

The woman was identified by Valentiner (p. 274) as 
the artist's wife. 



marily a portraitist who also painted landscapes and 
history pictures. 

Mrs. Henry Richmond Gale PL. 319 

[Ca. 1787] Oil on canvas 

}o}i x 25^8 in. (76.5 x 63.8 cm.) 

Ace. no. 26.68 

collections: General Henry Richmond Gale (great- 
grandson of sitter), Bardsea Hall, Kilverstone, Lanca- 
shire, to 1909; Edward Drummond Libbey, by 1916. 
exhibitions: London, Agnew, The Annual Exhibition 
on Behalf of the Artists' General Benevolent Institution, 
1907, no. 20 (as 1785). 

references: W. McKay and W. Roberts, John Hopp- 
ner, R.A., London, 1909, pp. 93-4. 

Sarah Baldwin (i765(?)-i823) married Major (later 
Lieut.-General) Henry Richmond Gale of Bardsea Hall, 
Lancashire in 1785. The dating is based on the mention 
of "Mrs. Gale" in a newspaper notice of the Royal 
Academy, 1787 (McKay and Roberts). 

A Lady of the Townshend Family pl. 320 

[Ca. 1795] Oil on canvas 

31 x 25M in. (78.7 x 65.4 cm.) 

Ace. no. 33.23 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: 2nd Marquess Townshend, Raynham, 
Norfolk, 1795-1811; by descent to John James Dudley 
Stuart, 6th Marquess Townshend, Raynham, Norfolk, 
1904 (Christie, London, Mar. 5, 1904, lot 62); Major- 
General Sir Charles V. E. Townshend, Vere Lodge, Rayn- 
ham, Norfolk, 1904-23 (Christie, London, July 13, 1923, 
lot 131); (Knoedler, London, 1923); Arthur J. Secor, 
1926-33. 

references: W. McKay and W. Roberts, John Hopp- 
ner R.A., London, 1909, p. 292 (as "A Lady"). 

This picture was dated by W. Roberts (letter, Aug. 
1925). 



JOHN HOPPNER 

1758-1810. British. Born in London, son of a German 
surgeon who attended George II. The King sent him to 
the Royal Academy School in 1775. A.R.A., and Portrait 
Painter to the Prince of Wales, 1793; R.A., 1795. Pri- 



ARTHUR HUGHES 

1832-1915. British. Born in London. Studied with Al- 
fred Stevens, 1846. Entered Royal Academy, 1847; first 
exhibited there, 1849. Although not a member of the 
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, he shared their interests 
and exhibited with them. Worked with Rossetti, Burne- 



ISRAELS 



Jones and others on the decoration of the Oxford Un- 
ion, 1857. Also a book illustrator. 

Ophelia pl. 334 

("And he will not come back again 1 ') 

[Ca. 1865] Oil on canvas 

37-5/16 x 23-3/16 in. (94.8 x 58.9 cm.) 

Signed lower left: Arthur • hughes • 

Ace. no. 52.87 

collections: Charles K. Prioleau, Liverpool and Lon- 
don, by 1867; John Bibby, Liverpool, by 1886 (Christie, 
London, June 3, 1899, lot 84); Sir Frank Swettenham 
(Christie, London, Nov. 22, 1946, lot 161); (Leicester, 
London, 1946-52). 

exhibitions: Liverpool Academy, 1867, no. 95; Liver- 
pool, Walker Art Gallery, Grand Loan Exhibition of 
Pictures, 1886, no. 1176; Lawrence, University of Kan- 
sas Museum of Art, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and his Cir- 
cle, 1958; Indianapolis, Herron Museum of Art, The 
Pre-Raphaelites, 1964, no. 41, repr.; Ottawa, National 
Gallery of Canada, An Exhibition of Paintings and 
Drawings by Victorian Artists in England, 1965, no. 58; 
Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Museum of Art, 
English Revivalism 1750— 1870: The Aesthetic of Nos- 
talgia, 1968, repr. 

references: M. Bennett, "A Check List of Pre-Raph- 
aelite Pictures Exhibited at Liverpool 1846-67 and some 
of their Northern Collectors," Burlington Magazine, cv, 
Nov. 1963, p. 495, n. 67; Detroit Institute of Arts, Ro- 
mantic Art in Britain: Paintings and Drawings 1760- 
1860, 1968, p. 33 (exh. cat. by A. Staley). 

This is the artist's second painting of Shakespeare's 
Ophelia. The first, a horizontal composition of 1852, is 
in the City Art Gallery, Manchester, England. There is 
an identical oil study for the vertical Toledo composi- 
tion in the John Bryson collection (London, Agnew, Vic- 
torian Painting, 1961, no. 64). An inscription, probably 
in Hughes' hand, on the back of the Toledo picture 
quotes Ophelia's song which inspired Hughes (Hamlet, 
Act IV, Scene 5). 



JOZEF ISRAELS 

1824-1911. Dutch. Born in Groningen. Studied in Paris 
with Picot, and at the Ecole des Beaux Arts with Pradier, 
H. Vernet, and Delaroche. Visited Millet at Barbizon in 
1853 and returned to Holland to paint the fishing life at 
Zandvoort. Began working out of doors in 1857, and in 
1871 settled in The Hague. Leader of the Hague School. 



The Shepherd's Prayer pl. 152 

[1864] Oil on canvas 

35H x 49/4 in. (90.3 x 125.5 cm -) 

Signed lower left: Jozef Israels 

Ace. no. 14. 116 

collections: Hoey Smit, Rotterdam; (Henry Rein- 
hardt, Milwaukee); Edward Drummond Libbey, 1901- 
14- 

exhibitions: Toledo Museum of Art, Inaugural Exhibi- 
tion, Part IV: Israels Memorial Exhibition, 1912, no. 
226, repr. opp. p. 121. 

references: J. de Gruyter, De Haagse School, Rotter- 
dam, 1968, 1, pp. 52, 58, 113, no. 52, repr.; D. Sutton, 
"Nineteenth-Century Painting: Trends and Cross-cur- 
rents," Apollo, lxxxvi, Dec. 1967, p. 490, fig. 11. 

In a letter of 1907 to E. D. Libbey, the artist stated he 
painted this picture in 1864. A watercolor version was 
in the De Kuyper sale, Frederik Muller and Co., Amster- 
dam, May 30, 191 1, lot 62. 

The Parting Day pl. 151 

[Ca. 1869] Oil on canvas 

16M x 33J4 in. (42.5 x 84.5 cm.) 

Signed lower right: Jozef Israels 

Ace. no. 22.23 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: Arthur J. Secor, 1907-22. 

According to a note by the artist in the Museum's rec- 
ords, this picture was painted about 1869. 

Coming Ashore pl. 153 

[Ca. 1872] Oil on wood panel 
17M x 12^ in. (45 x 32 cm.) 
Signed lower right: Jozef Israels 

Ace. no. 22.24 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: Arthur J. Secor, 1907-22. 

exhibitions: Toledo Museum of Art, Inaugural Exhibi- 
tion, Part IV: Israels Memorial Exhibition, 19 12, no. 
235, repr. opp. p. 127 (as Children of the Sea). 

Israels painted several versions of this subject. This pic- 
ture was done about the same time as a related subject 
dated 1872 (J. Veth, Josef Israels and his Art, Arnhem 
1904, no. 28, repr.). 



82 



ITALIAN 



Self-Portrait pl. 154 

[1908] Watercolor and gouache on paper 
31 x ziH in. (78.7 x 54.3 cm.) 

Signed and inscribed lower left: Jozef Israels fecit/for 
Mr. Libbey 28 Oct. 1908 

Ace. no. 14. 117 

collections: (Boussod and Valadon, The Hague); 
(Henry Reinhardt, New York); Edward Drummond 
Libbey, 1908-14. 

exhibitions: The Hague, Hollandsche Teeken-Maat- 
schappij, 1908; Toledo Museum of Art, Inaugural Exhi- 
bition, Part IV: Israels Memorial Exhibition, no. 243, 
repr. opp. p. 107 (memorial address by F. W. Gunsaulus, 
pp. 108-09); The Hague, Gemeentemuseum, Meesters 
van de Haagseschool, 1965, p. 43, no. 35, repr. p. 43. 

references: Boussod, Valadon & Cie, Half a Century 
with Josef Israels, The Hague, 1910, p. 34, repr. p. 35; 
M. Eisler, Josef Israels, 1924, pi. 78; L. Goldscheider, 
Five Hundred Self-Portraits, Vienna and London, 1937, 
no. 421, repr.; H. van Hall, Portretten van Nederlandse 
Beeldende Kunstenaars, Amsterdam, 1963, p. 152, no. 3; 
W. J. de Gruyter, De Haagse School, Rotterdam, 1968, 
1, pp. 56, 57, 113, fig. 49. 



czek, Schloss Kreuzenstein, Austria; (Silberman, New 
York). 

exhibitions: Boston, Museum of Fine Arts, Arts of the 
Middle Ages, 1940, no. 49. 

references: R. Van Marie, "Some Unknown Tuscan 
Paintings of the XHIth Century," Apollo, xxi, Mar. 
1935, pp. 126, 127-28, fig. II; E. B. Garrison, Italian Ro- 
manesque Panel Painting, Florence, 1949, no. 336, repr.; 
B. Fredericksen and F. Zeri, Census, pp. 242, 311. 



This panel originally formed the central element of a 
tabernacle with arched shutters which fitted under the 
relief spandrel at the top. Van Marie published it as the 
work of a close follower of Berlinghiero Berlinghieri of 
Lucca, possibly his son Bonaventura (active 1228-1274), 
to whom this panel has heretofore been attributed by 
the Museum. Garrison rejected this attribution, propos- 
ing an origin in Umbria or the Marches about 1275-85 
(1959 and letter, Feb. 1968). 



ITALIAN, FLORENTINE SCHOOL 



At the time Israels painted this portrait, he wrote to Ed- 
ward Drummond Libbey, the Museum's founder (letter, 
Oct. 1908), "Herewith goes the watercolor portrait I 
just finished. I believe it to be one of my best works, and 
it is a pleasure for me to hear that you will give it to the 
Museum of Toledo. I remember still with pleasure the 
fine evening you gave me in Scheveningen." According 
to Boussod, Valadon (1910), Mr. Libbey was among the 
American admirers of Israels who tendered him a ban- 
quet the day before he acquired this portrait. 

In the background is a secton of Israels' largest paint- 
ing, David Playing Before Saul (1899). Israels also 
painted an oil version of the Toledo portrait in 1908 
(both, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam). There is a related 
ink drawing dated 1908 in the H. E. ten Cate collection. 



ITALIAN, CENTRAL 

Virgin and Child Enthroned pl. 2 

[Ca. 1275-85] Tempera on wood panel 
37^2 x 15^ in. (95.2 x 39.7 cm.) 

Ace. no. 36.21 

collections: Count Ambrozzy-Migazzy; Count Wil- 



The Adoration of the Child pl. 8 

[Late 15th century] Tempera on wood panel 
32H x 29 in. (81.8 x 73.6 cm.) 
Ace. no. 30.214 

collections: Private collection, Florence; Charles Tim- 
bal, Paris, ca. 1851-71; Gustave Dreyfus, Paris, 1871- 
1930; (Duveen, New York). 

references: S. Reinach, Tableaux inedits ou pen con- 
nus tires de collections francaises, Paris, 1906, pp. 28-9, 
pl. xx (as Francesco Botticini); S. Reinach, Repertoire 
de peintures du moyen age et de la renaissance (1280- 
1580), Paris, 1918, iv, p. 400 (as Domenico Ghirlandaio); 
R. Van Marie, The Development of the Italian Schools 
of Painting, The Hague, 193 1, XIII, pp. 224-25 (as Bas- 
tiano Mainardi); B.-M. Godwin, "Our Painting by Filip- 
pino Lippi," Toledo Museum of Art Museum News, 
No. 67, Dec. 1933, pp. [911-17], repr. on cover, details; 
L. Venturi, Italian Paintings in America, New York, 
x 933> IJ > pl- 2 ^2; Vienna, 1935, p. 119, pl. 126, no. 212 
(as Raffaelino del Garbo); K. B. Neilson, Filippino Lippi, 
Cambridge, 1938, pp. 213-14, 215, fig. 108 (as partial 
imitator of Filippino); S. L. Faison, "From Lorenzo 
Monaco to Mattia Preti," Apollo, lxxxvi, Dec. 1967, 
pp. 33-4, pl. ix; B. Fredericksen and F. Zeri, Census, 
pp. 35, in, 344 (by Zeri as Francesco Botticini). 



83 



ITALIAN 



Although Venturi attributed this panel to Filippino Lippi 
(ca. 1457-1504), as has the Museum heretofore, the 
presence of several influences makes a specific attribu- 
tion difficult. It has been attributed to Domenico Ghir- 
landaio, Francesco Botticini and Raffaello Botticini 
(Berenson, letter, Aug. 1950). Other scholars have sug- 
gested the influence of Lorenzo di Credi (Berenson, let- 
ter; Fredericksen; Sheldon Grossman, letter, June 1975). 
H. B. J. Maginnis (letter, Aug. 1975), while pointing out 
characteristics of Filippino, finds the Child, foreground 
vegetation and aspects of the handling of the drapery 
reminiscent of Francesco Botticini, though he feels an 
attribution to either painter is not possible. 

Neilson rejects a Filippino attribution, but suggests 
that the panel may be by a partial imitator of Filippino 
who also drew upon other painters such as Botticini or 
a Verrocchio follower. 

In the opinion of E. Fahy (letter, Apr. 1975), this may 
be a very early work by Francesco Granacci, and he 
compares it to parts of Granacci's Holy Family (Kress 
Collection, Honolulu) and scenes from the life of St. 
John the Baptist (Metropolitan Museum of Art). 



ITALIAN, VENICE (?) 

Saint Jerome in the Wilderness pl. 9 

[Early 16th century] Oil on wood panel 
33-3/16 x 24^2 in. (84.8 x 62.2 cm.) 

Ace. no. 40.43 

collections: Count Wittgenstein-Maresch, Vienna; 

(E. &C A. Silberman, New York). 

exhibitions: Toledo Museum of Art, Four Centuries of 
Venetian Painting, 1940, no. 4, repr. (cat. by H. Tietze). 

references: H. Tietze, "St. Jerome in the Wilderness 
by Gentile Bellini," Art in America, xxvm, July, 1940, 
pp. 1 10-15, repr.; L. Coletti, Pittura veneta del quattro- 
cento, Novara, 1953, pp. xlv, lxxxii, n. 58 (attr. to 
Parentino); B. Berenson, Italian Pictures of the Renais- 
sance, Venetian School, New York, 1957, I, p. 26 (attr. 
to Bastiani); H. Collins, "Gentile Bellini: A Monograph 
and Catalogue of Works," unpublished Ph.D. diss., Uni- 
versity of Pittsburgh, 1970, no. 71 (rejected as Gentile 
Bellini); B. Fredericksen and F. Zeri, Census, pp. 20, 409 
(attr. to Bastiani). 

Subjects from the life of St. Jerome were particularly 
popular during the late 15th and early 16th centuries in 
Venice. This painting illustrates several episodes from 
the life of the saint: St. Jerome in prayer, accompanied 

84 



by the lion; the lay brothers gathering wood; and the 
first appearance of the lion. The group of figures at 
the entrance to the cave refers to the final moments of 
the saint's life. 

Tietze attributed this painting to Gentile Bellini (1429- 
1507). Attributions have also been made to Vittore Car- 
paccio (ca. 1455-1526; Raimond van Marie, letter, ca. 
1935), Bernardo Parentino (ca. 1437-1531; Coletti), and 
Lazzaro Bastiani (active 1449-15 12; Berenson, Frederick- 
sen and Zeri). 

More recently, Federico Zeri (letter, Dec. 1975) has 
stated that although the general conception and three 
main figures are reminiscent of the late period of Bas- 
tiani, it is difficult to justify an attribution to him. How- 
ever, Zeri believes the composition and style of this 
panel have certain characteristics of early 16th century 
Venetian painting. 



CHARLES-EMILE JACQUE 

1813-1894. French. First studied with a map engraver. 
Worked as an illustrator in London 1836-38, and in 
Paris until 1848. Went to Barbizon with Millet in 1849, 
but left in 1854 after they quarreled. Worked in and 
near Paris for the rest of his life. A frequent Salon ex- 
hibitor, especially 1850-65. Influenced by Millet in his 
pastoral and farmyard scenes and by Diaz in his hand- 
ling of paint. A prolific etcher. 

Three Sheep pl. 236 

Oil on canvas 

ioj4 x i2;Mi in. (26 x 31.4 cm.) 

Signed lower left: Ch. Jacque 

Ace. no. 22.19 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: Arthur J. Secor, 1915-22. 

The Shepherd's Rest pl. 237 

Oil on canvas 

32MS x z6 z A in. (81.5 x 66.7 cm.) 

Signed lower left: Ch. Jacque 

Ace. no. 22.48 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

COLLECTIONS: R. G. Dun; (Vose, Boston); Arthur J. 
Secor, 1912-22. 







v. Guido Reni, Venus and Cupid 



85 



■^HaoHNHmm^H^m 




vi. Peter Paul Rubens, The Crowning of Saint Catherine 
86 



KAUFFMANN 



AUGUSTUS EDWIN JOHN 

1879-1961. British. Studied at Slade School, 1894-98; 
professor of painting at Liverpool University, 1901-04. 
A.R.A., 1921; R.A., 1928, resigning in 1938, but re- 
elected two years later. Best known for portraits; he also 
did landscapes and was a draughtsman, etcher and 
sculptor. 

Chrysanthemums PL. 347 

Oil on canvas 

40 x 30 in. (101.6 x 76.2 cm.) 

Signed lower left: John 

Ace. no. 53.72 
Museum Purchase 

collections: Mrs. Stevenson Scott, New York; (Scott 
& Fowles, New York). 



JOHANN BARTHOLD JONGKIND 

1819-1891. Dutch. Born in Latrop. Studied at the Acad- 
emy of Art in The Hague. To Paris in 1846, where he 
worked briefly in the studios of Isabey and Picot. Ex- 
hibited at the Salon irregularly, 1848-72, and at the 
Salon des Refuses, 1863. With Boudin, he was a pre- 
cursor of Impressionism and a formative influence on 
Monet, who called him "the father of modern land- 
scape." He was also an accomplished watercolor painter, 
and did a few etchings. 

Honfleur Harbor PL. 148 

[1863] Oil on canvas 

13}^ x i8J4 in. (33.3 x 46.3 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: Jongkind/1863 

Ace. no. 50.71 

COLLECTIONS: Mallet collection, London; (Wildenstein, 
New York). 

exhibitions: Iowa City, University of Iowa Gallery of 
Art, Impressionism and its Roots, 1964, no. 19, repr. 
p. 32. 

references: V. Hefting, Jongkind: sa vie, son oeuvre, 
son epoque, Paris, 1975, p. 141, no. 271. 

From 1862 to 1866 Jongkind spent summers at Le Havre 
and Honfleur painting on the coast of Normandy. There 
are several versions of this view in different media. A 
watercolor dated 1863 is the frontispiece of the painter 
Paul Signac's book on Jongkind (1927), and there is also 
an etching done the same year (Delteil no. 10). 



JEAN JOUVENET 

1644-1717. French. Born in Rouen of a family of paint- 
ers; member of the painters guild, 1658. In Paris, 1661. 
Strongly influenced by the art of Poussin. Jouvenet 
worked under Charles Le Brun on the decoration of royal 
residences. After ca. 1685 he became the greatest painter 
of religious subjects of his time. Also painted portraits. 
Member of the Academy, 1675; Rector, 1707. 

The Deposition PL. 190 

[1709] Oil on canvas 

70M5 x 54 in. (178 x 139 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: Jouvenet/1709 

Ace. no. 74.56 

collections: de Boussayrolles family, Languedoc, 
France, to 1945; Andre Fabre, Montpellier, 1945-74; 
(Heim, Paris). 

exhibitions: London, Heim, Religious and Biblical 
Themes in French Baroque Painting, 1974, no. 14, repr. 
(entry by A. Schnapper); Toledo Museum of Art, The 
Age of Louis XV: French Painting 1710-1774, 1975, no. 
49, pi. 1 (color), pi. 4 (cat. by P. Rosenberg). 

references: B. N. (B. Nicolson), Burlington Magazine, 
cxvi, July 1974, p. 418; A. Schnapper, Jean Jouvenet et 
la peinture d'histoire a Paris, Paris, 1974, pp. 26, 143, 
144, 214, no. 126, fig. 141. 

Jouvenet and his studio painted variations of this com- 
position several times during a period of at least ten 
years. According to Schnapper, the first may have been 
the Deposition (now lost) in the Salon of 1704; probably 
this is the Deposition after Jouvenet engraved by Alexis 
Loir (died 1713; Schnapper, fig. 134). The earliest sur- 
viving version is the large altarpiece dated 1708 in the 
church of St. Maclou, Pontoise. The Toledo painting 
represents a later development by Jouvenet which differs 
from both of these, as well as from later versions, in 
having a more elaborated composition with the standing 
figure of Nicodemus and cross added on the right. 



ANGELICA KAUFFMANN 

1741-1807. Swiss. Born at Coire, Switzerland. Student 
of her father. To Rome in 1763, where she met Winckel- 
mann. In London ca. 1765-81. A founding member of 
the Royal Academy, she exhibited there 1769-97. Re- 
turned in 1781 to Italy, where she remained until her 
death in Rome. Primarily a painter of portraits and clas- 
sical subjects. 



87 



KEVER 



The Return of Telemachus pl. 70 

[Ca. 1770—80] Oil on canvas 

395 / 8 x 49M in. (100.7 x 12.6.3 cm -) 

Ace. no. 38.24 

Gift of Edward A. Filene 

collections: Edward A. Filene, Boston, by 1921-38. 

exhibitions: Columbus Gallery of Fine Arts, Romantic 
Painting, 1963, no. 20. 

references: V. Manners and G. C. Williamson, Angel- 
ica Kauffmann, R.A., London, 1924, p. 217, repr. 

The subject is from Homer's Odyssey, a favored source 
for the classical subjects Kauffmann painted from about 
1764. On the left Penelope embraces her son, Telema- 
chus, and on the right, an old woman, probably the 
servant Euryclea, rushes to meet him. Nearly identical 
versions of this composition are in the Chrysler Mu- 
seum, Norfolk, Virginia, and in 1974 on the London art 
market. The Toledo picture was probably done in Lon- 
don about 1770-81. Kauffmann exhibited paintings of 
this subject at the Royal Academy in 1771 and 1775. 



JACOB SIMON HENDRIK KEVER 

1854-1922. Dutch. Born in Amsterdam. Jozef Israels en- 
couraged him to become a painter. Studied at the Am- 
sterdam Academy 1869-72; Rijks Academy 1874-75; 
Antwerp Academy 1878-79. Settled in Laren, 1879, but 
is not considered a member of either the Laren or Hague 
Schools. Best known for interior scenes and flower 
pieces. 

Sisters PL. 156 

Oil on canvas 

32 x 23 in. (81.3 x 58.4 cm.) 

Signed lower right: Kever 

Ace. no. 12.510 

COLLECTIONS: (Henry Reinhardt, Chicago); Edward 
Drummond Libbey. 



THOMAS DE KEYSER 

1596/97-1667. Dutch. Son and pupil of the Amsterdam 
architect and sculptor Hendrik de Keyser. Primarily a 
portrait painter until ca. 1640, when he became a stone 
merchant. Apponted stonemason to the town of Am- 
sterdam, 1662. Known for group and life-size portraits, 
he also specialized in small-scale full-length and eques- 
trian portraits. He was the leading Amsterdam portraitist 
until the arrival of Rembrandt in 1631. 



The Syndics of the PL. 99 

Amsterdam Goldsmiths Guild 

[1627] Oil on canvas 

50J/8 x 60 in. (127.2 x 152.4 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right (on chair): TDK (mono- 

gram)/AN. 1627 
Inscribed lower right (on chair): AE tas/svae 44. 
Inscribed center (on plate held by second figure from 

left): aeta. sva. 45 

Ace. no. 60.11 
Museum Purchase 

collections: Audley Dallas Neeld, Chippenham, Wilt- 
shire; Lionel William Neeld, Chippenham, by 1942 
(Christie, London, June 9, 1944, lot 15); (Duits, Lon- 
don, 1944); Philip Vos, K.C., 1944-49; (Duits, London, 
1949); (Amsterdam art market); W. J. R. Dreesmann, 
Amsterdam, 1949 (Frederick Muller & Co., Amsterdam, 
Mar. 22-25, i960, lot 6). 

exhibitions: Cleveland Museum of Art, Style, Truth 
and the Portrait, 1963, no. 10, repr.; Toledo Museum of 
Art, The Age of Rembrandt, 1966, no. 28, repr. 

references: O. Millar, "Portraits at the Arcade Gal- 
lery," Burlington Magazine, lxxxix, Nov. 1947, p. 319; 
Verzameling Amsterdam — W. J. R. Dreesmann, Am- 
sterdam, 1951, in, pp. 763, 799, repr.; A. K. Horton, 
"Thomas de Keyser: The Syndics of the Amsterdam 
Goldsmiths Guild," Toledo Museum of Art Museum 
News, iv, Autumn 1961, pp. 87-90; K. A. Citroen, Am- 
sterdam Silversmiths and their Marks, Amsterdam, 1975, 
p. 219. 



Mother and Children pl. 157 

Oil on canvas 

40^2 x 50/ / 2 in. (102.9 x 127 cm.) 

Signed lower right: Kever 

Ace. no. 14.68 

collections: (Henry Reinhardt, Chicago); Edward 
Drummond Libbey. 



The syndics or governing board of the Amsterdam Gold- 
smiths Guild shown in this painting have been identified 
by I. H. van Eeghen and K. A. Citroen (letter, Mar. 
1963). From the left: Loeff Vredericx, chief assayer of 
the guild and standard bearer of Amsterdam; Jacob le 
Merchier of Brussels; and Jacob Everts Wolff, senior 
dean of the guild. The second figure from the right is 
unidentified. Citroen and Van Eeghen (letter, Mar. 1975) 



LA FRESNAYE 



also believe the portrait was probably commissioned by 
the guild at the end of 1626 and represents the syndics 
for that year. 

The touch needles held by le Merchier were used to 
identify the gold and silver content of unpurified ores. 
In the tongs held by Vredericx is a cupel, a porous cup 
of mutton bone, used to extract gold and silver from 
these ores. The signet ring on the left hand of Vredericx 
probably shows his maker's mark. On the table and in 
Wolff's hand are silver horse bridles made by guild 
members. 

De Keyser painted a second group of the Amsterdam 
goldsmiths in 1627 (formerly Musee des Beaux-Arts, 
Strasbourg; destroyed, 1946; repr. by Horton). The guild 
officers in this portrait are shown with various silver 
vessels. According to Citroen (letter, Mar. 1975) this 
portrait may show the outgoing and incoming guild 
syndics of 1627 and 1628. 



OSKAR KOKOSCHKA 

1886-. Austrian. Born near Vienna, where he studied at 
the School of Arts and Crafts. Worked and taught in 
Vienna, 1911-14 and again, 1931-34; Dresden, 1918- 
23; Prague, 1935-38; London, 1939-53; traveled widely 
in Europe, Africa and Asia, 1924-37. Visited the United 
States, 1949, 1957. Became a British subject, 1947. Lived 
mostly in Switzerland since 1953. A principal figure of 
Expressionism, his paintings have included portraits, 
landscapes, allegories; also a printmaker, stage designer, 
dramatist and poet. 

Autumn Flowers pl. 73 

[Ca. 1928] Oil on canvas 
39 x 31J/2 in. (100 x 80 cm.) 
Signed lower left: OK 

Ace. no. 71. 1 

collections: (Paul Cassirer, Berlin); Private collection, 
Lugano, by 1958; (Marlborough, London, by 1970). 

references: H. M. Wingler, Oskar Kokoschka, The 
Work of the Painter, Salzburg, 1958, no. 238, fig. xv; 
B. Bultmann, Oskar Kokoschka, London, 1961, p. 92, 
repr. p. 93; P. Mitchell, European Flower Painting, Lon- 
don, 1973, p. 154, repr. p. 157. 

According to Wingler, Kokoschka said this picture was 
probably painted in Berlin during the autumn of 1928. 



CHARLES-FRANCOIS GRENIER DE LA CROIX, 
called LACROIX DE MARSEILLE 

Ca. 1700-1782. French. Little is known about Lacroix, 
whose earliest known work is dated 1743. Presumably 
born at Marseilles, he was in Rome by 1750 and lived in 
Italy for an extended period, traveling to Naples in 1757 
and working for Italian and also French patrons. By 
1780 Lacroix was in Paris, where he exhibited at the 
Salon de la Correspondence in 1780 and 1782. In Rome 
Lacroix must have known Adrien Manglard, the teacher 
of C.-J. Vernet, and Lacroix occasionally copied and 
imitated both men. In his best work, however, Lacroix 
differs from Vernet by his taste for fantastic architec- 
tural settings and for more ambitious and descriptive 
compositions. 

A Mediterranean Seaport pl. 208 

[1750] Oil on canvas 
37M x 65-}4 in. (94.6 x 164.5 cm -) 

Signed and dated lower left: Grenier.de La/Croix. fecit 
Rom/1750. 

Ace. no. 56.64 

collections: Mrs. F. R. Wynne, Tempsford Hall 
(Sotheby, London, Nov. 19, 1952, lot 68); (Agnew, Lon- 
don); (Cailleux, Paris). 

exhibitions: London, Royal Academy, European Mas- 
ters of the Eighteenth Century, 1954, no. 334 (with in- 
accurate bibliographic reference); London, Royal Acad- 
emy, Prance in the Eighteenth Century, 1968, no. 358, 
fig. 202; Toledo Museum of Art, The Age of Louis XV, 
1975, no. 51, pl. 77 (cat. by P. Rosenberg). 

references: Galerie Heim, Tableaux de maitres an- 
ciens, Paris, 1956, in no. 16 (painting dated 1743); 
M. Davies, National Gallery Catalogues: French School, 
2nd ed., London, 1957, p. 218, n. 1. 

According to Rosenberg (1975) who considers this pic- 
ture to be the artist's masterpiece, "The charming group 
of figures descending the stairs on the right and the three 
Orientals in the center enliven this austere composition 
where one finds both imagination and precise topograph- 
ical elements." 



ROGER DE LA FRESNAYE 

1885-1925. French. Born in Le Mans; raised in Paris. 
From 1903 to 1908 he studied at the Academie Julian, 
Ecole des Beaux Arts and, most significantly, with Mau- 
rice Denis and Paul Serusier at the Academie Ranson. 



89 



LA HIRE 



Traveled in Italy and Germany, 1910-n. From 1912 
he was closely connected with the Cubists and exhibited 
with them at the Salon des Independants, Salon d'Au- 
tomne, and the Section d'Or, which he helped found. 
Served with the army, 1914-18; after 1919 lived as an 
invalid at Grasse. His last oil painting was done in 1921, 
but he continued to draw until his death. 

Still Life with Coffee Pot PL. 286 

[Ca. 1910-u] Oil on canvas 
21^2 x 32 in. (54.6 x 81.2 cm.) 
Signed upper right: R. de la Fresnaye 

Ace. no. 51.380 

COLLECTIONS: Pierre Faure, Paris (?); (Paul Petrides, 
Paris); (Alex Reid & Lefevre, London). 

exhibitions: Paris, Galerie Barbazanges, Exposition 
retrospective des oeuvres de Roger de La Fresnaye, 1926, 
no. 23 (as Cafetiere et picket); Paris, Gazette des Beaux- 
Arts, Les createurs du Cubisme, 1935, no. 81 (?); Paris, 
Musee Nationale d'Art Moderne, Roger de La Fresnaye, 
1950, no. 39. 

references: G. Seligman, Roger de La Fresnaye, Green- 
wich, Conn., 1969, no. 150, repr. 

This belongs to a small group of still lifes painted about 
1911, when La Fresnaye was beginning to evolve a per- 
sonal idiom based on Cubism. 



LAURENT DE LA HIRE 

1606-1656. French. Son and pupil of the Parisian artist 
Etienne de La Hire. He also studied with the Mannerist 
Georges Lallement, and was influenced by the work of 
Vouet, Caravaggio, the Bolognese painters, and later by 
Poussin. Among the founders of the Academie Royale in 
1648. Painter of religious and mythological subjects and 
landscapes. 

Allegory of Geometry pl. 191 

[1649] Oil on canvas 
40 x 6zV2 in. (101.6 x 158.6 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right corner: L. DE LA HIRE 
In.&F. 1649 

Ace. no. 64.124 

COLLECTIONS: Gedeon Tallement, Paris(?); Private col- 
lection, Switzerland; Private collection, France; (Heim, 
Paris). 

exhibitions: New York, Wildenstein, Gods and Heroes, 



Baroque Images of Antiquity, 1968, no. 19, repr. opp. p. 
20 (cat. by E. Williams). 

references: P. de La Hyre, "Biography of Laurent de 
La Hyre," in P. J. Mariette's Abecedario, Paris, 1854-56, 
in, pp. 48-9; G. Guillet de Saint-Georges, "Laurent de 
La Hire," Memoires inedits sur la vie et les ouvrages des 
membres de I' Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculp- 
ture, Paris, 1854, L P- io 7; A. Frankfurter, "Museum 
Evaluations, 2: Toledo," Art News, lxiii, 1965, pp. 26, 
54, 55; P. M. Auzas, "A propos de Laurent de La Hire," 
La revue du Louvre et des musees de France, No. 1, 1968, 
p. 11. 

The Toledo painting is associated with the series of 
Seven Liberal Arts commissioned by Gedeon Tallement 
(1613-1668) for his house in the Marais quarter of Paris, 
destroyed in the 18th century. Jacques Wilhelm believes 
(letter, Apr. 1975) that the series formed a frieze in a 
small room with each Liberal Art alternating with paint- 
ings of putti and separated by pilasters or wall mould- 
ings. 

Philippe de La Hire and Guillet de Saint-Georges men- 
tion the Tallement series in their biographies of the art- 
tist. However, Dezallier d'Argenville speaks (Abrege de 
la vie des plus fameux peintres . . . , Paris, 1745, 11, p. 
274) of another series of Liberal Arts by La Hire at 
Rouen. The existence of two signed and dated versions 
of Grammar (National Gallery, London, 1650; Walters 
Art Gallery, Baltimore, 1650), and the nearly identical 
Arithmetic (Hannema-de Steurs Foundation, Heino, 
The Netherlands, 1650) and Architecture (Walters Art 
Gallery, Baltimore, 1650) is evidence that two series may 
have existed. Jacques Thuillier (letter, Dec. 1975) points 
out that it is difficult to determine which paintings be- 
longed to each series; that it is uncertain that any ac- 
tually belonged to Tallement; and that it is possible even 
a third series existed. 

The other Liberal Arts associated with the Tallement 
series are Astronomy (Musee des Beaux-Arts, Orleans, 
1649); Rhetoric (private collection, Switzerland, 1650), 
Dialectic (private collection, Switzerland, 1650) and 
Music (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1648). 
Two panels with putti, musical instruments and scores 
(Musee Magnin, Dijon) may have flanked Music (T. Au- 
garde and J. Thuillier, "La Hyre," L'Oeil, lxxxviii, 
1962, pp. 22-3). 

Geometry holds a sheet of paper illustrating the 
Golden Section in one hand, and a compass and a right 
angle edge in the other. Williams suggested (Wildenstein 
catalogue) that the meaning of this painting is the supe- 
riority of Greek over Egyptian geometry. Charles Rosen- 



90 



LA TOUR 



berg (letter, Aug. 1975) believes Geometry is not only an 
allegory, but is also connected with the tradition linking 
Geometry, Melancholy and Saturn. 



NICOLAS LANCRET 

1690-1743. French. Born and lived in Paris. Student at 
the Academie Royale where he studied history painting 
with Pierre Dulin. In 1712 Claude Gillot introduced him 
to Watteau, the most important influence on Lancret's 
art. In 1719, member of Academie Royale as a painter 
of fetes galantes, with which he had great success. 

The Dance in the Park pl. 195 

[Probably 1730s] Oil on canvas 

44 x 57 in. (in. 7 x 144.7 cm.) 

Ace. no. 54.17 

COLLECTIONS: Baron Anselm de Rothschild; Baron Fer- 
dinand de Rothschild, Waddesdon Manor, until 1898; 
Baron Albert de Rothschild, Vienna and England, from 
1898; Baron Eugene de Rothschild, Vienna; Baron Mau- 
rice de Rothschild, Chateau de Pregny, Switzerland; 
(Rosenberg & Stiebel, New York). 

exhibitions: London, Royal Academy, France in tht 
Eighteenth Century, 1968, no. 387. 

This unusually large fete galante was unknown to Wil- 
denstein (Lancret, Paris, 1924). It was probably painted 
in the 1730s, though Lancret's work is difficult to date 
accurately. The figure of a man dancing in the center 
also appears in La danse des bergers (Schloss Charlot- 
tenburg, West Berlin). 



NICOLAS DE LARGILLIERRE 

1656-1746. French. Born in Paris, but spent his youth in 
Antwerp. Peter Lely's assistant in London, 1674-80. After 
returning to Paris, he became a member of the Academie 
in 1686 and later its director. His principal rival was 
Rigaud, though he specialized in portraits of the rich 
professional classes, leaving the court and aristocracy to 
Rigaud. His immense output reflected the warm colors 
and broad brushwork of his Flemish training. He also 
painted some landscapes and still lifes. 



Signed and dated (in brush) on the back of the canvas: 
peint part N (?) / de Largilliere 1703 

Ace. no. 55.35 

collections: Mazel (Hotel Drouot, Paris, Nov. 1922, 
lot 10); (Founes); Arlette Dorgere (Mathilde Jouve), 
1923-49; Louis Margerie, Monte Carlo, 1949-55. 

exhibitions: Cleveland Museum of Art, Style, Truth 
and the Portrait, 1963, no. 12, repr.; London, Royal 
Academy, France in the Eighteenth Century, 1968, no. 

408, fig. 43. 

Until recently this painting was thought to show the 
Regent, Philip of Orleans with a portrait of Mme. de 
Parabere. However, the characteristic signature and date 
1703 found on the original canvas rule out this possi- 
bility, as Mme. de Parabere was born in 1693. Compari- 
son with known portraits of the Duke of Orleans has 
also shown that he is not the subject, who remains 
unknown. 



PHILIP DE LASZLO 

1869-1937. British. Born in Budapest as Philip Alexius 
Laszlo de Lombos. Studied at the School of Industrial 
Art and the National School of Drawing there. Later a 
student of Liezenmayer at the Royal Academy, Munich, 
and of Lefebre and Benjamin Constant at the Academie 
Julian, Paris. Became a British citizen in 1914. 

Edward Drutnmond Libbey pl. 343 

[1922] Oil on canvas 
49M x 36 in. (126.4 x 9 x -4 cm -) 

Signed and dated upper right: de Laszlo/London 1922. 
Oct. 

Ace. no. 26.86 

collections: Edward Drummond Libbey, 1922-25. 

Edward Drummond Libbey (1854-1925) brought the 
glass industry to Toledo in 1888. He founded the Mu- 
seum in 1901 and served as its president until his death, 
after which the Museum received his own art collection, 
as well as funds for both future art acquisitions and 
general operations. 



Portrait of a Man 

[1703] Oil on canvas 

57>4 x 45 J4 in. (146.7 x 114. 4 cm.) 



pl. 192 MAURICE-QUENTIN DE LA TOUR 

1704-1788. French. Born in Saint-Quentin. Studied 
briefly with J. Restout, J. J. Spoede, and Depouch. Went 



91 



LAURENCIN 



to Paris in 1723, where he remained with the exception 
of a stay in London (1724-27), until 1784, when he re- 
tired to Saint-Quentin. Exhibited at the Salon, 1737-73. 
Agree by the Academie, 1737; full member, 1746. A por- 
traitist, he was the most famous French pastellist of the 
18th century. 

Self-Portrait PL. 198 

[1737 or later] Pastel on board 
21M x iS/i in. (55.2 x 46 cm.) 
Ace. no. 55.9 

collections: Musee A. Lecuyer, Saint-Quentin (?); the 
painter Charles-Adolphe Bonnegrace (1808-1882); Au- 
guste Delambre and descendants; M. and Mme. Colson 
(nee Delambre); (Wildenstein, New York). 

exhibitions: Paris, Salon, 1737 (Livret, p. 33, "I'auteur 

qui rit") (?). 

references: P. L. Grigaut, "Baroque and Rococo France 
in Toledo," Art Quarterly, xix, Spring, 1956, p. 53, fig. 3. 

At the Salon of 1737, the first in which he exhibited, La 
Tour showed a portrait of himself laughing. Besnard 
and Wildenstein list sixteen examples of this self-portrait 
{La Tour, Paris, 1928, pp. 32, 147, nos. 212-28). The 
Toledo pastel was unknown to Besnard and Wildenstein 
in 1928. Among the several versions known, it appears 
to be of particularly fine quality (Grigaut). 

According to a tradition which it has not been pos- 
sible to verify, the Toledo example was sold to pay for 
repairs after a fire by the museum at Saint-Quentin, 
which has the principal collection of La Tour's pastels. 
The artist left his collection of his work to the school of 
drawing he founded in his native town. 

This composition is often known as La Tour a I'index 
to distinguish it from other self-portraits. A version of 
it was engraved by G. F. Schmidt in 1742. 



MARIE LAURENCIN 

1885-1956. French. Born in Paris, Laurencin exhibited 
at the Salon des Independents. Her friendship with many 
of the French Cubists perhaps influenced the develop- 
ment of her personal and decorative style with its sim- 
plified, flat forms and soft colors that remained un- 
changed throughout her career. 



Signed and dated lower left: Marie Laurencin/1929 

Ace. no. 34.49 

COLLECTIONS: (Paul Rosenberg, Paris). 

exhibitions: Pittsburgh, Carnegie Institute, Interna- 
tional, 1933, no. 188, fig. 59; Pittsburgh, Carnegie Insti- 
tute, Retrospective Exhibition of Paintings from Previous 
Internationals, 1958, no. 60, repr. 



SIR JOHN LAVERY 

1856-1941. British. Born in Belfast. Studied in Glasgow, 
London and Paris. First exhibited at the Royal Scottish 
Academy, 1881; Paris Salon, 1883; Royal Academy, 
London, 1886. Early member of the Glasgow School. 
Close friend of Whistler, with whom he and others 
formed the International Society in 1898. In London 
from 1896. 

Moonlight, Tetuan, Morocco pl. 341 

[1911] Oil on canvas 

\4,Vt, x 15% in. (37.9 x 63.8 cm.) 

Signed lower right: J. Lavery 

Brush inscription on reverse: moonlight/tetuan. mo- 

ROCCo/jOHN LAVERY/5 CROMWELL PLACE/LONDON/ 

I9II 

Acc. no. 12.918 

Gift of C. W. Kraushaar 

Although Lavery is best known as a portrait painter, 
landscapes form an important part of his work. He 
made his first trip to North Africa about 1890, and often 
returned there. 



SIR THOMAS LAWRENCE 

1769-1830. British. Executed pastel portraits in Bath 
from 1782. In 1787 departed for London, studying 
briefly at the Royal Academy school. Elected ARA in 
1791, RA in 1794, an d PRA in 1820. In 1792 named 
Painter in Ordinary to the King. He was knighted in 
1815 and achieved international fame when sent to Eu- 
rope in 1818 by the Prince Regent to make portraits of 
the leaders of the allied powers who defeated Napoleon. 



Acrobats 

[1929] Oil on canvas 

$6}i x 29 in. (92.4 x 73.7 cm. 



PL. 296 



Sophia, Lady Valletort 

[Ca. 1790] Oil on canvas 
30 x 25 in. (76.2 x 63.5 cm. 

Acc. no. 26.80 



PL. 326 



9 z 



LAWRENCE 



collections: Lady Suffield (sister of the sitter), 1832; 
S. A. Peel, before 1850; J. W. Peel (her son), 1850; 
(Henry Reinhardt, New York, 1925). 

references: W. Armstrong, Lawrence, London, 1913, 
p. 167 (as Lady Vallecourt [sic]); M. W. Brockwell, Sir 
Thomas Lawrence, P.R.A.: "Portrait of Sophia, Count- 
ess of Mount Edgcumbe," (brochure, London, 1920), 
PP- 5~9'-> K. Garlick, Sir Thomas Lawrence, London, 
1954, pp. 61, 75; K. Garlick, "A Catalogue of the Paint- 
ings, Drawings and Pastels of Sir Thomas Lawrence," 
Walpole Society, xxxix, 1962-64, pp. 189, 292. 

Sophia Hobart (1768-1806), third daughter of the 2nd 
Earl of Buckinghamshire, in 1789 married Richard, Vis- 
count Valletort, who succeeded as Earl of Mount Edg- 
cumbe in 1795. Garlick (p. 189) dates the painting about 
1790, also listing a portrait of her husband done at this 
same time. The later ownership of the painting by the 
Peels is based upon a pencil inscription on the back of 
the stretcher. 



Lady Arundell PL. 328 

[Ca. 1812] Oil on canvas 
50 x 40 in. (127 x 101.5 cm.) 

Ace. no. 26.148 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: James Everard, 10th Baron Arundell of 
Wardour, Wardour Castle, Wiltshire, 1830; Col. Un- 
thank, Intwood Hall, near Norwich, by 1897; (Robinson 
and Fisher, London, May 28, 1897, lot 188, as a double 
portrait); (Renton); (Robinson and Fisher, London, June 
21, 1900, lot 156, as a double portrait); (Arthur Tooth, 
London); (T. G. Blakeslee, 1914); (Vose, Boston, 1914- 
23); Arthur J. Secor, 1923-25. 

exhibitions: Columbus Gallery of Fine Arts, Sir Thomas 
Lawrence as Fainter and Collector, 1955, no. 2. 

references: K. Garlick, Sir Thomas Lawrence, London, 
1954, pp. 25, 72; K. Garlick, "A Catalogue of the Paint- 
ings, Drawings and Pastels of Sir Thomas Lawrence," 
Walpole Society, xxxix, 1962-64, pp. 23, 275, 307. 



Sir Thomas Frankland PL. 327 

[Ca. 1810-15] Oil on canvas 

3oM$ x 2.$]/% in. (76.5 x 63.8 cm.) 

Inscribed across the bottom at a later date: SIR THO s 
FRANKLAND/B. 1750 OB 18 I 6 th BARONET, HIGH SHER- 
IFF, YORKS:l792. M.P. THIRSK. 1774-80. 1784-90. 

1796-01. Erected thirkleby House. 1782-90. sir 

T. LAWRENCE 

Acc. no. 33.35 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

COLLECTIONS: Sir Thomas Frankland, 6th Bt., Thirkleby 
House, Yorkshire, ca. 1810-15 to 1831; by descent to 
Sir Frederick W. F. G. Frankland, 10th Bt., Thirkleby 
House, 1883-1927; (Howard Young, New York, 1927); 
Arthur J. Secor, 1927-33. 

references: K. Garlick, Sir Thomas Lawrence, London, 
J 954) P- 37; K. Garlick, "A Catalogue of the Paintings, 
Drawings and Pastels of Sir Thomas Lawrence," The 
Walpole Society, xxxix, 1962-64, p. 82 (as ca. 1810-15). 

Frankland (1750-1831), 6th Baronet Frankland of Thir- 
kleby, served three times as Member of Parliament for 
Thirsk between 1774 and 1801, and in 1792 was High 
Sheriff of Yorkshire. A Fellow of the Royal Society, he 
was a scientist and botanist, as well as an author, clas- 
sical scholar and authority on British sports. Frankland 
commissioned James and Samuel Wyatt to build Thir- 
kleby House, sold by the Frankland family in 1927, and 
since destroyed. 



Mary Burnett Jones (died 1853) married James Everard, 
9th Baron Arundell of Wardour in 1806. This is a frag- 
ment of a double portrait of Lord and Lady Arundell. 
According to Garlick (1962-64), it was begun in 1812. 
It remained unfinished in Lawrence's studio at his death, 
and was presumably acquired by the Arundell family at 
that time. 

The double portrait, measuring 89 x 61 inches, was 
cut down between 1900 and 1914. The fragment con- 
taining the portrait of Lord Arundell (30x25 inches) 
was in the sale of the T. J. Blakeslee collection (Ameri- 
can Art Association, New York, Mar. 6-10, 1916, lot 
214). 



Lord Amherst [color pl. x] pl. 329 

[1821] Oil on canvas 

93 x 57^ in. (236 x 146 cm.) 

Acc. no. 64.32 

collections: British East India Company Factory, Can- 
ton, China, 1821-35; Sir George T. Staunton, Bt., from 
1835; Earls Amherst, to 1962 (Sotheby, London, June 
27, 1962, lot 4, repr.); (Agnew, London, 1962-64). 

references: R. S. Gower, Sir Thomas Lawrence, Lon- 
don, 1900, p. 104; W. Armstrong, Lawrence, London, 
1913, p. 108; K. Garlick, Sir Thomas Lawrence, London, 
1954, p. 24; K. Garlick, "A Catalogue of the Paintings, 
Drawings and Pastels of Sir Thomas Lawrence," Wal- 
pole Society, xxxix, 1962-64, p. 18. 



93 



LEAR 



William Pitt Amherst (1773-1857), 2nd Baron Amherst, 
was the nephew and heir of Lord Jeffery Amherst, com- 
mander of the British forces in North America during 
the French and Indian Wars. The younger Amherst was 
a diplomat who led a British embassy to China in 1816. 
The Emperor did not receive him, however, because 
Amherst refused to pay homage by kneeling and touch- 
ing his forehead to the ground, called kowtow, as pre- 
scribed by Chinese court etiquette. Later, Amherst was 
Governor General of Bengal, 1822-28; he was created 
1st Earl Amherst in 1826. This portrait was painted for 
the office and trading depot of the British East India 
Company at Canton, seen in the background. Amherst's 
firm stance, his hand placed by the journal of his diplo- 
matic mission, refers to his refusal to undergo public 
humiliation. The book title reads Embassy to China: 
this is the Journal of the Proceedings of the Late Em- 
bassy to China (London, 1817) by Henry Ellis, who ac- 
companied Amherst. 

The view of Canton showing the trading factories of 
several Western nations was based on a colored aqua- 
tint, South West View of Canton, by T. and W. Daniell, 
from A Picturesque Voyage to India by the Way of China 
(London, 1810, pi. 32). 

After the factory was closed in 1834 the portrait was 
given to Sir George Staunton, the second ranking mem- 
ber of the 1816 mission. There is a mezzotint (1824) of 
the portrait by Charles Turner, and a half-length stipple 
engraving (1829) by Samuel Freeman. 



EDWARD LEAR 

1812-1888. British. Born in London. In 1836 he began to 
travel and to make the topographical sketches which are 
an important part of his work. Studied at the Royal 
Academy, 1850-52; exhibited there, 1850-56. Although 
best known as the author of Book of Nonsense and as a 
draughtsman and illustrator, Lear did over 290 paint- 
ings. Lived abroad most of his life, and died at San 
Remo, Italy. 

Venosa pl. 335 

[1852] Oil on canvas 
19M x 32^ in. (50.2 x 82.2 cm.) 

Signed, dated and inscribed lower right: E. Lear./i852/ 
Venosa. 

Ace. no. 69.340 

COLLECTIONS: James Byam Shaw; (Colnaghi, London). 
references: A. Staley, The Pre-Raphaelite Landscape, 
Oxford, 1973, p. 153, pl. 84b. 



This painting was based on sketches made by Lear on a 
trip to southern Italy in 1847. According to Staley, it is 
one of Lear's few works that is purely Pre-Raphaelite in 
its acute observation and detailed naturalism, perhaps 
under the influence of Holman Hunt, with whom Lear 
was working in 1852; on December 19 Lear wrote Hunt, 
"The Venosa is wonderfully true and brilliant. Of course 
painting out of doors has been out of the question — but 
I have sloshed as little as possible. . . ." 

Venosa is a town east of Naples in the province of 
Patenza. As an ancient city on the Via Appia, it was re- 
nowned for its strategic military position between two 
deep ravines, one of which is clearly apparent in this 
view. 



MATHIEU LE NAIN 

Ca. 1607-1677. French. Like his older brothers, Antoine 
(ca. 1588-1648) and Louis (ca. 1593-1648), Mathieu was 
born at Laon. They worked in Paris, where Antoine es- 
tablished a studio in 1629; his brothers joined him as 
partners in 1630. Mathieu was listed as a master painter 
to the city of Paris in 1633. In 1648 the three brothers 
became members of the Academie Royale. They painted 
religious, mythological and genre subjects, and portraits, 
and traditionally collaborated on many pictures. There 
is difficulty separating their independent work because 
signed pictures bear only a surname; there are dated 
pictures between 1641 and 1648, the year Antoine and 
Louis died. Mathieu apparently stopped painting ca. 
1660. 



The Family Dinner pl. 183 

[Ca. 1645-48] Oil on canvas 
32/4 x 43 in. (82.5 x 109.2 cm.) 

Ace. no. 46.28 

collections: Due de Choiseul (Boileau, Paris, Apr. 6, 
1772, lot 126); Prince de Conti (Muzier-P. Remy, Paris, 
Apr. 8, 1777, lot 552); Sollier (Sollier et Remy, Paris, 
Apr. 3, 178 1, lot 166); Prince de Soubise; possibly I. Ber- 
tels (Christie, London, Mar. 4, 1791, lot 23); Private 
collection, England (Christie, London, Feb. 4, 1792, loi 
49); Sir Audley Neeld; L. V. Neeld (Christie, London, 
July 13, 1945, lot 73); (Koetser, New York); (Wilden- 
stein, New York). 

exhibitions: New York, Wildenstein, French Painting 
of the Time of Louis XHIth and Louis XlVth, 1946, no. 
26; Toledo Museum of Art, The Brothers Le Nain, 1947, 
no. 11, repr.; Pittsburgh, Carnegie Institute, Pictures of 



94 



LENDENSTREICH 



Everyday Life: Genre Painting in Europe, ijoo-1900, 
1954, pi. 25. 

references: Recueil d'estampes gravies d'apres les 
tableaux du cabinet de Monseigneur le due de Cboiseul, 
Paris, 1771, p. 10, no. 104, repr. (engraved as by Le 
Nain); Champfleury, Essai sur la vie et I'oeuvre des Le 
Nain, Laon, 1850, p. 21; Champfleury, Catalogue des 
tableaux des Le Nain qui out passe dans les ventes pub- 
liques de I'annee IJ55-1853, Brussels, 1861, pp. 2, 3, 44 
(?); C. Blanc, Histoire des peintres de toutes les ecoles: 
Ecole francaise, Paris, 1862, 1, p. 8, no. 23, repr. p. 3 
(engraving); A. Valabregue, Les freres Le Nain, Paris, 
1904, pp. 118, 171; Burlington Fine Arts Club, Pictures 
by the Brothers Le Nain, London, 1910, p. 32 (in "List 
of Works by, or Attributed to, the Brothers Le Nain"); 
P. Jamot, Les Le Nain, Paris, 1929, p. 96, n. 1; P. Fierens, 
Les Le Nain, Paris, 1930, p. 50; G. Isarlo, "Les trois Le 
Nain et leur suite," La Renaissance, Mar. 1938, p. 26, 
nos. in and 134, fig. 42 (Weisbrod engraving); E. Da- 
cier, "La curiosite au XVIIIe siecle: Choiseul collection- 
neur," Gazette des Beaux-Arts, xxxvi, July-Sep. 1949, 
p. 74, no. 22, repr. cover and fig. 19; T. Bodkin, "Two 
Rediscovered Pictures by Mathieu Le Nain," Bulletin de 
la Societe Poussin, No. 3, May 1950, p. 26, pi. 20; 
J. Thuillier and A. Chatelet, French Painting from Le 
Nain to Fragonard, Geneva, 1964, p. 20. 

While attributions to the individual Le Nain brothers 
have been based on groups of characteristics worked out 
by Jamot, there remains considerable uncertainty about 
the style of each. This painting is attributed to Mathieu 
by Jamot, Isarlo and Bodkin. J. Thuillier (1964, p. 15; 
letter, Dec. 1975) prefers the more general appellation 
"Le Nain" because there is still no indisputable evidence 
for relating any painting to only one of the brothers. 
According to Thuillier, the heads are family portraits, as 
are those in certain other genre subjects attributed to 
Mathieu, and he believes this picture was painted ca. 
1645-48, a date in agreement with costume style. 

While this composition was well known to scholars 
before 1945 from engravings and other versions, the To- 
ledo painting, which is now recognized as the original, 
only emerged from obscurity at that time. 

Engraved by C. Weisbrod (1771), Pisan (1862) and 
Best-Hotelin-Reguier. Other versions, considered copies: 
Paul Rosenberg and Co., New York, with portrait heads 
of the Poullain family (Isarlo, fig. 43); Cleveland Mu- 
seum of Art (Fierens, pi. lxxxvi); Capt. Pitts collection 
(Paris Le Nain exhibition, 1934, no. 46). 



VALENTIN LENDENSTREICH 

Active ca. 1485-1506. German. Worked at Saalfeld, Thu- 
ringia. Lendenstreich headed a workshop which pro- 
duced altarpieces combining painting and sculpture. 

Wings of the W idler sleben Triptych PL. 63a-d 

(a) Left wing, verso: The Agony in the Garden; A 
Prophet; recto: Angel Annunciate; 

(b) Right wing, verso: The Flagellation of Christ; A 
Prophet; recto: Virgin Annunciate 

[1503] Oil on wood panel 

Overall: 75x44^2 in. (195x113 cm.); large painted 
panels: 51^x38^8 in. (129.7x98.5 cm.); small 
painted panels: 13^ x 15^ in. (35.2 x 39 cm.); small 
painted panels, verso: 15/^ x 13M in. (39.3 x 35 cm.) 

Signed and dated on the frames: 

(a) Anno dni XV co III completa est hec Thabula feria 

(b) scda post Cantate facta e in Saluelt per valentinv 
lendestreich 

Ace. no. 23.3154 a-b 

collections: Parish church, Wiillersleben, Thuringia; 
Staatsminister Von Bertrab, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt; 
Prince of Schwartzburg-Rudolstadt, Thuringia, by 1891; 
(Couttelier and Pollack, Brussels). 

references: P. Lehfeldt, Bau-und Kunstdenkmaler Thii- 
ringens, xix, 1894, p. 64; P. Lehfeldt, "Ober die Thiirin- 
gische Familie Lendenstreich," Zeitschrift des Vereins 
fiir Tbiiringische Geschichte und Altertumskunde, ix, 
1895, pp. 659-75; O. Doering and G. Voss, Meisterwerke 
der Kunst aus Sachsen und Thiiringen, Magdeburg, 
1906, p. 57; E. Koch, Valentin Lendenstreich und andere 
Saalfelder Maler urn die Wende des Mittelalters: Arcbi- 
valische Forschungen, Jena, 1914, p. 1; M. Riem- 
schneider-Hoerner, "Der Saalfelder Bildschnitzer Valen- 
tin Lendenstreich," Thiiringen Monatszeitschrift fiir alte 
und neue Kultur, v, 1929/30, p. 164; C. Kuhn, A Cata- 
logue of German Paintings of the Middle Ages and Ren- 
aissance in American Collections, Cambridge, Mass., 
1936, no. 71, pi. xv, fig. 71; A. Stange, Deutsche Malerei 
der Gotik, Munich, 1958, ix, pp. 151, 152, figs. 282-83; 
J. Bier, "Hans Gottwalt of Lohr, a Pupil of Tilmann 
Riemenschneider at Saalfeld," De Artibus Opuscula XL, 
Essays in Honor of Erwin Panofsky, New York, 1961, 1, 
pp. 2, 8, 9; 11, p. 1, figs. 2-4; G. Werner, "Der Bild- 
schnitzer Hans Gottwalt von Lohr," Saalfelder Mu- 
seumsreihe, 11, 1966, pp. 6, 17, 20. 

These wings formed a triptych altarpiece that was dis- 
membered by 1923. The complete opened altarpiece is 
illustrated by Bier, who states that it is one of four 



95 



LE PRINCE 



signed by Lendenstreich. The outsides of the wings are 
painted, while the insides, except for two painted Annun- 
ciation panels, are composed of gilt and polychrome 
wood sculpture and panels of Gothic tracery, as was the 
center panel of the triptych. 

The sculpture, left to right: left wing (23.3154 b), Sts. 
Alhan of Mainz, Peter, Paul, Andrew; right wing 
(23.3154 a), Sts. John the Baptist, Lawrence, George, 
Nicholas of Bari. In the now dismantled center panel, 
figures of (left) Sts. Margaret and Barbara and (right) 
Catherine of Alexandria and Dorothy formerly flanked 
a larger image of the Virgin and Child with angels. Sts. 
Catherine and Dorothy are now in St. John's Church, 
Lakeville, Conn.; the location of the other sculptures is 
unknown. 

There is uncertainty about the part that Lendenstreich 
himself had in the production of these altarpieces. Ac- 
cording to recent scholarship, he was both a painter and 
sculptor who also directed a large workshop. 



JEAN-BAPTISTE LE PRINCE 

1734-1781. French. Student of Boucher. Worked in Paris 
except for a time in Russia from about 1775 to 1781. 
Primarily a painter of small, intimate genre scenes. Es- 
pecially famous for his "russeries," genre scenes in Rus- 
sian costume. Also a prolific engraver, he perfected the 
aquatint. 

Fear (La Crainte) PL. 204 

[1769] Oil on canvas 

19M x 25 J4 in. (50 x 64 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower left: J.B. Le Prince 1769 

Ace. no. 70.44 

collections: Due de Liancourt; Boittelle (Pillet, Paris, 
Apr. 24-25, 1866, lot 89); Baroness d'Erlanger, London, 
1932; Dr. Ernst L. Tress; (Property of a Gentleman, 
Sotheby, London, May 14, 1958, lot 144); Count Guil- 
laume de Belleroche, 1958-62 (Christie, London, June 
29, 1962, lot 48); (Versailles, Feb. 22, 1970); (Cailleux, 
Paris). 

exhibitions: Paris, Salon of 1777, no. 55; London, Royal 
Academy, French Art, 1200-1900, 1932, no. 202 (com- 
memorative catalogue), no. 324 (regular catalogue); 
London, Royal Academy, France in the Eighteenth Cen- 
tury, 1968, no. 434; Toledo Museum of Art, The Age of 
Louis XV: French Painting 1710-1774, 1975, no. 66, pi. 
115. 

references: Pidansat de Mairobert, Letter of Septem- 
ber 15, 1777, in Les memoires secrets pour servir a I'his- 



toire de la republique des lettres en France (1762-1787), 
republished in: "Letters sur l'Academie Royale . . . ," 
La Revue Universelle des Arts, xxn, 1865, p. 230; J. He- 
dou, Jean-Baptiste Le Prince, 1734-1781 peintre et gra- 
veur, Paris, 1879, P- 55; Dupont de Nemours, "Lettres 
sur les Salons de 1773, 1777 et 1779," Archives de I'art 
francais, 1908, p. 57, no. 1; W. Chiego, "A Boudoir 
Scene by Le Prince," Toledo Museum of Art Museum 
News, xvii, No. 1, 1974, pp. 11-4, figs. 6, 7; D. Wilden- 
stein, "Sur le Verrou de Fragonard," Gazette des Beaux- 
Arts, lxxxv, Jan. 1975, pp. 18, 24, no. 20, fig. 7; J. Cail- 
leux, "Les artistes francais du XVIIIeme siecle et 
Rembrandt," in Etudes d'art francais offertes a Charles 
Sterling, 1975, p. 300. 

An example of Le Prince's boudoir subjects, Fear is in 
the tradition of Boucher and Fragonard. 

It was engraved by Noel Le Mire soon after Le Prince's 
death. In a second state of the print (1785), the head of 
a hiding lover was added at the right by the engraver. A 
copy of this painting is in the Louvre (R.F. 1970-46). 



HENRI LE SIDANER 

1862-1939. French. Born in Mauritius. In 1880 came to 
Paris, where he studied with Cabanel. Lived at Staples 
in Normandy from 1882 to 1894, when he returned to 
Paris. Exhibited at the Salon from 1887 and Societe Na- 
tionale from 1894. In Italy, 1905; London, 1907-08. In- 
fluenced by Neo-Impressionism in the late 1890s. Best 
known for intimate landscapes and interiors. 

In the Garden PL. 273 

[1891] Oil on canvas 

23^ x 32^ in. (61.6 x 81.6 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: Le Sidaner/1891 

Ace. no. 33.17 

COLLECTIONS: (Henry Reinhardt, New York); Florence 

Scott Libbey, by 1911-33. 

exhibitions: New York, Wildenstein, Prom Realism to 

Symbolism: Whistler and his World, 1971, no. 93, pi. 51. 

This picture is dated 1891, and was probably painted in 
the artist's garden at Etaples. The soft, atmospheric qual- 
ity is typical of Le Sidaner's work, reflecting the poetic 
aspects of the French and Belgian Symbolists and his in- 
terest in Whistler and the Impressionists. 



96 



LOISEAU 



EUSTACHE LE SUEUR 

1616-1655. French. Born in Paris, where he spent his 
life. A pupil of Vouet, ca. 1632. His first important com- 
mission was a series of paintings for the Hotel Lambert, 
ca. 1646-49. He was a founder member of the Academie 
Royale in 1648. Although he never visited Rome, the 
classicism of his later work was greatly influenced by 
Poussin and Raphael. He painted mythological and reli- 
gious subjects, as well as portraits and tapestry cartoons. 

The Annunciation [color pl. viii] pl. 189 

[Ca. 1650] Oil on canvas 

61^ x 49^2 in. (156.2 x 125.7 cm.) 

Ace. no. 52.63 

collections: Charles Briconnet (or Brissonnet), Paris 
(1611-1680); Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot (1727-1781); 
Etienne-Francois Turgot, Marquis de Consmont (1721- 
1789); Robit (Emcelain, Le Brun & Hubert, Paris, Dec. 
6, 1800, lot 137); Marquis de Montcalm, Montpellier 
(Christie, London, May 4, 1849, lot 119); Earl of Nor- 
manton, Somerley, Hampshire, England; A. W. Wall; 
(Wildenstein, New York, 195 1). 

exhibitions: Pittsburgh, Carnegie Institute, French Paint- 
ing, 1100-1900, 195 1, no. 66, repr.; New Orleans, 
Isaac Delgado Museum, Masterpieces of French Painting 
through Five Centuries, 1400-1900, 1953, no. 20, p. 23. 

references: G. de Saint-Georges, Memoire historique 
des ouvrages de M. Eustache Le Sueur, 1690, included 
in L. Dussieux et al., Memoires inedits sur la vie et les 
ouvrages des membres de l' Academie Royale de peinture 
et de sculpture, Paris, 1854, 1, p. 164; A. J. Dezallier 
d'Argenville, Voyage pittoresque de Paris, 1752, p. 207; 
[A. J. Dezallier d'Argenville], Abrege de la vie des plus 
fameux peintres, Paris, 1762, iv, p. 116; G. F. Waagen, 
Galleries and Cabinets of Art in Great Britain, London, 
1857, Supplement, p. 369; J. J. Guiffrey, "Lettres et docu- 
ments sur l'acquisition des tableaux d'Eustache Le Sueur 
pour la collection du Roi: 1776-89," Nouvelles archives 
de I'art francais, Paris, 1887, pp. 337, 338; G. Rouches, 
Eustache Le Sueur, Paris, 1923, pp. 73-4; L. Dimier, His- 
toire de la peinture francaise du retour de Vouet a la 
mort de Lebrun, 1627 a 1690, Paris, 1927, 11, p. 6; R. M. 
Riefstahl, "What Is Conservation?," Toledo Museum of 
Art Museum News, vm, Autumn, 1965, p. 54, repr.; 
Religious and Biblical Themes in French Baroque Paint- 
ing, (exh. cat.), Heim, London, 1974, in nos. 7-8. 

This was the altarpiece in the ensemble painted by Le 
Sueur about 1650 for the chapel of the house of Charles 
Briconnet, president a mortier of the Parliament of Metz, 
in the Marais district of Paris. The ensemble also in- 



cluded a ceiling painting of the Assumption of the Vir- 
gin, as well as eight scenes from the Life of the Virgin 
and eight allegorical figures of the Beatitudes set into the 
walls. The Hotel Briconnet and the ceiling painting no 
longer exist. Two of the Beatitudes are known (Heim 
exhibition, 1974); Meekness is now in the Art Institute 
of Chicago. 

A larger and somewhat different version of the An- 
nunciation, painted about 1652, is in the Louvre. 



LEON LHERMITTE 

1844-1925. French. Studied with Lecoq de Boisbaudran 
from 1863. Lived in Paris, spending summers at Mont- 
Saint-Pere, his birthplace. From 1869 made many visits 
to London, where he met Legros. Exhibited at Paris Sa- 
lons 1864-1925, and in London from 1872. Elected to 
the French Academy, 1905. Produced oil paintings, pas- 
tels, charcoal drawings and etchings. 

Rest During the Harvest pl. 280 

[1905] Oil on canvas 

27^ x 34 in. (69.8 x 86.3 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: L. Lhermitte, 1905 

Ace. no. 22.25 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: (Boussod, Valadon et Cie., Paris); (Henry 
Reinhardt, Milwaukee); Arthur J. Secor, 1906-22. 

exhibitions: Paris, Salon, 1905, no. 819. 

references: M. M. Hamel, "A French Artist: Leon 
Lhermitte (1844-1925)," unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, 
Washington University, St. Louis, 1975, cat. no. 266; 
M. M. Hamel, Leon Lhermitte, Paine Art Center and 
Arboretum, Oshkosh, Wis., 1974, p. 30. 

Although the painting is signed and dated 1905, Lher- 
mitte wrote (statement in the Museum's records) that it 
was painted at Mont-Saint-Pere in 1904 and exhibited in 
1905. A related pastel, Les dernieres gerbes: effet de soir, 
is dated 1904 (Hamel, 1975, cat. no. 402). 



GUSTAVE LOISEAU 

1865-1935. French. After study at the Ecole des Arts 
Decoratifs, Loiseau went to Pont-Aven in 1890, joining 
the group around Gauguin. Although he exhibited with 
the Post-Impressionists at the Galerie Durand-Ruel from 
1890 to 1896, his own style as a landscape painter was 
a late version of Impressionism. 



97 



LONGHI 



The Banks of the Eure pl. 278 

[Ca. 1900-05] Oil on canvas 
25% x 32^ in. (65.7 x 81.6 cm.) 
Signed lower right: G. Loiseau 

Ace. no. 06.251 

Gift of Georges Durand-Ruel 

exhibitions: Toledo Museum of Art, Exhibition of One 
Elundred Paintings by the Impressionists from the Col- 
lection of Dnrand-Ruel and Sons, Paris, 1905, no. 33. 

This picture is dated by comparison with La Seine a 
Port-Marly, 1902 and Lavoir snr la Seine a Herblay, 
1906 (Thiebault-Sisson, Gustave Loiseau, Paris, 1930, 
pp. 13, 21, repr.). 



ALESSANDRO LONGHI 

1733-1813. Italian. Born in Venice. Son of the painter 
Pietro Longhi; studied with Giuseppe Nogari. Elected to 
the Academy, 1759. In 1762 published 11 compendio 
delle vite de pittori Veneziana, the lives of contemporary 
Venetian artists (including his own) with portraits en- 
graved by him. Worked almost exclusively in Venice as 
a painter of portraits. 



PL. 39 



Giacomo Casanova 

[Ca. 1775] Oil on canvas 
40M x 35J/2 in. (102 x 90 cm.) 

Ace. no. 65.165 

COLLECTIONS: Amici collection, Milan (Sale dell'Impresa, 
Milan, Mar. 14, 1889, lot 12, as Pietro Longhi); Crespi 
collection, Milan; (Frederick Mont, New York). 

references: B. Fredericksen and F. Zeri, Census, pp. 
108, 511, 641. 

Ferdinando Bologna ascribed this portrait to Alessandro 
Longhi (letters, May 1963 and July 1975). This attribu- 
tion was accepted by Hermann Voss (letter, Oct. 1964) 
and Fredericksen and Zeri. Bologna characterizes this 
picture as an excellent example of the artist's power of 
individualization and of the pictorial qualities frequently 
found in his work. 

In pose and handling of dark tonalities, the Toledo 
portrait may be compared with other works attributed 
to Alessandro, including Carlo Coldoni and Gian Maria 
Sasso (both Museo Correr, Venice); and the full length 
Jacopo Gradenigo (Museo Civico, Padua). Recently, 
however, it has been suggested that this painting is not 
by Longhi but by an unknown Neapolitan in the circle 



of Bonito (A. S. Ciechanowiecki, letter, June 1975; 
M. Chiarini, letter, Sep. 1975) or by a painter influenced 
by the Udinese artist, Grassi (T. Pignatti, letter, May 
1974). Other scholars have also rejected the attribution 
to Longhi, but agree that the portrait is Venetian (in- 
cluding M. Levey, letter, July 1975). 

Bologna suggested a date of 1765-75, similar to that 
of the portraits of Lodoli (Accademia, Venice) and Bar- 
tolomeo Ferracina (Museo Correr, Venice). 

The sitter was identified by a previous owner as the 
diarist Giacomo Casanova (1725-98). Although there is 
no conclusive evidence for this identification, the promi- 
nence of the book suggests that the sitter was a writer. 
He bears a resemblance to known portraits of Casanova, 
among them an earlier work attributed to Longhi (see 
C. Ver Heyden de Lancey, "Les portraits de Jacques et 
Francois Casanova," Gazette des Beaux-Arts, xi, 1934, 
pp. 98-107). Casanova was in Venice for the last time in 
1774-83, and if the Toledo portrait is in fact Casanova, 
this agrees with the decade suggested by Bologna. 



LORENZO MONACO 

Ca. 1370-1423/24. Italian. Lorenzo Monaco, born Piero 
di Giovanni in Siena, was called "Lorenzo the Monk" 
after entering the Camaldolese monastery of Santa Ma- 
ria degli Angeli, Florence in 1391. He was active ca. 
1409—13 as a miniaturist. Lorenzo's early work was 
much influenced by Agnolo Gaddi, while his later style 
was inspired by the International Gothic and the sculp- 
tor Lorenzo Ghiberti. There are few works attributable 
to him with certainty. 

Madonna and Child pl. i 

[1390— 1400] Tempera on wood panel 
48-11/16 x 24 in. (123.7 x ^i cm.) 
Ace. no. 76.22 

collections: Church of Santa Maria del Carmine, 
Florence; Lady Helen O'Brien, London (Sotheby, Lon- 
don, Feb. 26, 1958, lot 49, as Florentine School, ca. 
1380); Marchese Niccolo Antinori, Florence; (Agnew, 
London). 

references: F. Zeri, "Investigations into the Early Pe- 
riod of Lorenzo Monaco, 11," Burlington Magazine, 
evil, Jan. 1965, pp. 4— 11, figs. 1, 11 (detail); L. Bellosi, 
"Da Spinello a Lorenzo Monaco," Paragone, No. 187, 
1965, p. 37 (as "by this remarkable anonymous master"); 
M. Boskovits, Pittura fiorentina alia vigilia del Rinasci- 
mento, 1370-1400, Florence, 1975, pp. 135, 349, pl. VI 
(as Lorenzo Monaco, 1395-1400, but notes Bellosi's 



98 



LORENZO 



placing of it near the Straus Master); F. Zeri, Italian 
Paintings in the Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore, 1976, 
I, pp. 26-7. 

This imposing panel originally formed the center of an 
altarpiece, dismantled before 1745, whose scattered com- 
ponents were convincingly identified by Zeri (1965). 
According to his reconstruction, the Toledo panel was 
flanked by four panels of somewhat smaller standing 
figures, Sts. Jerome and John the Baptist on the left, and 
Sts. Peter and Paul on the right (Accademia, Florence; 
all now on loan to the church of Santa Maria at Quarto, 
near Florence). The altarpiece was completed with five 
predella panels: St. Jerome in the Desert (formerly Cre- 
mer collection, Dortmund, Germany); St. John the Bap- 
tist Leaving for the Desert (Museum and Art Gallery, 
Leicester, England); Nativity (Gemaldegalerie, Berlin- 
Dahlem); Crucifixion of St. Peter (Walters Art Gallery, 
Baltimore); Decapitation of St. Paul (Art Museum, 
Princeton University). The predella panels were beneath 
the appropriate main compartments, with the Nativity 
under the Madonna and Child. Zeri (1976) and Bosko- 
vits believe the altarpiece was executed for a chapel in 
the church of Santa Maria del Carmine at Florence, 
from which the four saints are known to have come in 
1810. 

Zeri, who attributed this altarpiece to Lorenzo Mo- 
naco, believes it was painted early in his career, about 
1390 or shortly after, and he describes it as "constituting 
a significant bridge between the palette of Giotto and 
that of Fra Angelico," and "a document of fundamental 
importance for Florentine painting in the last quarter of 
the Trecento" (Zeri, 1965, pp. 4-7, 8). On the other 
hand, Bellosi believes it was done by another, anony- 
mous late Gothic Florentine artist related to the Master 
of the Straus Madonna (active late i4th-early 15th cen- 
tury; named for a picture formerly in the Percy S. Straus 
collection, New York, now Museum of Fine Arts of 
Houston; his style is based upon Agnolo Gaddi, Spinello 
Aretino and Lorenzo Monaco). 



PL. 3 



LORENZO MONACO, Workshop of 

Madonna and Child 

[Ca. 1418-20] Tempera on wood panel 
34H x 20J/2 in. (87.4 x 52 cm.) 

Ace. no. 45.30 

COLLECTIONS: Earl of Orford, Wolterton, by 1854 
("Christie, London, June 26, 1856, lot 235, as School of 



Fra Angelico); Sir Francis Cook, 1st Bt., Doughty House, 
Richmond, Surrey, before 1868-1901; and by descent to 
Sir Francis Cook, 4th Bt., 1939-45; Trustees of the Cook 
Collection. 

exhibitions: London, Burlington Fine Arts Club, Gothic 
Art in Europe, ca. 1100-ca. 1500, 1936, no. 32, pi. in (as 
Lorenzo Monaco); Toledo Museum of Art, Masterpieces 
from the Cook Collection of Richmond, England, 1944, 
no. 14, repr. 

references: G. Waagen, Treasures of Art in Great Brit- 
ain, London, 1854, III, p. 436 (probably painting listed 
as Taddeo di Bartolo); O. Siren, Don Lorenzo Monaco, 
Strasbourg, 1905, p. 170; J. A. Crowe and G. B. Caval- 
caselle, A History of Painting in Italy: Umbria, Florence 
and Siena (ed. E. Hutton), London, 1908, 1, pp. 449-50, 
n. 4; (ed. L. Douglas, 1911-26, 11, p. 302, h.); B. Beren- 
son, The Florentine Painters of the Renaissance, New 
York, 1909, p. 154; T. Borenius, A Catalogue of the 
Paintings at Doughty House, London, 1913, 1, no. 14; 
R. Van Marie, The Development of the Italian Schools 
of Painting, The Hague, 1927, ix, p. 172, fig. 116; 
P. Toesca, Florentine Painting of the Trecento, New 
York, [1929], p. 57, pi. 114; B. Berenson, Italian Pictures 
of the Renaissance, Oxford, 1932, p. 301; [M. W. Brock- 
well], Abridged Catalogue of the Pictures at Doughty 
House, London, 1932, p. 25, no. 14; G. Pudelko, "The 
Stylistic Development of Lorenzo Monaco — II," Burling- 
ton Magazine, lxxiv, Feb. 1939, p. 76, n. 2; B. Berenson, 
Italian Pictures of the Renaissance: Florentine School, 
London, 1963, 1, p. 121; B. Fredericksen and F. Zeri, 
Census, pp. in, 315, 355, 641; M. Boskovits, Pittura 
fiorentina alia vigilia del Rinascimento, Florence, 1975, 
P- 354- 

This painting has been attributed to Lorenzo Monaco 
by Crowe and Cavalcaselle, Berenson ("in great part by 
Lorenzo Monaco," 1932), Toesca, and Fredericksen and 
Zeri. It has been attributed to the workshop of Lorenzo 
Monaco by Siren, Van Marie and Pudelko. According to 
Marvin Eisenberg (letter, Sep. 1975), who is preparing a 
monograph on the artist, it is one of several examples of 
this subject by his workshop done soon after he painted 
the Annunciation (ca. 1418-20; Accademia, Florence). 
He characterizes it as such by the presence of exaggerated 
linear rhythms, for example the mantles of the Virgin 
and Child. Eisenberg also notes parallels between the 
type of Christ Child and the form of the Madonna's 
hand with the Madonna of Humility (Johnson Collec- 
tion, Philadelphia Museum of Art), which he also be- 
lieves is by the workshop. He dates the Toledo painting 
ca. 1418-20. 



99 



LURCAT 



In the gable of the 19th century frame is a medallion 
of Christ Blessing, and in the plinth, The Man of Sor- 
rows. It is not certain that either was painted in the Lo- 
renzo Monaco workshop, nor are they by the same hand, 
although both date from the first quarter of the 15th 
century. The two escutcheons in the plinth bear the arms 
of the Mazzinghi family of Florence, but there is no 
known reason to associate these arms with the commis- 
sioning of the painting. 



LORRAIN (see CLAUDE) 



JEAN LURCAT 

1892-1966. French. Born in Bruyeres. Studied briefly at 
the Ecole des Beaux-Arts; exhibited at the Salon des In- 
dependants. Traveled to Spain, Africa and Greece. After 
1939 primarily a designer of tapestries. 

Souvenir of Spain: PL. 295 

The Birth of a Sailboat 

[1931] Oil on canvas 

37M x 59% in. (94.6 x 152 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: Lurcat 31 

Ace. no. 48.62 

collections: (Etienne Bignou, Paris). 

exhibitions: Berlin, Galerie Flechtheim, jean Lurcat, 
1931, no. 31; Paris, Galerie Vignon, jean Lurcat, 1931; 
Paris, Petit Palais, Les maitres de I'art independants, 
1937- 

After extended travel between 1923 and 1925, Lurcat's 
style moved from Cubism toward Surrealism. This pic- 
ture was painted in 193 1 after his first trip to Spain. 



LYON (see CORNEILLE) 



to Antwerp ca. 1665-67 to study the works of Rubens 
and Van Dyck. Houbraken states that he visited Jacob 
Jordaens during this trip. Maes painted genre scenes un- 
der the influence of Rembrandt and possibly de Hooch 
until ca. 1660, after which time he became a portrait 
specialist. 

The Happy Child pl. 135 

[Early 1650s] Oil on wood panel 
43/4 x 3iJ / 2 in. (109.8 x 80 cm.) 

Ace. no. 61.12 

collections: Pieter de Smeth van Alphen, Amsterdam, 
1810 (?); (Le Brun, Paris, 1811) (?); Howard Galton, 
Hadzor Manor, Droitwich, Worcestershire, by 1850; 
Prince Paul Demidoff, Florence (San Donato, Florence, 
Mar. 15, 1880, lot 1150); Baron Edouard de Rothschild, 
Ferrieres, by 1916-61; (Rosenberg & Stiebel, New York). 

exhibitions: Paris, Orangerie, Les chefs-d'oeuvre des 
collections privees francaises retrouve en Allemagne par 
la Commission de Recuperation Artistique et les Services 
Allies, 1946, no. 88; Toledo Museum of Art, Age of 
Rembrandt, 1966, no. 30, repr. p. 65. 

references: J. Smith, vii, 1836, p. 65, no. 147 (as Rem- 
brandt, dated 1641); G. Waagen, Treasures of Art in 
Great Britain, London, 1854, in, p. 221 (as Maes); 
W. Bode, Great Masters of Dutch and Flemish Painting, 
London, 1909, p. 50 (as The Nurse); C. Hofstede de 
Groot, vi, 1916, p. 499, no. 85; W. Valentiner, Nicolaes 
Maes, Stuttgart, 1924, pp. 43-4, pl. 5 (etching); H. Ger- 
son, Het Tijdperk van Rembrandt en Vermeer, Amster- 
dam, 1952, p. 25, pl. 61; O. Wittmann, "Nicolaes Maes: 
The Happy Child," Toledo Museum of Art Museum 
News, iv, No. 4, Autumn 1961, pp. 75-8, repr. on cover. 

Early paintings by Maes are rare. Because of the dra- 
matic chiaroscuro, golden tone and Rembrandtesque 
spirit, which led Smith to catalogue the painting as Rem- 
brandt, Valentiner believed it was done before Maes re- 
turned to Dordrecht, while he was still heavily influenced 
by his teacher. 



MABUSE {see GOSSAERT) 



NICOLAES MAES 



1634-1693. Dutch. Studied with Rembrandt ca. 1648 in 
Amsterdam. Returned to his native Dordrecht in 1653 
and remained there until he moved again to Amsterdam 
in 1673, where he lived for the rest of his life. Traveled 



Portrait of a Man pl. 136 

[1680-90] Oil on canvas 
19^ x 15 in. (49.3 x 38.1 cm.) 
Signed lower right: Maes 

Ace. no. 26.60 

COLLECTIONS: Count Gregory Stroganoff, Rome, by 
1912-25; (Sangiorgio, Rome, 1925); Edward Drummond 
Libbey, 1925. 



100 



MANET 



references: A. Mufioz, Pieces de choix de la collection 
du Comte Gregoire Stroganoff, Rome, 1912, II, p. 86, pi. 

LXVII. 

While Van Dyck's influence is apparent, the opulence of 
dress and proud pose reflects French court portraiture. 
Dating is based on the style of clothing. 



EDOUARD MANET 

1832-1888. French. Born in Paris. Studied with Thomas 
Couture, 1850-56. Submitted to the Salon in 1859; first 
accepted there, 1861. Exhibited at the Salon des Refuses 
1863. Travel to Italy 1853-54; Belgium, Holland, Ger- 
many and Italy, 1856; Spain, 1865; England, 1868. A 
major proponent of realism, Manet was an important 
influence on many of his friends and contemporaries, in- 
cluding Fantin-Latour, Monet and Renoir. Although 
much of his late work of the 1870s and 1880s is impres- 
sionistic in style, he refused to be identified with the 
Impressionist group. 

Madame Edouard Manet pl. 246 

[1873] Pastel on paper, mounted on canvas 
2.1/4 x 15 J4 in. (53.7 x 38.7 cm.) 

Ace. no. 52.17 

Gift of Mrs. C. Lockhart McKelvy 

collections: Eugene Manet, Paris; Ernest Rouart, 
Paris; (Ethel Hughes, Versailles); Mrs. C. Lockhart 
McKelvy, Perrysburg, Ohio. 

exhibitions: Paris, Galerie Charpentier, Cent portraits 
de femmes, 1950, no. 67c; Toledo Museum of Art, The 
Collection of Mrs. C. Lockhart McKelvy, 1964, p. 12, 
repr. p. 13. 

references: T. Duret, Manet and the French Impres- 
sionists, Philadelphia, 1910, p. 263, no. 2; T. Duret, His- 
toire de Edouard Manet et de son oeuvre, 2nd ed., Paris, 
1919, p. 285, no. 2; E. Moreau-Nelaton, Manet raconte 
par lui-meme, Paris, 1926, II, pp. 50, 141, fig. 234; A. 
Tabarant, Manet, histoire catalographique, Paris, 193 1, 
p. 447, no. 2; P. Jamot and G. Wildenstein, Manet, Paris, 
1932, 1, no. 312; 11, fig. 244; A. Tabarant, Manet et ses 
oeuvres, Paris, 1947, pp. 237, 259, no. 454; P. Pool and 
S. Orienti, The Complete Paintings of Manet, New York, 
1967, no. 191, repr.; D. Rouart and D. Wildenstein, 
Edouard Manet: catalogue raisonne, Lausanne and 
Paris, 1975, 11, no. 2 (erroneously as 61 x 49 cm.). 

Suzanne Leenhof (1830-1906), who met Manet in 1850 
and became his wife in 1863, was the model for this 



and another pastel done about the same time (Louvre, 
Paris). In both she wears the same hat with long black 
ribbons. The Toledo portrait was dated 1878 by Moreau- 
Nelaton and Jamot-G. Wildenstein. More recently, how- 
ever, Rouart and D. Wildenstein have dated it 1873, in 
agreement with Tabarant. 



Antonin Proust pl. 247 

[1880] Oil on canvas 
51 x 37M in. (129.5 x 95-9 cm.) 

Signed, dated and inscribed lower left: a mon ami Anto- 
nin Proust/1880/Manet. 

Ace. no. 25.108 

collections: Antonin Proust, Paris, 1880; Baron Vitta, 

Paris; (Spier, London); (Scott & Fowles, New York). 

exhibitions: Paris, Salon, 1880, no. 2450; Paris, Ecole 
des Beaux-Arts, Manet, Posthumous Exhibition, 1884, 
no. 95; Paris, Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Seconde exposition 
de portraits du siecle, 1885, no. 212; Paris, Exposition 
universelle international de I'art francaise, 1889, no. 
492; Paris, Galerie Georges Petit, Exposition de por- 
traits, ecrivains et journalistes, 1893, no. 743; New York, 
Wildenstein, Edouard Manet, 1937, no. 37, pl. xxxi; 
Worcester Art Museum, Art of the Third Republic, 
French Painting, 1870-1940, 1941, no. 3, repr; New 
York, Wildenstein, Manet, 1948, no. 37, repr. p. 34; New 
York, Wildenstein, Faces from the World of Impression- 
ism and Post-Impressionism, 1972, no. 42, repr. 

references: L. Bazire, Manet, Paris, 1884, pp. 104-05, 
repr.; A. Proust, "Edouard Manet inedit," La Revue 
Blanche, Mar. 15, 1897, p. 315; T. Duret, "Les portraits 
peints par Manet et refuses par leurs modeles," La 
Renaissance de I'art francais, July 1918, p. 153, repr.; 
T. Duret, Histoire de Edouard Manet et son oeuvre, 
Paris, 1919, 2nd ed., pp. 177, 179, 247, no. 263; T. Duret, 
Manet and the French Impressionists, Philadelphia, 
1910, pp. 92, 93, 252, no. 263; A. Proust, Edouard Ma- 
net, Souvenirs, Paris, 191 3, pp. 101, 102, 103, pl. 27; E. 
Moureau-Nelaton, Manet raconte par lui-meme, Paris, 
1926, 11, pp. 65-6, 129, figs. 261, 346; A. Tabarant, Ma- 
net, histoire catalographique, Paris, 193 1, pp. 367-69, 
584, no. 316; P. Jamot and G. Wildenstein, Manet, Paris, 
1932, 1, pp. 98, 99, 166, no. 376; 11, fig. no; R. Goldwater 
and M. Treves, Artists on Art, New York, 1945, p. 304, 
repr. p. 305; J. Rewald, The History of Impressionism, 
1st ed., New York, 1946, p. 344; 4th ed., 1973, p. 443, 
repr. p. 445; A. Tabarant, Manet et ses ouvres, Paris, 
1947, pp. 374-82; G. H. Hamilton, Manet and his Critics, 
New Haven, 1954, pp. 230-32, 234-35, 2-37, 2-39, 2.43, 
264, 275, pl. 34; F. Hemmings and R. Niess, eds., Emile 



101 



MARATTI 



Zola, Salons, Paris and Geneva, 1959, pp. 244, 260; P. 
Courthion and P. Cailler, eds., Portrait of Manet by 
Himself and his Contemporaries, London, i960, pp. 30, 
31, 163, 196, 216, repr. opp. p. 191; P. Pool and S. Ori- 
enti, The Complete Paintings of Manet, New York, 
1967, pp. 85, 113, no. 303, repr. p. 112; D. Rouart and 
D. Wildenstein, Edouard Manet, catalogue raisonne, 
Lausanne and Paris, 1975, 1, pp. 21-2, no. 331, repr. 

Antonin Proust (1832-1905), a close friend of the artist 
from school days, and also a fellow student in Couture's 
studio, was a journalist, art critic and politician, who 
became Minister of Fine Arts in 1881. The evolution of 
Manet's portrait of him and its generally favorable con- 
temporary critical reception at the 1880 Salon are de- 
tailed by Tabarant (1947). Shortly after the opening of 
the Salon exhibition, Manet wrote to Proust: "You have 
no idea how difficult it is, my dear friend, to place a 
single figure on canvas, and to concentrate all the inter- 
est on that one and only figure without its becoming 
lifeless and unsubstantial. Compared with this, it's child's 
play to paint two figures together who act as foils to 
each other. . . . Your portrait is painted with the utmost 
sincerity possible. I remember, as if it were only yester- 
day, the quick and simple way I treated the glove you're 
holding in your bare hand and how, when you said to 
me at that moment, 'Please, not another stroke,' I felt in 
complete sympathy with you and could have embraced 
you." (Goldwater and Treves). 

The portrait remained in Proust's possession and was 
shown in the large memorial exhibition of Manet's work 
in 1884 which he and the critic Theodore Duret or- 
ganized. 

Manet painted two other portraits of Proust about 
1877 (Rouart and Wildenstein, nos. 262, 263: where- 
abouts unknown; Musee Fabre, Montpellier). 



CARLO MARATTI 

1625-1713. Italian. Born in Camerino. To Rome ca. 
1636; studied with Andrea Sacchi. By 1670 was consid- 
ered the leading painter in Rome and was patronized 
by successive Popes. 

The Holy Family pl. 23 

[Ca. 1700-05] Oil on canvas 

28 x 21-1/16 in. (71. 1 x 53.5 cm.) 

Ace. no. 67.141 

COLLECTIONS: John Blackwood, London, by 1769 (?); 
John Pratt, ca. 1780; by descent to Marquess Camden 
(Christie, London, June 12, 1841, lot 14); Earl of Nor- 



manton and descendants, Somerley, Hampshire, 1841 
(Christie, London, July 1, 1966, lot 73); (Colnaghi, Lon- 
don). 

exhibitions: London, British Institution, The Works of 
the late Sir David Wilkie, R. A. together with a Selec- 
tion of Pictures by Ancient Masters, 1842, no. 170; Lon- 
don, Colnaghi, Paintings by Old Masters, 1967, no. 12, 
pl. x. 

references: G. F. Waagen, Galleries and Cabinets of 
Art in Great Britain, London, 1857, iv, p. 366; J. W. 
Goodison and G. H. Robertson, Catalogue of Paintings 
in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, 11, Italian 
Schools, Cambridge, 1967, pp. 96-7; B. Fredericksen 
and F. Zeri, Census, pp. 119, 351. 

According to A. Mezzetti (letter, July 1975) and F. H. 
Dowley (letter, July 1975) this picture was painted late 
in Maratti's career, based on comparisons with dated 
paintings of this subject in Vienna (1704; Kunsthistor- 
isches Museum) and Leningrad (1705; Hermitage). 

The relief of Charity on the sarcophagus on which 
Mary is seated is an allusion to Christ's death, and the 
drapery on it to His shroud. 

A mezzotint engraving by P. J. Tassaert, published 
in London by J. Boydell in 1769 (C. Le Blanc, Manuel 
de l' amateur d'estampes, iv, 1890, no. 12) is inscribed 
as being after the original by Maratti in the collection 
of John Blackwood. A copy of the Toledo painting in 
the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge is comprehensively 
discussed by Goodison and Robertson. 



EMILE VAN MARCKE 

1827-1890. French. Full surname was Van Marcke de 
Lummen. Born in Sevres; studied at the Liege Academy 
before becoming a porcelain painter at Sevres with 
Troyon; later specialized in animal subjects. Exhibited 
at the Salon from 1857. Traveled occasionally in France, 
but remained for most of his career on his farm at 
Bouttencourt, Normandy. 

The Pasture Pool pl. 267 

Oil on canvas 

25-3/16 x 32^4 in. (64 x 83.2 cm.) 

Signed lower left: Em. van Marcke. 

Ace. no. 22.42 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: (Schaus, to 1903); Arthur J. Secor, 1903- 

22. 



102 




vii. Aelbert Cuyp, The Riding Lesson 



103 




- 



vin. Eustache Le Sueur, The Annunciation 
104 



MARTIN 



COWS PL. 268 

Oil on canvas 

19M x 25-13/16 in. (50.2 x 65.5 cm.) 

Signed lower left: Em. van Marcke. 

Ace. no. 25.41 

COLLECTIONS: Edward Drummond Libbey, by 1922-25. 



JACOB MARIS 

1837-1899. Dutch. Born in The Hague, where he studied 
with the genre painter J. A. B. Stroebel, and later at the 
Antwerp Academy, 1854-56. Traveled in Holland, the 
Rhineland, Switzerland, and France. In 1865 to Paris, 
where he worked in the studio of the genre painter Er- 
nest Herbert. About 1870, under the influence of Corot 
and the Barbizon School, he turned to landscape paint- 
ing. After returning to The Hague in 1871, his style in- 
creasingly broadened, becoming more atmospheric. His 
younger brothers Matthijs and Willem were also painters. 

Scheveningen pl. 158 

[1879] Oil on canvas 

21M x t.6 3 /a in. (55 x 43 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: J. Maris 1879 

Ace. no. 22.32 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: (Arthur Tooth, New York); Arthur J. 
Secor, 1909-22. 

The nearby fishing port and beach at Scheveningen were 
often painted by Hague School artists. 

The last figure of the date may also be read 'o', but in 
1870 Maris was still in Paris, and this picture is similar 
to others of the late 1870s {Fishing Boat on the Beach, 
1878, Gemeentemuseum, The Hague; J. de Gruyter, De 
Haagse School, Rotterdam, 1969, II, fig. 25). 



PL. 159 



Amsterdam 

[Ca. 1880-99] Oil on canvas 
19M! x 31 in. (48.5 x 78.5 cm.) 
Signed lower right: J Maris 

Ace. no. 25.42 

collections: J. H. Van Eeghen, Amsterdam ?; (Henry 
Reinhardt, New York); Edward Drummond Libbey, 
1908-25. 

As Maris often repeated his subjects in the 1880s and 
90s, it is difficult to date his pictures with any precision. 



The Tow Path pl. 160 

[Ca. 1890-95] Oil on canvas 
15M x 23^ in. (38.5 x 59 cm.) 

Ace. no. 25.40 

collections: Edward Drummond Libbey, 1925. 

exhibitions: The Hague, Gemeentemuseum, Meesters 
van de Haagse School, 1965, no. 49, repr. 

references: J. de Gruyter, De Haagse School, Rotter- 
dam, 1968, 11, pp. 22, 30, repr. p. 24 (as ca. 1890). 

Variations on this subject in oil (painted in 1894) and 
watercolor are in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 



WILLEM MARIS 

1844-1910. Dutch. Born and lived in The Hague. Stu- 
dent of his brothers, Jacob and Matthijs. Toured Ger- 
many in 1864 and Norway in 1871. His many landscapes 
with cows were painted in a tight and detailed manner 
until 1880, and in an increasingly loose and impression- 
istic style after that. 

Pasture in Sunshine pl. 161 

[Ca. 1870-80] Oil on canvas 

19H x 31M in. (49.5 x 80 cm.) 

Signed lower right: Willem Maris F. 

Ace. no. 22.33 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: Arthur J. Secor, 1914-22. 

exhibitions: The Hague, Gemeentemuseum, Meesters 
van de Haagse School, 1965, p. 7, no. 76, repr. 

references: J. de Gruyter, De Haagse School, Rotter- 
dam, 1968, 11, pp. 50, 59, 101, no. 6, repr. 

The Lowlands pl. 162 

[Ca. 1880-90] Oil on canvas 

21^ x 2.^/2 in. (55 x 75 cm.) 

Signed lower right: Willem Maris 

Ace. no. 25.43 

collections: Edward Drummond Libbey, to 1925. 



JOHN MARTIN 

1789-1854. British. Born at Haydon, Northumberland. 
Pupil of Boniface Musso in Newcastle, 1804; followed 
him to London, 1806. Exhibited irregularly at the Royal 
Academy from 1811. After 1823 did engravings inspired 



105 



MASSON 



by Milton's Paradise Lost and after his own paintings. 
Specialized in spectacularly melodramatic Biblical and 
historical themes. 

The Destruction of Tyre PL. 331 

[1840] Oil on canvas 

33 x 43H in. (83.8 x 109.5 cm -) 

Signed and dated lower right: J. Martin. /1840 

Ace. no. 52.88 

collections: F. W. Goodfellow, London; (Robert 
Frank, London). 

exhibitions: Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Laing Art Gallery, 
Exhibition Recording Tyneside's Contribution to Art, 
1951, no. 147. 

references: T. Balston, "Recent Martin Discoveries," 
Burlington Magazine, xcm, Sep. 195 1, p. 292; R. 
Huyghe, Formes et forces de I'atome a Rembrandt, Paris, 
1971, repr. p. 33; W. Feaver, The Art of John Martin, Ox- 
ford, 1975, pp. 170, 194, 197, 230, n. 81, pi. 128. 

The subject is from the Old Testament, Ezekiel xxvi, 
in which the prophet foretells the destruction of old Tyre 
by Nebuchadnezzar, and alludes to the siege of new Tyre 
by Alexander the Great. This illustration of the words 
'when I bring up the deep over you, and the great waters 
cover you' (verse 19), furnished Martin with a charac- 
teristic Romantic theme, the futility of man when con- 
fronted by the forces of God and nature. 

A small sepia drawing dated 1834 (P. T. Rathbone 
Collection, New York), engraved for Westall and Mar- 
tin's Illustrations of the Old and New Testament (Lon- 
don, 1837), is closely related to this painting. 



ANDRE MASSON 

1896-. French. Born in Balagny, France. Studied at 
Academie Royal des Beaux Arts, Brussels, and at Paris 
Ecole des Beaux Arts. After World War I was influenced 
by Cubists; friend of Juan Gris. Associated with Surreal- 
ists 1924-29. Traveled to Spain 1934-36, America 1941- 
45. Settled in Aix-en-Province, 1947. 

The Harbor Near St. Mark's, Venice pl. 303 

[1951] Oil on canvas 
39^ x 19-)^ in. (100 x 50.1 cm.) 
Signed lower left: Andre Masson 

Inscribed on reverse: AM (monogram) Le Bassin de St. 
Marc 1951 

Ace. no. 52.102 

collections: (Galerie Louise Leiris, Paris). 



CORNELIS MASSYS 

Ca. 1510-after 1580. Flemish. Son of Quentin Massys, 
with whom he probably studied. Admitted to the An- 
twerp guild of painters, 1531; went to Italy about 1562. 
Massys did many imaginary panoramic landscapes in the 
style of the Antwerp painter Joachim Patinir (died ca. 
1524). He was also a prolific engraver. 

Landscape with the Judgment of Paris pl. 87 

[Ca. 1545] Oil on wood panel 
12-M x iy T A in. (32.4 x 43.5 cm.) 

Ace. no. 35.57 

COLLECTIONS: R. Langton Douglas, London. 

references: E. de Callatay, "Cornelis Massys paysa- 
giste, collaborateur de son pere et de son frere et auteur 
de l'album Errera," Musees Royaux des Beaux-Arts de 
Belgique Bulletin, xiv, 1965, pp. 51, 54, 63, fig. 2; M. 
Friedliinder, Early Netherlandish Paintings, (ed., H. Pau- 
wels), ixb, 1973, pp. 132, 138, n. 204. 

Previously attributed to Patinir, the attribution to Cor- 
nelis Massys was verbally suggested by Josua Bruyn 
(1958) and Charles Sterling (i960). Callatay compares 
it to Massys' Landscape with St. Jerome of 1547 (Musee 
Royal des Beaux-Arts, Antwerp). 



MASTER OF AVILA 

Spanish. The leading painter of Avila in the last third of 
the 15th century. There have been attempts to identify 
him as Pedro Diaz of Oviedo, and, especially, as Garcia 
del Barco. 

The Adoration of the Magi pl. 50 

[Ca. 1475] Oil on wood panel 
46 x 27 in. (116.9 x 68.6 cm.) 

Ace. no. 55.27 

COLLECTIONS: Dupont, Barcelona. 

references: C. R. Post, A History of Spanish Painting, 

Cambridge, Mass., 1950, x, p. 349, fig. 140; 1953, xi, p. 

416; J. Gudiol, "El Maestro de Avila," Goya, No. 21, 

Nov. -Dec. 1957, pp. 144, 145, repr. p. 144. 

Both Post (1950) and Gudiol agree on the attribution 
and on Post's suggestion that the Toledo panel may have 
been part of the same altarpiece as The Meeting at the 
Golden Gate in S. Vicente, Avila; Post (1950) also sug- 
gested that the fragment of a female saint and a Lamen- 



106 



MASTER OF THE MORRISON TRIPTYCH 



tation (both Alcazar Museum, Avila) may have been 
part of the same altarpiece. 



MASTER OF GERIA 

Spanish. Active at the end of the 15th century in Castile, 
particularly in the Valladolid region. His style is re- 
lated to that of Fernando Gallego, and is especially close 
to that of the Master of Avila. 

The Retable of Saint Andrew PL. 48 

(a) Virgin and Saint lldefonsus; (b) Crucifixion; (c) Mar- 
tyrdom of Saint Catherine; (d) Last Supper with a 
Donor; (e) Saint Andrew; (f) Bishop Saint as Patron of a 
Donor 

[Ca. 1475-1500] Oil on wood panel 

(a) 33J4xi5->8 in. (84.4x39.6 cm.); (b) 3614x23 in. 

(92 x 58.3 cm.); (c) 33-}^ x 15^ in. (84.6 x 40.3 cm.); 

(d) 33>4 x 15M in. (84.5 x 40 cm.); (e) 45M x 23^ in. 

(166.2 x 59.3 cm.); (f) 33>J3 x 15M in. (84.2 x 40 cm.) 

Ace. no. 55.214 a-f 

references: J. Gudiol, "Una obra inedita del Maestro 
de Geria," Studies in the History of Art Dedicated to 
William Suida on his Eightieth Birthday, London, 1959, 
pp. 106-09, fig s - I- 4; R- Cruz, "El Maestro de los Cla- 
veles," Goya, No. 61, 1964, pp. 12, 14-6, repr. pp. 15, 
16; R. E. Osman, "The Monte Gargano Episode from 
the Life of Saint Michael, A Fifteenth Century Castilian 
Panel Painting," Archivero, Santa Barbara Museum of 
Art, I, 1973, pp. 57, 65 n. 19, 67, repr. p. 58 (accepts at- 
tribution of Cruz to Claveles Master). 

C. R. Post grouped together several paintings (not in- 
cluding the Toledo retable) which he believed had been 
painted by the same artist, who he named the Master of 
Geria, after the town near Simancas (Valladolid province) 
in which one of them is located ("El Maestro de Geria," 
Boletin del Seminario de Estudios de Arte y Arqueologia, 
University of Valladolid, xix, 1952-53). 

Gudiol later attributed the Toledo retable to the 
Master of Geria, as being the most complete work by 
this master. According to Gudiol (letters, May and Sep. 
1956), Post also agreed with this attribution. Cruz, on 
the other hand, named this painter the Claveles Master. 



The Adoration of the Magi PL. 51 

[Ca. 1500] Oil on wood panel 
12 x 8:54 in. (30.5 x 22.3 cm.) 

Ace. no. 26.82 

COLLECTIONS: Edward Drummond Libbey. 

exhibitions: Toledo Museum of Art, Spanish Painting, 

1941, no. 23, fig. 23 (cat. by J. Gudiol). 

references: C. R. Post, A History of Spanish Painting, 

Cambridge, Mass., 1941, VIII (pt. 2), p. 719, fig. 342; 

1953, xi, p. 430; 1958, xn (pt. 2), p. 663; J. Gaya Nufio, 

La pintura espanola fuera de Espana, Madrid, 1958, no. 

1509. 

Post attributed this panel to the Jativa Master, dating 
it ca. 1500 (letter, Oct. 1939), and Gudiol agreed on both 
points. Post (1941) also pointed out the special atten- 
tion this artist gave to detailed landscape, an unusual 
feature in Valencian painting of the time strongly evi- 
dent in this panel. 



MASTER OF THE LAST JUDGMENT 
Spanish. Active first half of the 12th century in Cata- 



Saints James and Philip pl. 45 

[Ca. 1125] Fresco 
55/4 x 33 in. (140.4 x 83.8 cm.) 
inscribed upper left on arch: scs IACOBVS 
inscribed upper right on arch: scs FILIPVS 

Ace. no. 56.16 

Museum Purchase 

Like the Saint John from Isabarre in the Toledo collec- 
tion (see Spanish, Catalonian) this is a fragment of mural 
painting probably from a church in the same general 
district of the Pyrenees. 

C. R. Post (letter, Oct. 1958), who confirmed the at- 
tribution of this fragment to the Master of the Last 
Judgment, pointed out similarities in style with fres- 
coes in the church of S. Clemente, Tahull. He also sug- 
gested the Apostle on the left may be St. James the Less, 
as he and St. Philip share the same feast day. 



MASTER OF JATIVA 

Spanish. Active in the late 15th and early 16th cen- 
turies at Valencia. Named for the town where a num- 
ber of his principal works are located. 



MASTER OF THE MORRISON TRIPTYCH 

Active ca. 1500. Flemish. Probably worked in Bruges 
and Antwerp; he may have come from Holland. Named 
from the following work, once in the Morrison collec- 
tion, England. 



107 



MASTER OF THE VISION OF ST. JOHN 



The Morrison Triptych [color pl. ii] pl. 79a-e 

(a) left wing: Saint John the Baptist; verso: Adam; 

(b) center: The Virgin and Child with Angels; 

(c) right wing: Saint John the Evangelist; verso: Eve 
[Ca. 1500] Oil on wood panel 

(a) 43^ x 14 % in. (110.8 x37.2 cm.); (b) 38-^x23^4 
in. (97.5 x 60.4 cm.); (c) 43H x 14H in. (110.8 x 37.2 
cm.) 
Ace. no. 54.5 A-c 

COLLECTIONS: Perhaps brought from Spain at an un- 
known date in the 19th century; Alfred Morrison, Font- 
hill House, Tisbury, Wiltshire, to 1897; Hugh Morri- 
son; John Morrison; (Rosenberg & Stiebel, New York). 
exhibitions: London, Burlington Fine Arts Club, Early 
Netherlandish Pictures, 1892, no. 42 (as Jan Gossaert 
?); London, Burlington Fine Arts Club, Catalogue of the 
Loan Exhibition of Flemish and Belgian Art, a Memorial 
Volume, 1927, no. 60, pl. xxxn (as attributed to Mem- 
ling; "walled up in a monastery during the Peninsular 
War"). 

references: M. J. Friedlander, "Der Meister der Mor- 
rison Triptychons," Zeitschrift fur bildende Kunst, 
xxvii, 1915, pp. 13, 14, fig. 3; M. J. Friedlander, Die 
altniederl'dndische Malerei, Leyden, 1934, vi, p. 116, no. 
9a; vii, pp. 80-2, no. 81, pis. lvi, lvii; M. Conway, The 
Van Eycks and their Followers, New York, 1921, pp. 
216, 317; L. Baldass, Joos van Cleve, der Meister des 
Todes Maria, Vienna, 1925, p. 6, no. 61; G. Nieto Gallo, 
"El retablo de San Juan Bautista en la iglesia del Salva- 
dor de Valladolid, Quentin Metsys o Adriaen Skille- 
man?," Boletin del Seminario de Estudios de Arte y 
Arqueologia, Valladolid, v-vi, 1939-40, p. 59; M. Davies, 
Les Primitifs Flamands: The National Gallery, London, 
Antwerp, 1953, 1, p. 5; W. R. Valentiner, "Simon van 
Herlam, the Master of the Morrison Triptych," Gazette 
des Beaux-Arts, xlv, Jan. 1955, pp. 7, 10; (W. Hutton), 
"The Morrison Triptych," Toledo Museum of Art Mu- 
seum News, No. 159, Summer, 1955, unpaginated, repr.; 
P. Wescher, "Beitrage zu Simon van Haarlem, dem Meis- 
ter des Morrisons Triptychons," Jahrbuch der Berliner 
Museen, vn, 1965, pp. 175, 178, 180; P. Phillipot, "Les 
grisailles et les degres de la realite de l'image dans la 
peinture flamande des XVe et XVIe siecles," Bulletin des 
Musees Royaux de Belgique, 1966, No. 4, p. 237, fig. 9; 
M. Davies, National Gallery Catalogues: Early Nether- 
landish School, 3rd ed., London, 1968, p. 121; G. von 
der Osten, Painting and Sculpture in Germany and the 
Netherlands, 1500-1600, Harmondsworth, 1969, p. 146; 
M. J. Friedlander, Early Netherlandish Painting (ed., 
H. Pauwels), New York, 1971, via, no. 9a; vn, pp. 41-2, 
no. 81, pp. 89-90, pis. 69, 70, fig. 81. 



In 1915 Friedlander grouped together several paintings 
he believed were by the same unidentified artist, naming 
him the Master of the Morrison Triptych after this 
work. According to Friedlander, the artist's style has 
some relation to the Antwerp painter Quentin Massys 
(1465/66-1530). Friedlander later (1934, 1971) acknowl- 
edged the difficulties in attributing works to this painter. 
Davies, who believed that works attributed to the Mor- 
rison Master lack stylistic coherence, questioned the use- 
fulness of this name. 

Friedlander tentatively identified the Morrison Master 
as Adriaen Skilleman (1915), and then later as Quentin 
Massys' pupil Ariaen (1934, 1971). G. Nieto Gallo also 
believes that the Morrison Master is Adriaen Skilleman. 
Valentiner suggested that the Master was Simon van 
Herlam (or Haarlem), an identification accepted by 
Wescher but rejected by Davies (1955, 1968). 

This triptych substantially repeats the composition of 
one by the Bruges painter Hans Memling (active 1465- 
94) in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna (Fried- 
lander, 1971, via, pl. 32-5), though the Morrison Mas- 
ter quite freely interpreted Memling's architectural set- 
ting and landscape, and his own style is also apparent 
in the individual character and scale of some figures. 
In addition, the landscape behind the Virgin's head re- 
places Memling's brocade panel, and a lute-playing an- 
gel his kneeling donor. 

In the upper corners of the central panels are two 
Old Testament episodes, allusions to Christ's sacrifice 
and redemption: left, Abraham and Isaac (Genesis 
xxil:9~i3) and right, Jephthah and his daughter (Judges 
xi: 39). The kneeling angel with a pear holds a lira da 
braccia, an ancestor of the violin. 



MASTER OF THE VISION OF SAINT JOHN 

German. Active ca. 1450-60 in Cologne. He may have 
come from the middle or upper Rhine. 

The Adoration of the Magi pl. 62 

[Ca. 1460] Oil on wood panel 
51 x 28 in. (129.5 x 7 1 - 1 cm -) 

Inscribed lower right (below knee of the kneeling figure): 
Par~st 

HP 

Ace. no. 36.80 

collections: Count Julius Andrassy, Hungary; Private 
collection, Switzerland; (E. & A. Silberman, New York). 

references: O. Fischer, "Ein Kolner Meister um 1450- 
60," Pantheon, ix, Oct. 1936, pp. 318-22, repr. p. 319; 



108 



MAUVE 



A. Strange, Deutsche Malerei der Gotik, Munich, 1952, 
v, pp. 14, 15, fig. 15. 

Fischer attributed this painting, Saints Cosmas, Datnian 
and Pantaleon (private collection, Switzerland) and The 
Vision of Saint John (Wallraf-Richartz, Cologne) to the 
same artist, who he named after the Cologne panel. He 
also suggested that the Toledo and Swiss panels may 
have originally been interior wings of one altarpiece. 

Stange upheld Fischer's attribution, while earlier H. 
Tietze (letter, Dec. 1936) and G. Ring (letter, Dec. 1949) 
found a Cologne origin for the Toledo panel unaccept- 
able. However, these objections should be weighed 
against the evidence that both the Wallraf-Richartz and 
Swiss panels have a Cologne provenance. Fischer also 
observed that as the Saint John Master may have been 
trained elsewhere, his style could well have differed 
from those of native Cologne painters. 

The significance of the inscription at lower right is 
unclear. 



Dancer Resting PL. 292 

[1940] Oil on canvas 

32 x 25/2 in. (81.2 x 64.7 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: Henri Matisse 40 

Ace. no. 47.54 

Gift of Mrs. C. Lockhart McKelvy 

collections: Mr. and Mrs. Lee Ault, New York, to 
1946; (Knoedler, New York); Mrs. C. Lockhart Mc- 
Kelvy, Perrysburg, Ohio. 

exhibitions: New York, Valentine Gallery, Modern 
Paintings from the Lee Ault Collection, 1944, no. 29, 
repr.; New York, Museum of Modern Art, Paintings 
from Private New York Collections, 1946, no. 3; To- 
ledo Museum of Art, The Collection of Mrs. C. Lock- 
hart McKelvy, 1964, pp. 22-3, repr.; Buffalo, Albright- 
Knox Art Gallery, Color and Field 1890-1970, no. 33. 

references: H. La Farge, "Ruisdael to Pissarro to No- 
guchi," Art News, xlix, Mar. 1950, p. 59; A. H. Barr, 
Matisse: His Art and his Public, New York, 1951, p. 559. 



HENRI MATISSE 

1869-1954. French. Born at Le Cateau. Student of Bou- 
guereau, Gerome and Gustave Moreau. Experimented 
early with Impressionism and Neo-Impressionism. In- 
fluenced by Cezanne. Leader of the Fauve group. Trav- 
eled widely and influenced by Oriental, African and 
Near Eastern art. Also produced sculpture, book illustra- 
tions, architectural decoration, prints and drawings. The 
last thirty years of his life were mostly spent in the south 
of France. 



PL. 291 



Flowers 

[Ca. 1924] Oil on canvas 

39^ x 32^4 in. (100. 1 x 81.8 cm.) 

Signed lower right: Henri Matisse 

Ace. no. 35.50 

collections: Josse Bernheim-Jeune, Paris, 1924-33; 
(Bernheim-Jeune, Paris). 

exhibitions: Los Angeles County Museum, Aspects of 
French Painting from Cezanne to Picasso, 1941, no. 29. 

references: R. Fry, Henri Matisse, Paris, 1930, fig. 22. 

According to Bernheim-Jeune (letter, May 1976), this 
picture was bought from Matisse in February 1924. 
It belongs to a series of sumptuous still lifes set in studio 
interiors, painted in 1924-25, in which the principal sub- 
ject is arranged on a patterned tablecloth against a back- 
ground decorated with wallpaper patterns and examples 
of Matisse's work. 



This painting belongs to a group of pictures begun about 
1940 in which a model is seated beside rich foliage with 
other works by Matisse shown in the background. The 
model was Lydia Delectorskaya, one of Matisse's fa- 
vorite models in the 1930s, who acted as secretary and 
housekeeper in the early 40s. There is a charcoal draw- 
ing for the figure and chair dated 1939 (National Gallery 
of Canada, Ottawa). 



ANTON MAUVE 

1838-1888. Dutch. Born at Zaandam. Mauve studied at 
Haarlem with the animal painters Van Os and Ver- 
schuur. About 1856-59 lived at Osterbeck, where he met 
the Maris brothers, whose ideas emphasized a return to 
nature. In Amsterdam, 1868; to The Hague in 1874, 
where he became a leading member of the Hague 
School, a branch of which he established at Laren in 
1885; among his pupils was his distant cousin, Vincent 
van Gogh. 

Homeward Bound pl. 166 

[Ca. 1872-82] Oil on canvas 
26 x 40 in. (66 x 101.6 cm.) 
Signed lower right: A Mauve 

Ace. no. 25.53 

COLLECTIONS: Alexander Young, London, 1905-06; 
(Agnew, London); Edward Drummond Libbey, 1906—25. 



109 



MAZO 



references: "The Collection of Mr. Alexander Young, 
IV. The Modern Dutch Painters," The Studio, xxxix, 
Jan. 1907, p. 287, repr. (as The Wet Road). 

According to J. de Gruyter (De Haagse School, Rotter- 
dam, 1968, 11, p. 71), Mauve often treated similar themes 
between 1872 and 1882. The free brushwork and brown 
tonality also suggest a dating after 1870. 

A Dutch Road pl. 165 

[Ca. 1880] Oil on canvas 

20 x 14V2 in. (50.5 x 36.8 cm.) 

Signed lower right: A. Mauve f. 

Ace. no. 22.22 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: (Henry Reinhardt, Milwaukee); Arthur J. 
Secor, 1909-22. 

references: D. Sutton, "Nineteenth-Century Painting — 
Trends and Cross-Currents," Apollo, lxxxvi, Dec. 1967, 
p. 491, fig. 16. 

The gray tonality, strong one-point perspective and sub- 
ject suggest a date about 1880, just before Mauve moved 
to Laren. 

Sheep on the Dunes pl. 167 

[Probably after 1882] Oil on canvas 
36J/2 x 75 in. (92.5 x 189 cm.) 
Signed lower right: A. Mauve f. 

Ace. no. 25.52 

collections: (Henry Reinhardt, Milwaukee); Edward 
Drummond Libbey, 1908-25. 

exhibitions: Toledo Museum of Art, Inaugural Exhibi- 
tion, 1912, no. 187, repr. 

references: D. Preyer, Art of The Netherland Galleries, 
Boston, 1908, pp. 288, 291, pl. 37 (as at Municipal Mu- 
seum, Amsterdam); J. Keefe, "Drawings and Water- 
colors of Anton Mauve," Toledo Museum of Art Mu- 
seum News, ix, Winter, 1966, p. 96, repr. 



JUAN BAUTISTA DEL MAZO 

1612/16-1667. Spanish. Born in Cuenca province. In 
Madrid he became the principal pupil of Velazquez, 
whose daughter he married. In 1634 he was named 
Usher to the King, and became painter to Prince Baltasar 
Carlos. In Naples, 1657. After the death of Velazquez 
(1660) Mazo was appointed Court Painter. Although he 



was a prolific painter and admired by contemporaries, 
there are few certain works by him. Many pictures in 
the style of Velazquez are attributed to him; only two 
signed works are known. 



A Child in Ecclesiastical Dress pl. 59 

[Ca. 1660-67] Oil on canvas 
6$Y& x 48 in. (167.3 x i-i-9 cm.) 
Ace. no. 51.364 

collections: Harrach collection, Vienna, late 17th cen- 
tury-1950; (Frederick Mont, New York). 

references: G. F. Waagen, Der vornehmsten Kunst- 
denkmaler in Wien, Vienna, 1866, no. 338 (as Velaz- 
quez); C. B. Curtis, Velazquez and Murillo, New York, 
1883, no. 150 (as Velazquez); P. Lefort, Velazquez, Paris, 
1888, p. 146 (as Velazquez); C. Justi, Velazquez und sein 
Jahrhundert, 2nd ed., Bonn, 1903, 11, p. 260; 4th ed., 
Zurich, 1933, pp. 683-85, 753, repr. p. 655 (as by Mazo); 
A. Baldry, Velazquez, London, 1905, p. xxix (as Velaz- 
quez); A. de Bereute y Moret, The School of Madrid, 
London, 1909, pp. 119-21 (as Mazo); G. Gliick, Die Har- 
rachsche Bildergalerie, Vienna, 1923, no. 13, repr. (as 
Mazo); A. L. Mayer, Velazquez, A Catalogue Raisonne 
of the Pictures and Drawings, London, 1936, no. 437, pl. 
112 (as probably Mazo); J. A. Gaya Nufio, La pintura 
espanola feura de Espaiia, Madrid, 1958, no. 1724 (as 
attributed to Velazquez); G. Kubler and M. Soria, Art 
and Architecture in Spain and Portugal and Their Ameri- 
can Dominions, ijoo to 1800, Harmondsworth, 1959, 
pp. 264, 284 (as Mazo); J. Lopez-Rey, Velazquez: A 
Catalogue Raisonne of his Oeiwre, London, 1963, no. 
481, pl. 309 (as perhaps Mazo); M. F. Rogers, "Spanish 
Painting in the Museum Collection," Toledo Museum 
of Art Museum News, x, Summer 1967, pp. 35-6, repr.; 
J. B. Fernandez, Juan Carrefio, pintor de Camera de 
Carlos II, Madrid, 1972, pp. 50-1, repr. p. 129 (as Juan 
Carrefio). 

The young boy in ecclesiastical dress stands in a room 
of the old Alcazar Palace at Madrid, destroyed by fire 
in 1734. The landscape at the right shows the Jardin del 
Moro extending to the Manzanares River, beyond which 
is the Royal Park and Casa del Campo, a garden pavil- 
ion, with the Guadarrama Mountains in the distance. 

The child has been variously identified as a natural 
son of Philip IV (Mayer); a son of Ferdinand Harrach, 
Ambassador to Madrid (Justi); and one of the artist's 
sons (Rogers), though none of these is conclusive. Justi, 
who considered the subject of this portrait in detail, be- 
lieved that the child is wearing the robes of a cathedral 



no 



F. MILLET 



canon rather than those of a cardinal. The boy has some- 
times been thought to be a cardinal, though no child with 
that title is known at this time. 

Justi assigned this painting to Mazo, an attribution 
accepted by Gliick, Mayer, Soria, Lopez-Rey, and most 
other writers except Fernandez, who believes it is by 
Juan Carreno (1614-1685). Soria believed it is one of 
Mazo's best portraits, and Lopez-Rey stated the execu- 
tion recalls Mazo's portrait of Queen Mariana (National 
Gallerv, London), dated 1666. 



LORD METHUEN 

1886-1974. British. Paul Ayshford Methuen succeeded 
as 4th Baron Methuen in 1932. Born at Corsham Court 
in Wiltshire, his family home. Studied with Sir Charles 
Holmes at Oxford and with Sickert. Landscape painter 
in both oils and watercolor. 

Brympton cTEvercy, Somerset pl. 355 

[Ca. 1948-49] Oil on canvas 
25K x 30H in. (64.1 x 76.8 cm.) 
Signed lower left: Methuen 

Ace. no. 49.81 

Museum Purchase 

collections: (Leicester Galleries, London). 

exhibitions: London, Leicester Galleries, 1949, no. 36. 

Brympton d'Evercy, near Yeovil, was probably built 
about 1670-80. 



PIETER TER MEULEN 

1843-1927. Dutch. Studied painting in The Hague, then 
classics at Leiden University, returning in 1874 to The 
Hague. Admired the realism of Anton Mauve, with 
whom he later worked at Laren. His own work con- 
sisted entirely of landscapes with animals, particularly 
sheep. As a writer, he was to some extent the theorist 
of the Hague School painters. 

Gelderland Pastures pl. 163 

[Ca. 1900] Oil on canvas 

z8% x 39H in. (72.5 x 100.5 cm -) 

Signed lower left: Ter Meulen 

Ace. no. 22.40 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: (A. Tooth & Sons, London); (Vose, Bos- 
ton, j 909-12); Arthur J. Secor, 1912-22. 



GEORGES MICHEL 

1763-1843. French. Born in Paris, which he rarely left. 
Studied with the history painter Leduc. Exhibited at the 
Salon 1796-1814 without critical or financial success. 
About 1800 he was commissioned by the Louvre to re- 
store 17th century Dutch and Flemish paintings, an ex- 
perience influential on his own art. Michel's entire work 
consists of landscapes, and he is considered a precursor 
of the Barbizon painters. 

Landscape with Oak Trees pl. 217 

Oil on canvas 

3I/4 x 38^ in. (80 x 97.8 cm.) 

Ace. no. 62.33 

collections: (Cailleux, Paris). 

exhibitions: Paris, Musee Carnavalet, Paris vu par les 
maitres de Corot a Utrillo, 1961, no. 78, repr. 

This landscape with a church spire and characteristic 
windmills was probably inspired by the countryside near 
Montmartre, then open land on the northern edge of 
Paris and an inexhaustible subject for Michel. 

The chronology of his work is obscure, and Michel 
also said that he made a point of not signing his pic- 
tures. 



FRANCISQUE MILLET 

1642-1679. French. Born Jean-Francois Millet in Ant- 
werp, where he studied with Laurens Francken. Called 
Francisque to distinguish him from his son and grand- 
son, painters of the same name. In 1659 to Paris, where 
he studied with Abraham Genoels, remaining there for 
the rest of his life. Member of the Academie Royale, 
1673. Although he never visited Italy, he nonetheless 
produced classical landscapes in the manner of Poussin. 
His work is unsigned, its identification based on etchings 
by Theodore after his paintings. 

Landscape with Christ pl. 193 

and the Woman of Canaan 

Oil on canvas 

37M x 51^6 in. (95.8 x 131. 2 cm.) 

Ace. no. 60.28 

collections: Chevalier Sebastien Erard (Lacoste-M. 
Henry, Paris, Apr. 23, 1832, lot 96, as Mille (Jean- 
Francisque), and Christie, London, June 22, 1833, lot 17, 
as F. Mille); Comtesse de Franqueville (his great-niece); 



in 



J.-F. MILLET 



Mme. Darcy, Belgium; Chevalier de Schoutheete de 
Tervarent; Count Zamoyski (Sotheby, London, July 8, 
z 959t l Qt 63); (Colnaghi, London). 

exhibitions: London, Colnaghi, Paintings by Old Mas- 
ters, i960, no. 3, pi. in. 

references: M. Davies, "A Note on Francisque Millet," 
Bulletin de la Societe Poussin, No. 2, Dec. 1948, p. 24. 

While this painting does not exactly correspond to Theo- 
dore's etching of this subject, the attribution to Millet is 
certain. In the etching, there are six rather than five 
apostles, and the other figures have been slightly altered, 
as has the landscape to a greater extent. The passage 
from the New Testament which the foreground figures 
illustrate is Matthew, XV: 21-28. 



JEAN-FRANCOIS MILLET 

1814-1875. French. Born near Greville, Normandy, the 
son of prosperous peasants. Student of Delaroche in 
Paris, 1837-38. Settled in Barbizon in 1849 and remained 
there the rest of his life. Exhibited in Salons 1840-70. 
Beginning his career as a portraitist, after 1848 he be- 
came famous for subjects of peasant life. After 1865 he 
painted many landscapes, encouraged by Theodore 
Rousseau. He also did many etchings and pastels. 

The Quarriers pl. 222 

[1846-47] Oil on canvas 

29 x 23^2 in. (73.6 x 59.6 cm.) 

Millet sale stamp, lower right: J. F. Millet 

Wax seal removed from stretcher: vente/j.f. millet 

Ace. no. 22.45 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: (Millet Sale, Paris, Hotel Drouot, May 11, 
1875, lot 3, as Carriers); Daniel Cottier, Paris; Ichabod 
T. Williams, New York (American Art Association, New 
York, Feb. 3-4, 1915, lot 100); (Knoedler, New York); 
Arthur J. Secor, 1915-22. 

exhibitions: Buffalo, Albright Art Gallery, The Nine- 
teenth Century: French Art in Retrospect, 1932, no. 5, 
repr.; Detroit Institute of Arts, French Painting from 
David to Courbet, 1950, no. 107, repr. on cover; Lon- 
don, Tate Gallery, The Romantic Movement, 1959, no. 
z 53> ph 33; Boston, Museum of Fine Arts, Barbizon Re- 
visited, 1963, no. 59, repr. (cat. by R. Herbert); Indian- 
apolis, Herron Museum of Art, The Romantic Era, Birth 
and Flowering, 1750-1850, 1965, no. 47, repr.; New 
York, Wildenstein, Romantics and Realists, 1966, no. 



57, repr.; Paris, Grand Palais, Jean Francois Millet, 1975, 
no. 37, repr. (cat. by R. Herbert). 

references: E. Wheelwright, "Personal Recollections 
of Jean-Francois Millet," Atlantic Monthly, xxxviii, 
1876, p. 263; A Sensier, La vie et I'oeuvre de jean-Fran- 
cois Millet, Paris, 1881, p. 104; L. Soullie, Les grands 
peintres aux ventes publiques: ]ean-Francois Millet, 
Paris, 1900, p. 43; P. Brandt, Schaffende Arbeit und bil- 
dende Kunst, Leipzig, 1928, p. 229; J. Canaday, Main- 
streams of Modern Art, New York, 1959, p. 123, repr.; 
M. Brion, Art of the Romantic Era, London, New York, 
1966, repr.; R. Huyghe, Sens et destin de I' art, de I' art 
gothique an XXe siecle, Paris, 1967, 11, p. 219; J. Bouret, 
L'ecole de Barbizon et le paysage francais an XIXe 
siecle, Neuchatel, 1972, p. 159, repr. p. 158; K. Clark, 
The Romantic Rebellion, London, 1973, p. 290, fig. 220; 
T. J. Clark, The Absolute Bourgeois, Artists and Politics 
in France, 1848-51, London, 1973, pp. 74, 78, repr.; K. 
Lindsay, "Millet's Lost Winnower Rediscovered," Bur- 
lington Magazine, cxvi, May 1974, p. 270, fig. 7. 

During the late 1840s extensive excavations were car- 
ried out in Paris for the new railways. Millet could 
have seen these workers near his home on the Rue 
Rochechouart. Sensier, Millet's close friend and biogra- 
pher, mentions a "Terrassiers occupes aux eboulements 
de Montmartre (diggers at work on a cave-in at Mont- 
martre)" among works of 1847. According to Herbert* 
(Paris, 1975), who believes this sketch-like canvas was 
left unfinished, the tension and energy of the figures, 
characteristic of Millet's first naturalistic subjects of 
1846-47, are closely related to the art of Daumier, with 
whom Millet often exchanged ideas. 



AMEDEO MODIGLIANI 

1884-1920. Italian. Born in Livorno, where he studied 
painting and drawing with G. Micheli. To Paris, 1906. 
Influenced by Beardsley, Lautrec, Steinlen. Exhibited at 
Salon des Independants intermittently after 1908. 
Strongly influenced by Cezanne and Brancusi. Executed 
sculpture 1905-15. Most surviving paintings date 1915- 
20. 

Paul Guillaiime pl. 40 

[1915] Oil on board 

29^ x 20/^ in. (74.9 x 52.1 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: modigliani/sETTEMBRE/ 

1915 
Inscribed lower left: paul guillaume 

Ace. no. 51.382 



112 



MONET 



Gift of Mrs. C. Lockhart McKelvy 

collections: Paul Guillaume, Paris, to 1934; Jean Wal- 
ter (Mme. Paul Guillaume), Paris, from 1934; (Carroll 
Carstairs, New York, 195 1); Mrs. C. Lockhart McKelvy, 
Perrysburg, Ohio. 

exhibitions: Toledo Museum of Art, The Collection of 
Mrs. C. Lockhart McKelvy, 1964, p. 20, repr. p. 21. 

references: W. George, La grande peinture contempo- 
raine a la collection Paul Guillaume, Paris, n.d. (1929), 
pp. 142, 188, repr. p. 138; A. Pffanstiel, Modigliani, 
Paris, 1929, p. 6, repr. opp. p. 18; A. Pffanstiel, Modigli- 
ani et son oeuvre, Paris, 1956, no. 36, p. 66; A. Ceroni, 
Amedeo Modigliani, Milan, 1958, p. 50, fig. 56; Cam- 
bridge, Fogg Art Museum, Modigliani: Drawings from 
the Collection of Stefa and Leon Brillouin, 1959, p. 22; 
L. Piccioni and A. Ceroni, / dipinti di Modigliani, Milan, 
1970, no. 101. 

Modigliani was introduced to the dealer and writer Paul 
Guillaume (1891-1934) in 1914 by the poet and painter 
Max Jacob. Guillaume was one of Modigliani's earliest 
supporters, and the artist painted three other portraits 
of him, one in 1915 and two in 1916 (Ceroni, 1958, nos. 
55, 58, 62). There are also a number of related drawings, 
one of which appears to be a preparatory drawing for 
the Toledo portrait (J. Modigliani, Modigliani, New 
York, 1958, fig. 83). 



The seated woman represents Lady World, a popular 
allegorical figure in 17th century Dutch art and em- 
blematic literature. As a symbol of vanity, she is richly 
dressed, and wears a globe on her head. In this painting 
the symbolism is somewhat disguised. Lady World is 
being dressed by her maid, the wall map (which touches 
her head) taking the place of the usual globe (de Jongh). 
Her feet rest on a skull, a symbol of death and a re- 
minder of the transience of worldly things. Jewels repre- 
sent the temptations of life, while the musical instru- 
ments are attributes of temperance. The boy, a fool, 
playing with soap bubbles symbolizes worldly folly. 
The monkey, fettered because he will not willingly sub- 
mit to discipline, puts on her shoe and symbolically 
mimics her attitude. 

There may be another allegorical message in this paint- 
ing. According to the Leyden catalogue, the monkey also 
represents immorality, and together with the open door, 
ring held by the woman and landscape on the wall, may 
also symbolize infidelity. Molenaer often disguised his 
message, and in 1633 he painted another disguised alle- 
gory which P. J. J. van Thiel believed is an Allegory of 
Fidelity in Marriage (Virginia Museum of Fine Arts; 
"Marriage Symbolism in a Musical Party by Jan Miense 
Molenaer," Simiolus, 11, 1967-68, pp. 91-9). This may 
be a thematic pendant to the Toledo painting (Leyden 
exh. cat.). 



JAN MIENSE MOLENAER 

Ca. 1610-1668. Dutch. Born in Haarlem. Influenced by 
Frans and Dirk Hals and Adriaen van Ostade. In 1636 
he married the painter Judith Leyster. Lived in Amster- 
dam from about 1637 until 1648, when he returned to 
Haarlem. Painter and etcher of genre themes. 

Allegory of Vanity pl. 108 

[1633] Oil on canvas 

40J4 x 50 in. (102 x 127 cm.) 

Signed lower left: molenaer 1633 

Ace. no. 75.21 

collections: (Silberman, New York, by 1942); Julius 
Held, Old Bennington, Vt., 1946-68; J. M. Cath, New 
York, by 1973; (Nystad, The Hague). 

exhibitions: Leyden, Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, 
Ijdelheid der Ijdelheden, Hollandse vanitas-voorstellin- 
gen uit de zeventiende eeuw, 1970, no. 18. 

references: E. de Jongh, "Vermommingen van Vrouw 
Wereld in de i7de Eeuw," Album Amicorum ]. G. van 
Gelder, The Hague, 1973, p. 202, fig. 7. 



MONACO {see LORENZO) 



CLAUDE MONET 

1840-1926. French. Born in Paris. Boyhood spent in Le 
Havre, where he met Boudin, his first teacher. To Paris, 
1859. At the Academie Suisse and the studio of Gleyre, 
1862-63. Friend of Bazille, Sisley and Renoir. Exhibited 
at the Salon in the 1860s and in 1880, and at five exhibi- 
tions of the Impressionist group. Worked in France, Lon- 
don and Venice. Monet achieved greatest popular suc- 
cess of the Impressionists, beginning in 1889 with his 
haystack and Rouen Cathedral series. 

Antibes pl. 25- 

[1888] Oil on canvas 

28% x 36M in. (73.3 x 92 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: Claude Monet 88 

Ace. no. 29.51 

collections: Paul Durand-Ruel, Paris, by 1892-1921; 
(Durand-Ruel, Paris and New York). 

exhibitions: Paris, Georges Petit, Monet-Rodin exhibi- 



113 



MONTICELLI 



tion, 1889, no. 102 (?); Paris, Exposition universelle, 
1900, no. 489; London, Grafton Galleries, A Selection 
from the Pictures of Paul Durand-Ruel, 1905, no. 155, 
repr. p. 22; New York, Museum of Modern Art, Claude 
Monet: Seasons and Moments, i960, no. 41, repr. p. 19 
(cat. by W. C. Seitz); Art Institute of Chicago, Paintings 
by Monet, 1975, p. 32, no. 80, repr. 

references: G. Lecomte, L'art impressioniste d'apres 
la collection privee de M. Durand-Ruel, Paris, 1892, p. 
89, repr. (etching); M. O. Maus, Trente annees de lutte 
pour l'art, Brussels, 1926, p. 323; O. Reutersward, Mo- 
wer, Stockholm, 1948, p. 285; J. Rewald, The History of 
Impressionism, 4th ed., New York, 1973, repr. p. 551 
(also repr. in error, p. 492). 

Monet worked on the Mediterranean coast from Janu- 
ary to April 1888, when he carried out one of his first 
series of paintings of a single subject seen under differ- 
ent conditions of light. 

This view of Antibes from La Salis appears in three 
other paintings of the series that are in private collec- 
tions: Sidney Wohl, Old Westbury, New York; William 
C. Wright, St. David's, Pennsylvania; Pedro Valenilla 
Echeverria, Caracas, Venezuela. 



ADOLPHE MONTICELLI 

1824-1886. French. Born in Marseilles, his father was 
of Venetian origin. Studied with Delaroche in Paris, 
copying many pictures in the Louvre, especially those 
of Veronese, Rembrandt and Watteau. In Marseilles, 
1849-56; returned to Paris and met Diaz and Delacroix, 
who influenced his work. Settled permanently at Mar- 
seilles about 1870 and began his most productive period 
during which he painted briefly with Cezanne. Besides 
landscapes, portraits and still lifes, his work includes 
costume subjects inspired by Watteau. 

The Greyhounds pl. 270 

[Ca. 1871-72] Oil on wood panel 
14% x 2i/4 in. (37.7 x 54.1 cm.) 
Signed lower left: Monticelli 

Ace. no. 33.24 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

COLLECTIONS: E. Andre, Marseilles; (Howard Young, 
New York); (Vose, Boston); Arthur J. Secor, 1923-33. 

exhibitions: New York, Paul Rosenberg, Loan Exhibi- 
tion of Paintings by Adolphe Monticelli, 1954, no. 8, 
repr. 

references: G. Arnaud d'Agnel and E. Isnard, Monti- 



celli, sa vie et son oeuvre, Paris, 1926, pl. xxxii; D. Phil- 
lips, "A niche for Monticelli," Art News, liii, Dec. 1954, 
p. 23, repr. p. 65. 

Based on style and theme, A. Alauzen (letter, Oct. 1975) 
places The Greyhounds at the beginning of Monticelli's 
last period in Marseilles, ca. 1871-72. The painting is 
perhaps related to the Scene de pare painted at Mas 
Dezeaumes in 1871 (Cailleux collection, Paris). There 
is a pencil drawing of a page and greyhound in different 
poses (Basel, Kupferstichkabinett, no. 1960.43, as noted 
by Dieter Koepplin, letter, Mar. 1967) which is possibly 
a preparatory work for the Toledo painting. 



GIORGIO MORANDI 

1890-1964. Italian. Born in Bologna. Studied at Bo- 
logna Academy of Fine Arts 1907-13. From 1918-20 
allied with de Chirico, Carra and Metaphysical Paint- 
ing. Still life subjects in an individual style intermediate 
between Cubism and Impressionism comprise much of 
his mature work. 

Still Life with a Bottle pl. 42 

[Ca. 1951] Oil on canvas 
17 x 18/S in. (43.2 x 47 cm.) 
Signed lower center: Morandi 

Ace. no. 52.142 

collections: (11 Milione Gallery, Milan). 

WILLEM MOREELSE 

Ca. 1620-1666. Dutch. Perhaps the nephew and pupil 
of the Utrecht painter and architect Paulus Moreelse 
(1571-1638). He was the head of the Utrecht guild of 
painters from 1655 to 1664, but little else is definitely 
known about him. Most paintings that have been ten- 
tatively attributed to him are portraits. 

Portrait of a Scholar pl. 128 

[1647] Oil on canvas 

32-5 / s x z6}i in. (82.8 x 67 cm.) 

Signed and dated upper left: W Moreels: 1647 

Inscribed upper right: Ano.Aetat.21. 

Inscribed on book: Euphorbium/pRAESENTEM MON- 

strat/quaelibet her:/ba deum ("This herb points 

out the presence of God.") 

Ace. no. 62.70 

collections: (Hilleveld DeVries. . . . Roos, Amster- 
dam, Nov. 16-18, 1841, lot 58, as by P. Moreelse); 



114 



MUELICH 



(Sotheby, London, Apr. 4, 1962, lot 60); (Speelman, Lon- 
don, 1962); (Nystad, The Hague). 

exhibitions: Cleveland Museum of Art, Style, Truth 
and the Portrait, 1963, no. 14 (cat. by R. G. Saisselin). 

references: A. Frankfurter, "Museum Evaluations, 2: 
Toledo," Art News, lxiii, No. 9, Jan. 1965, pp. 26, 56, 

fig. 4. 

This portrait is the only fully signed and dated work by 
Moreelse. Although W. Stechow (entry in Thieme- 
Becker) cited a signed portrait in the Galleria Corsini, 
Rome as by Willem, it bears only the surname, and 
Stechow later wrote (letter, Nov. 1962) he was "not 
convinced that they (the Toledo and Corsini paintings) 
are by the same hand. . . . Thus my attribution of the 
Roman picture is probably wrong after all. . . ." 

This is probably a graduation portrait. The sitter 
wears the traditional laurel wreath on his doctoral cap. 
Hanging from his neck on a red and silver cord is the 
promotion medal of the University of Utrecht given to 
successful doctoral candidates. The medal bears the 
coats of arms of both the city and university of Utrecht. 

According to J. Struick of the Utrecht City Archives 
(letter, Nov. 1975), the book which the sitter holds is 
not his thesis, but probably an invention of the artist. 
As the extract of euphorbium, the herb shown in the 
book, was used as a medicine against the plague, Struick 
believes the sitter may have been a student of medicine. 



BERTHE MORISOT 

1841-1895. French. Born in Bourges. Lived in Paris from 
1851. Studied with Corot 1860-62. Exhibited at the Sa- 
lon, 1864-73, and participated in all the Impressionist 
exhibitions except one (1879). Close friend of Manet, 
whose brother she married. Primarily a painter of fig- 
ures, she also did watercolors and pastels. 

/;/ the Garden at Maurecourt PL. 258 

[1884] Oil on canvas 

21 J4 x 25H in. (54 x 65 cm.) 

Signed lower left: Berthe Morisot 

Ace. no. 30.9 

COLLECTIONS: Lady Cunard, London; (Chester J. John- 
son, Chicago). 

exhibitions: Paris, Durand-Ruel, Berthe Morisot, expo- 
sition commemorative, 1896, no. 107; New York, Wil- 
denstein, Berthe Morisot, i960, no. 36, repr.; Baltimore 
Museum of Art, Manet, Degas, Berthe Morisot and Mary 
Cassatt, 1962, no. 88, repr. p. 32; New York, Wilden- 
stein, One Hundred Years of Impressionism: A Tribute 
to Durand-Ruel, 1970, no. 61. 

references: M. Angoulvent, Berthe Morisot, Paris, 
1933, p. 128, no. 219; D. Rouart, ed., The Correspon- 
dence of Berthe Morisot, New York, 1959, repr. opp. p. 
90; G. Wildenstein and M.-L. Bataille, Berthe Morisot, 
catalogue des peintures, dessins, aquarelles, Paris, i960, 
no. 154, pi. 47. 



HENRY MORET 

1856-1913. French. Born in Cherbourg. Studied briefly 
with Gerome and at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. First ex- 
hibited at the Salon of 1880. Worked with Gauguin at 
Pont-Aven, 1888-90; later influenced by Monet. Lived 
mostly in Brittany, where he specialized in coastal sub- 
jects. 

Seaweed Gatherers pl. 277 

[1899] Oil on canvas 

21H x 26 in. (54.6 x 66 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: Henry Moret/99 

Ace. no. 06.250 

Gift of Georges Durand-Ruel 

collections: (Durand-Ruel, Paris). 

exhibitions: Toledo Museum of Art, Exhibition of One 
Hundred Paintings by the Impressionists (from the Col- 
lection of Durand-Ruel & Sons, Paris), 1905, no. 59 (as 
Seaweed, Trevignon). 



Maurecourt, near Paris, was the home of Morisot's sis- 
ter, Edma Pontillon, whose garden was often the setting 
for Morisot's paintings. These figures have been identi- 
fied as Edma Pontillon and her daughter (Wildenstein 
and Bataille), or Edma's two daughters (Baltimore, 1962). 
Angoulvent and Wildenstein-Bataille date this painting 
1884. A watercolor sketch of the same subject, inscribed 
"Berthe Morisot. Maurecourt" is also dated 1884 by 
Wildenstein and Bataille (no. 704, fig. 701). 



HANS MUELICH 

1516-1573. German. Born in Munich; studied with his 
father Wolfgang and Barthel Beham. About 1536 to 
Regensburg, where he worked with Altdorfer. By 1540 
in Munich, where he remained the rest of his life except 
for a visit to Italy in 1541. Primarily a portraitist, Mue- 
lich also did book illustrations and portrait miniatures 
for the Bavarian court. 



"5 



MURILLO 



Portrait of a Man 

[1540] Oil on wood panel 

29^2 x 23H in. (74.9 x 60 cm.) 

Signed and dated right center: hm 1540 

Inscribed lower center: aetatis svae xxxx 

Ace. no. 55.226 



COLOR PL. ml PL. 68 



PL. 69 



Portrait of a Woman 

[1540] Oil on wood panel 
29/ / 2 x 25^ in. (74.9 x 65.1 cm.) 
Signed and dated left center: HM 1540 

Ace. no. 55.227 

COLLECTIONS: Private collections, Italy, until 1955. 

references: K. Locher, "Studien zur oberdeutschen 
Bildnis-Malerei des 16. Jahrhunderts," Jabrbucb der 
Staatlichen Kuntssammlungen in Baden-Wiirttemberg, 
IV, 1967, pp. 72-4, 84, nn. 155-56, figs. 48, 49. 

The subjects of these portraits are a husband and wife, 
though they have not been identified. As the martyrdom 
by stoning of St. Stephen is shown in the garden behind 
the man, this may refer to his Christian name. Accord- 
ing to Locher, the large church is probably an architec- 
tural fantasy. The castle behind the woman has not been 
related to a known site. 



BARTOLOME ESTEBAN MURILLO 

1617-1682. Spanish. Pupil of Juan del Castillo in his na- 
tive Seville. Early in his career influenced by Zurbaran 
and Ribera. He may have visited Madrid before 1646; 
he did go there in 1658. A founder and first president of 
the Seville Academy, 1660. Best known for religious 
paintings, as well as genre paintings and portraits. 

The Adoration of the Magi pl. 58 

[Ca. 1655-60] Oil on canvas 
75H x 57^2 in. (190.7 x 146 cm.) 

Ace. no. 75.84 

collections: William Stanhope, later 1st Earl of Har- 
rington (acquired in Spain in 1729 when he concluded 
the Treaty of Seville); 3rd Duke of Rutland, Belvoir 
Castle, Leicestershire, ca. 1760; Dukes of Rutland, Bel- 
voir Castle (Christie, London, Apr. 16, 1926, lot 26); 
Count Alessandro Contini-Bonacossi, Florence; Anony- 
mous owner (Christie, London, July 7, 1972, lot 83, 
repr.); (Wildenstein, New York). 

exhibitions: Rome, Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna, 
The Old Spanish Masters from the Contini-Bonacossi 



Collection, 1930, no. 49, pl. xlii (as ca. 1650-60; cat. by 
R. Longhi and A. Mayer). 

references: I. Eller, The History of Belvoir Castle . . . , 
London, 1841, pp. 242-43; G. Waagen, Treasures of Art 
in Great Britain, London, 1854, in, pp. 395, 398; F. M. 
Tubino, Murillo, su epoca, su vida, sus cuadros, Seville, 
1864, p. 206; C. B. Curtis, Velazquez and Murillo, New 
York and London, 1883, p. 167, no. 125; W. Stirling- 
Maxwell, Annals of the Artists of Spain, London, 1891, 
iv, p. 1618; A. Mauer, "Zur Austellung der spanischen 
Gemalde des Grafen Contini in Rom," Pantheon, v, 
May 1930, p. 207, repr. p. 208; W. Suida, "Spanische 
Gemalde der Sammlung Contini-Bonacossi," Belvedere, 
1, 1930, p. 144; R. Heinemann et al., The Thyssen-Born- 
emisza Collection, Castagnola, 1969, 1, in no. 228. 

The composition and strong contrasts of light and dark 
reflect the Italian Renaissance masters, as well as Rubens 
and Van Dyck, whose work Murillo probably saw in the 
royal collection at Madrid. So far as is known, this is 
Murillo's only painting of the subject. 

According to Diego Angulo (letters, Mar. and Apr. 
1976), who is preparing a monograph on Murillo, this 
picture was painted about 1655-60, soon after Murillo 
had reached artistic maturity. Mayer and Suida also be- 
lieved it was painted in the 1650s. 

Heinemann refers to this picture and the Virgin and 
St. Rose in the Thyssen Collection as companions. 
Though their sizes are the same and both were acquired 
by Stanhope in 1729, as the style of the Toledo picture 
is several years earlier than that of the other, it is un- 
likely they were painted as pendants. A copy of the To- 
ledo picture is in the Cartuja, Jerez (Angulo). 



PAUL NASH 

1 889-1946. British. Born in London. Studied at Slade 
School 1910— n. Served as an official war artist in 
World Wars I and II. Associated with Roger Fry at 
Omega Workshops. Founder of Unit One, 1933. Exhib- 
ited at Paris Surrealist exhibitions, 1938. Also a designer, 
photographer and illustrator. 

French Farm pl. 345 

[Ca. 1926] Oil on canvas 
2ij4 x 28M in. (54 x 73 cm.) 
Signed lower left: Paul Nash 

Ace. no. 50.258 

collections: Miss Winifred Felce, England; (Redfern, 

London). 



116 



NEER 



exhibitions: London, Tate Gallery, Paul Nash Memo- 
rial Exhibition, 1948, no. 13. 

references: M. Eates, ed., Paul Nash: Paintings, Draw- 
ings and Illustrations, London, 1948, no. 46, fig. 46; A. 
Bertram, Paul Nash, The Portrait of an Artist, London, 
1955, PP- 156, 32-1- 

This picture belongs to a group painted following a visit 
to Cros-de-Cagnes on the French Riviera in 1925. 



JEAN-MARC NATTIER 

1685-1766. French. Born in Paris, Nattier studied with 
his father, a portraitist, and with his godfather, Jean 
Jouvenet. In Holland, 1717. Entered the Academie as a 
history painter, 1718. However, he worked mostly as a 
portraitist, achieving considerable success with lightly 
allegorized portrayals of women, including the daugh- 
ters of Louis XV. 

Princesse de Rohan PL. 200 

[1741] Oil on canvas 

SjVk x 44^ in. (145 x 113 cm.) 

Signed and dated bottom center: Nattier. pinxit./i74i. 

Ace. no. 52.64 

collections: Prince de Rohan and descendants, Hotel 
de Rohan, Paris, from 1741; Count Rohan-Rochefort, 
Prague; (Wildenstein, New York). 

exhibitions: Paris, Salon, 1741, no. 58 (as Madame la 
princesse de Rohan, tenant un livre). 

references: J. -J. Guiffrey, "L'Hotel de Soubise," Ga- 
zette des Beaux-Arts, 1, 1869, p. 403; C. L. V. Langlois, 
Les Hotels de Clisson, de Guise et de Rohan-Soubise au 
Marais, Paris, 1922, pp. 167-68; P. de Nolhac, Nattier, 
3rd ed., Paris, 1925, pp. 99-100; G. Huard, "Nattier," 
in Les peintres francais du XVlIIe siecle (ed. L. Dimier), 
Paris, 1930, 11, p. in, no. 113 (as prince [sic] de Rohan). 

Marie-Sophie de Courcillon (1713-1756) married Her- 
cule-Meriadec, Prince de Rohan in 1732. This portrait 
is probably one largely concealed by a column in an en- 
graved view of the Prince's bedroom at the Hotel de 
Rohan (G. G. Boffrand, Livre d' architecture, Paris, 1745, 
pi. LXii; Langlois). 

As the Toledo painting is the only one of several 
versions that is signed, presumably it is the portrait in 
the 1741 Salon (Langlois). Earlier, Nolhac identified an 
unsigned version (Henri de Rothschild Collection) as the 
one shown in 1741. 



Other unsigned versions include: Bernis-Calviere col- 
lection (Langlois, pi. xxm); J. Porges (sale, G. Petit, 
Paris, June 17-18, 1924, lot 90, repr.); Beraudiere (sale, 
American Art Association, New York, Dec. n-13, 1930, 
lot 289, repr.); P. de Koenigsberg, Buenos Aires (ex-coll. 
Demidoff). 

The copies show a lock of hair falling over the left 
shoulder. It may be presumed this is also present in the 
Toledo portrait, as this area has been overpainted. The 
book she holds is titled Histoire universelle. This may 
be an edition of Discours sur I'histoire universelle by 
J. B. Bossuet, first published in 1681. 



AERT VAN DER NEER 

1603/04-1677. Dutch. Lived in Amsterdam except for a 
brief period in his youth at Gorinchem. May have stud- 
ied with one or more of the Camphuysen brothers. Best 
known for moonlit landscapes and winter scenes. 

Arrival of the Guests PL. 106 

[Ca. 1635-40] Oil on wood panel 

15H x 21 in. (39.7 x 53.3 cm.) 

Signed lower right: avdn (in monogram) 

Ace. no. 33.30 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

Approaching the Bridge PL. 107 

[Ca. 1635-40] Oil on wood panel 

15H x 21^ in. (39.7 x 53.6 cm.) 

Signed lower right: AVDN (in monogram) 

Ace. no. 33.31 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: Baron D. W. . . E, Antwerp (Amsterdam, 
Nov. 17, 1903, lot 57)?; V. G. Fischer, Washington, D.C., 
1912?; Roman A. Penn, 1925; (Arthur Tooth & Son, 
London); (Vose, Boston); Arthur J. Secor, 1926-33. 

references: C. Hofstede de Groot, vn, nos. 81, 82; W. 
Stechow, London, 1968, p. 199, n. 17; F. Bachmann, 
"Die Herkunft Friihwerke des Aert van der Neer," Oud 
Holland, lxxxix, No. 3, 1975, p. 221. 

Stechow dates the Toledo paintings ca. 1637/38, be- 
tween Van der Neer's earliest signed and dated landscape 
of 1635 (formerly Wilstach Museum, Philadelphia; 
Stechow, fig. 131), and a landscape dated 1639 (Rijks- 
museum, Amsterdam), while Bachmann (letter, July 
1975) dates them ca. 1640. 



117 



NEUHUIJS 



ALBERT NEUHUIJS 

1844-1914. Dutch. After 1876 lived in The Hague and 
worked with Jacob Maris, Mauve and Israels. A painter 
of peasant life, he was strongly influenced by Israels. 
After 1883 he moved frequently between Laren, The 
Hague, Amsterdam and Zurich. 

Mother and Children pl. 155 

Oil on wood panel 

izM x 9 34 in. (32.5 x 23.5 cm.) 

Signed lower right: Albert Neuhuijs 

Ace. no. 25.880 

collections: (Henry Reinhardt, Milwaukee); Edward 
Drummond Libbey, 1904-25. 



BEN NICHOLSON 

1 894-. British. Born in Denham. Son of the painters 
William and Mabel Nicholson. Studied at Slade School, 
London. Influenced by Cubism, Purism and Neo-Plasti- 
cism. Frequently traveled abroad with artist wife Bar- 
bara Hepworth. Joined the French Abstraction-Creation 
and then the English Axis groups. 

Ides of March pl. 359 

[1952] Oil on canvas 
36 x 30 in. (91.5 x 76.2 cm.) 

Signed and dated on stretcher: March 21-52 Ben Nichol- 
son (Ides of March) 

Ace. no. 52.90 

collections: (Lefevre Gallery, London). 

exhibitions: London, Lefevre Gallery, Ben Nicholson, 
1952, no. 60; Cleveland Museum of Art, Paths of Ab- 
stract Art, i960, no. 69, fig. 69. 

references: C. B. Johnson, Conteynporary Art: Explor- 
ing its Roots and Development, Worcester, 1973, p. 27, 
repr. p. 26. 



ISAAK VAN OOSTEN 

1613-1661. Flemish. Born in Antwerp, where he became 
a member of the painters guild in 1652. He was a fol- 
lower of Jan Brueghel the Elder. 



The Garden of Eden 

Oil on canvas 

22^4 x 34M in. (57.7 x 88.2 cm.) 

Signed lower right: I. v. Oosten . fecit 



PL. 91 



Ace. no. 59.1 

COLLECTIONS: Marquise de Bryas; (Cailleux, Paris). 

references: C. M. Kauffmann, Victoria and Albert Mu- 
seum: Catalogue of Foreign Paintings, I. Before 1800, 
London, 1973, p. 50. 

Little is known about Van Oosten. Among the small 
number of signed pictures by him — less than six — is an- 
other signed version of The Garden of Eden (Liechten- 
stein collection, Vaduz) . 

In the background is the temptation of Eve. This com- 
position originated with Jan Brueghel the Elder (1568- 
1625), and he and his studio painted numerous variants 
of it, characterized by the combination of late Mannerist 
landscape conventions with realistic detail. Examples of 
this composition by Brueghel are in the Szepmiiveseti 
Muzeum, Budapest; the Victoria and Albert Museum, 
London; and Windsor Castle. 



JACOB CORNELISZ. VAN OOSTSAANEN 

Ca. 1470-1533. Dutch. Also called Jacob Cornelisz van 
Amsterdam. The first important Amsterdam painter; in 
that city by 1500. To Jerusalem, 1525. Teacher of Jan 
van Scorel. Painted altarpieces, votive pictures and por- 
traits. Also did woodcuts, especially after Diirer, as well 
as book illustrations, frescoes and designs for stained 
glass and embroidery. 

The Artist with a Portrait of his Wife pl. 86 

[Ca. 1530-33] Oil on wood panel 
24-7/16 x 19-7/16 in. (62.1 x 49.4 cm.) 
Inscribed upper right: A—-. 

Ace. no. 60.7 

collections: Duke of Newcastle, Clumber Park, Not- 
tinghamshire; Earl of Lincoln, Clumber Park (Christie, 
London, June 4, 1937, lot 70, repr.); (Katz, Arnhem); 
Geldner, Basel; (Schultess, Basel); (Frederick Mont, New 
York). 

exhibitions: Delft, Stedelijk Museum, "Het Prisenhof," 
De Schilder in zijn Wereld, 1964, p. 48, no. 29. 

references: K. Steinbart, "Nachlese in Werke des Ja- 
cob Cornelisz," Marburger Jahrbuch fiir Kunstwissen- 
schaft, v, 1929, p. 37, pl. 70; M. J. Friedlander, Die alt- 
niederlandische Malerei, Leyden, 1935, xn, pp. 97, 197, 
no. 289a; G. Hoogewerff, De Noord-Nederlandsche 
Schilderkunst, The Hague, 1939, in, p. 133; Amsterdam, 
Rijksmuseum, Middleleeuivse Kunst de Noordelijke 
Nederlanden, 1958, p. 101, in no. in; C. Miiller Hof- 
stede, "Das Selbstbildnis des Lucas van Leyden im Her- 



118 



OUDRY 



zog Anton Ulrich-Museum zu Braunschweig," in Fest- 
schrift Friedrich Winkler (ed., H. Mohle), Berlin, 1959, 
p. 234; M. J. Friedlander, Early Netherlandish Painting, 
(ed., H. Pauwels), New York, 1975, xn, pp. 53, 119, 
no. 289a, pi. 155. 

In addition to the Toledo painting, Oostsaanen painted 
two other self-portraits, one dated 1520 (P. de Boer, 
Amsterdam, Winter, 1962, no. 4, repr.), the other 1553 
(Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam). Only in the Toledo panel 
is Oostsaanen shown at his easel. In the 1520 version the 
artist holds a brush and palette, though not in the Rijks- 
museum painting. In all three works the artist looks 
over his shoulder in the same way, a pose probably de- 
riving from Lucas van Leyden's Self-portrait (Herzog 
Anton Ulrich Museum, Braunschweig; Muller Hofstede). 

The partial letter A in the upper right corner may be 
a fragment of the date, "ano cccccxxx" that is recorded 
in some published references to this painting, though not 
visible in old photographs. 

Steinbart and Friedlander both believe that the woman 
depicted in the easel painting in the Toledo self-portrait 
is the artist's wife. 



ADRIAEN VAN OSTADE 

1610-1685. Dutch. Born and lived in Haarlem. Accord- 
ing to Houbraken, he was a pupil of Frans Hals at the 
same time as Adriaen Brouwer. Dean of the Haarlem 
guild, 1662. Influenced by both Brouwer and Rembrandt, 
he is best known for his etchings and paintings of peasant 
genre. His brother Isaak, Jan Steen and Cornelis Dusart 
were his principal pupils. 

Villagers Merrymaking at an Inn PL. no 

[1652] Oil on wood panel 
i6^4 x 21^ in. (42.5 x 55.5 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower center (on bench): A v Ostade/ 
1652 

Ace. no. 69.339 

collections: T. Emmerson, London, 1829; Tardieu, 
Paris (Simonet, Paris, Mar. 31-Apr. 3, 1841, no. 67); 
Theodore Patureau, Paris (Leroy, Laneuville, Paris, Apr. 
20-21, 1857, no. 21); Marquis de Saint-Cloud, Paris 
(Laneuville, Paris, Apr. 10-11, 1864, no. 67); Alphonse 
Oudry (Febvre, Paris, Apr. 19-20, 1869, no. 49); Octave 
Gallice, Epernay; (Charles Sedelmeyer, Paris, 1900); 
Henry Heugel and descendants, Paris, to 1968; (Heim, 
Paris). 

references: J. Smith, ix (Supplement), London, 1842, 
no. 52; Sedelmeyer Gallery, Illustrated Catalogue of the 



Sixth Series of 100 Paintings by Old Masters, Paris, 1900, 
no. 26; C. Hofstede de Groot, 111, no. 546; W. von Bode, 
"Die beiden Ostade," Zeitschrift fiir bildende Kunst, 
xxvii, 1916, p. 4; F. Godefroy, L'oeuvre grave de Adriaen 
van Ostade, Paris, 1930, in no. 49. 

There is a signed preparatory drawing for this composi- 
tion in the Musee Conde, Chantilly, and a study for one 
of the dancing figures in the Kunsthalle, Hamburg (see 
Godefroy). The Toledo painting was also etched (in re- 
verse) by Ostade (Godefroy, no. 49). 



ISAAK VAN OSTADE 

1621-1649. Dutch. Born in Haarlem. Brother and pupil 
of Adriaen van Ostade. Entered the Haarlem guild in 
1643. In his short life he painted a large number of pic- 
tures, including peasant scenes influenced by his brother's 
work, though he is best known for landscapes, espe- 
cially winter subjects. 

Skaters Near a Village PL. 109 

[1640s] Oil on wood panel 
iz}i x 17K in. (32.3 x 45.1 cm.) 
Signed lower center: Isack. Ostade 

Ace. no. 53.76 

collections: (Charles Sedelmeyer, Paris, 1899); Mau- 
rice Kann, Paris (Galerie Georges Petit, June 9, 1911, no. 
38); M. Van Gelder, The Netherlands; E. A. Frost, 
Limpsfield, Surrey; (John Mitchell, London, 1950); 
(Horace A. Buttery, London). 

exhibitions: Indianapolis, John Herron Art Museum, 
The Young Rembrandt and his Times, 1958, no. 55, 
repr. 

references: Sedelmeyer Gallery, Illustrated Catalogue 
of the Fifth Series of 100 Paintings by Old Masters, Paris, 
1899, no. 35; C. Hofstede de Groot, in, no. 261. 

According to Stechow (1968, p. 90), Ostade's winter 
landscapes were painted about 1642-47. The Toledo 
painting is very freely composed and executed, charac- 
teristics which Stechow states are typical of Ostade's 
smaller winter scenes on panel. 



JEAN-BAPTISTE OUDRY 

1686-1755. French. Student of his father, Jacques Ou- 
dry, and of Largillierre; also influenced by Desportes. 
His work included landscapes, still lifes and animal 
paintings, tapestry designs and book illustrations. Pro- 



119 



OUWATER 



fessor at the Academy of St. Luke by 1717. Member of 
the Academie Royale, 1719. Director of the Beauvais 
tapestry manufactory, 1734; he also worked for Gobelins. 

Still Life with Musette and Violin pl. 199 

[1725] Oil on canvas 

34K 1 x z$H in. (87.5 x 65.4 cm.) 

Signed and dated center: J. B. Oudry 1725 

Ace. no. 51.500 

collections: (Cailleux, Paris). 

references: P. L. Grigaut, "Baroque and Rococo France 
in Toledo," Art Quarterly, xix, Spring, 1956, p. 53, fig. 
4; A. P. de Mirimonde, "Les oeuvres francaises a sujet 
de musique au musee du Louvre, 11. Natures mortes des 
XVIIIe et XIXe siecles," Revue du Louvre, 1965, No. 1, 
p. 114, fig. 4. 

The musette was a type of bagpipe much in vogue with 
the French aristocracy in the 18th century. The sheet mu- 
sic is "Divin sommeil" by Louis Lemaire, printed in 
Recueil d'airs serieux et a boire, Paris, 171 8. The same 
music appears in a rectangular version of this composi- 
tion dated 1736 (Musee National de Sevres). The To- 
ledo and Sevres paintings are versions of the rectangular 
overdoor panel dated 1719 representing Air as one of 
the Four Elements (Nationalmuseum, Stockholm). 



ISAAK OUWATER 

1750-1793. Dutch. Born in Amsterdam; little is known of 
his training or life. Painter of scenes in Amsterdam, 
Utrecht, Haarlem, The Hague and other Dutch cities and 
towns in which he continued Van der Heyden's style of 
view painting. 

The Prinsengracht, Amsterdam pl. 147 

[1782] Oil on canvas 

17^ x 22^ in. (45 x 57 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: I. Ouwater 1782 

Ace. no. 76.13 

collections: Bouvy family, Amsterdam, 1782-1940; P. 
Smidt van Gelder, Amsterdam; (Frederik Muller, Am- 
sterdam, Nov. 1940, lot 480); B. de Geus van den Heuvel, 
Nieuwersluis; (Sotheby-Mak van Waay, Amsterdam, 
Apr. 16, 1976, lot 98, repr.). 

exhibitions: Schiedam, Stedelijk Museum, 195 1, no. 57; 
Delft, Stedelijk Museum Het Prinsenhof, 1952, no. 57; 
Utrecht, Centraal Museum, Nederlandse Architectuur- 
scbilders, 1953, no. 78; Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, 



1956-57, no. 73; Laren N. H., Singer Museum, Kunst- 
bezit Rondom Laren, 1958, no. 177; Amsterdam, Mu- 
seum Willet Holthuysen, 1958, no. 33, repr.; Laren N. H., 
Singer Museum, 1964, no. 9, fig. 5. 

references: F. M. Huebner, Romantiscbe Schilderkunst 
in de Nederlanden, The Hague, 1942, fig. 7. 

Ouwater's view on the Prinsengracht is taken looking 
down the Spiegelgracht. To the far left at Prinsengracht 
578 can be seen the apothecary shop Bouvy and Son, 
formerly called the "Hoogduitsche Apotheek". The 
painting was probably commissioned by the Bouvy fam- 
ily, in whose collection it remained for nearly two cen- 
turies. The building at Prinsengracht 578 still exists. The 
view shows a well-known neighborhood a few blocks 
from the Rijksmuseum. 



GIOVANNI PAOLO PANNINI 

1 691/92-1765. Italian. Born in Piacenza, where he prob- 
ably studied and worked with Ferdinando Bibiena. 
Moved to Rome, 171 1. In the studio of Benedetto Luti 
until 1718. Influenced by Vanvitelli and others. Achieved 
early fame as a painter of decorations in Roman palaces 
and villas. Elected to the Academy of St. Luke in 1718- 
19 (president, 1754-55), and to the French Academy in 
Rome, 1732. Pannini's patrons included not only Ital- 
ians, but also the cardinal protectors of France and 
Spain, for whom he painted both actual and imaginary 
views of Rome, which exerted influence on French as 
well as Italian view painting. 



Architectural Fantasy 
with a Concert Party 

[Ca. 1716-17] Oil on canvas 
39 x 29 in. (99.1 x 73.6 cm.) 

Ace. no. 64.30 



PL. 25 



PL. 26 



Ruins with the Farnese Hercules 

[Ca. 1716-17] Oil on canvas 
39 x 29 in. (99.1 x 73.6 cm.) 

Ace. no. 64.31 

collections: (William Sabin, London); (Jacques Selig- 
mann, New York); Mr. and Mrs. Walter Travers, New 
York, ca. 1929-59; (Wildenstein, New York); Private 
collection; (Hazlitt, London); (Colnaghi, London). 
references: F. Arisi, Gian Paolo Pannini, Piacenza, 
1961, nos. 17, 18, figs. 41, 42; A. Frankfurter, "Museum 
Evaluations, 2: Toledo," Art News, lxiii, Jan. 1965, pp. 



120 




ix. Jean-Honore Fragonard, Blind-Man's Buff 



121 




x. Sir Thomas Lawrence, Lord Amherst 
122 



PATER 



24, 52.-3, fig. 1; B. Fredericksen and F. Zeri, Census, pp. 
157, 502, 641. 

This pair has been dated by Arisi ca. 1716-17 by com- 
parison with similar pairs in the Earl of Northhampton 
collection dated by Arisi ca. 1715 (Arisi, nos. 14, 15), and 
the Louvre, dated ca. 1716-18 (Arisi, nos. 19, 20). The 
Toledo pictures are considered among the earliest works 
by Pannini. 

St. Peter's Square, Rome pl. 27 

[1741] Oil on canvas 
38M x 53^2 in. (98.4 x 135.9 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: 1. paul-panini/romae 
1741. 

Ace. no. 71.157 

collections: Sir Thomas Lucas, Bt., London, 1902; 
Captain Stephen Tempest, London (Sotheby, London, 
Nov. 25, 1970, lot 14, repr.); (Speelman, London, 1970- 

7i). 

The subject is the facade and dome of St. Peter's, flanked 
by the colonnades designed by Bernini, beyond which the 
Vatican stands to the right. The ruins in the foreground 
are imaginary. 

While Pannini painted several interior views of St. 
Peter's, views of the exterior are rare. Arisi, to whom 
Toledo's picture was unknown, recorded only one large 
scale view of St. Peter's Square, 1756-57, in which a 
similar viewpoint is used (Cian Paolo Pannini, 1961, no. 
247). There is a second exterior of St. Peter's, dated 
1754 ar) d closely related to the Toledo picture, also un- 
known to Arisi (Christie, London, Mar. 23, 1973, lot 53, 
repr.). In both the viewpoint is nearly the same and sev- 
eral of the figures are identical. 

The Toledo painting is a pendant to View of the 
Piazza del Popolo, Rome, also signed and dated 174 1 
(Sotheby, London, Nov. 25, 1970, lot 13, repr.). 



JULES PASCIN 

1885-1930. French. Born Julius Mordecai Pincas in 
Vidin, Bulgaria. Early work in Vienna, Berlin and Mu- 
nich. Lived in Paris, 1905; moved to New York 1913. 
Became an American citizen, 1920. Committed suicide 
in Paris, 1930. In his painting color was subordinated 
to draughtsmanship. 



Cinderella 

[Ca. 1925-26] Oil on canvas 



PL. 293 



36^ x 29 in. (95.6 x 73.6 cm.) 
Signed upper right: Pascin 
Inscribed on reverse: Cendrillon 

Ace. no. 30.203 

collections: (Galarie Pierre Loeb, Paris, 1928); (Bern- 

heim-Jeune, Paris, 1930). 

exhibitions: Cleveland Museum of Art, Fifty Years of 

Modern Art, 1966, no. 36, repr. 

references: P. Morand, Pascin, Paris, 193 1, pl. 30; H. 
Brodzky, Pascin, London, 1946, pl. 19; A Werner, Pascin, 
New York, 1962, pl. 27. 

In 1929 Pascin provided several illustrations for an edi- 
tion of Cendrillon (Cinderella) by Charles Perrault. 
Pascin returned frequently to this subject and variations 
exist in oil, watercolor, prints and drawings. Werner has 
dated this painting 1925-26. 



JEAN-BAPTISTE PATER 

1695-1736. French. Son of a sculptor, Pater first studied 
with the painter J. B. Guider in his native Valenciennes, 
1706-11. In Paris about 1713, where he became Wat- 
teau's only pupil. Elected to the Academy in 1728. Pater 
was greatly influenced by Watteau's style and subject 
matter, especially the fete galante. 

The Bathing Party pl. 197 

Oil on canvas 

2.6 1 /a x 32J4 in. (66.8 x 81.9 cm.) 

Ace. no. 54.28 

collections: Frederick II, King of Prussia (reigned 
1740-86) and successors; Neue Palais, Potsdam, until 
1923, when it was ceded by the German government to 
the former Emperor William II; (Wildenstein, New 
York, by 1953). 

exhibitions: Berlin, Die Austellung von Gemalden al- 
ter er Meister im Berliner Privatbesitz, 1883, no. 9; Paris, 
Exposition Universelle, 1900. 

references: R. Dohme, "Die Austellung von Gemalden 
alterer Meister im Berliner Privatbesitz, die franzosische 
Schule des XVIII Jahrhunderts," Jahrbucb der Koniglich 
Preussicben Kunstsammlungen, iv, 1883, p. 253; P. Sei- 
del, Die Kunstsammlung Friedrichs des Grossen auf der 
Pariser Weltaustellung 1900, Berlin, 1900, no. 19; P. Sei- 
del, Les collections d'oeuvres d'art francaises du XVHIe 
siecle appartenant a sa majeste I'empereur d'Allemagne 
Roi de Prusse, Berlin, 1900, no. 83; C. Foerster, Das Neue 



123 



PECHSTEIN 



Palais bei Potsdam, Berlin, 1923, p. 61; F. Ingersoll- 
Smouse, Pater, Paris, 1928, no. 326, fig. 102. 

The bathing scene was one of Pater's favorite subjects 
and one developed independently of Watteau. Of nearly 
thirty pictures on this theme listed by Ingersoll-Smouse, 
four are close to the Toledo picture in composition and 
major motifs, especially Baigneuses (Ingersoll-Smouse, 
no. 327). Like most of Pater's work, none of these paint- 
ings is dated and no chronology of the artist's short, pro- 
lific career has been attempted. 



in the Eighteenth Century: Rococo to Romanticism, 
1970, no. 30, repr. p. 83 (entry by B. Hannegan). 

references: B. Fredericksen and F. Zeri, Census, p. 
160. 

The subject is an incident from the Punic Wars (205-200 
B.C.), based on the Roman historian Livy's account of 
Sophonisba, daughter of the Carthaginian general Has- 
drubal, taking poison to avoid captivity or dishonor. It 
was probably painted during Pellegrini's first stay in 
England, 1708-13. This painting is the largest and most 
important of four versions of this subject. 



MAX PECHSTEIN 

1881-1955. German. Born in Zwickau. Studied at Dres- 
den Academy. Joined the Briicke group, 1906; charter 
member of New Secession, 1910. Traveled to Italy and 
the Philippines. One of the leading German Expression- 
ists. 

Still Life ivith Calla Lilies pl. 75 

[1931] Oil on canvas 
38M x z6H in. (97.1 x 68 cm.) 
Signed and dated lower right: HM Pechstein 193 1 
Inscribed on reverse by the artist: Calla/HM Pechstein 
(hmp in monogram)/Berlin W.67/Kiirfurstenstr. 126 

Ace. no. 34.51 

exhibitions: Pittsburgh, Carnegie Institute, 1933 Inter- 
national, no. 345; Pittsburgh, Carnegie Institute, Retro- 
spective Exhibition of Paintings from Previous Interna- 
tionals, 1958, no. 61, repr. 



SAMUEL JOHN PEPLOE 

1871-1935. British. Born in Edinburgh; studied at the 
Royal Scottish Academy and later in Paris. Founding 
member of the National Portrait Society; member of the 
Royal Scottish Academy. Early work influenced by the 
Glasgow School, and later, by French Post-Impression- 
ism. Taught at Edinburgh College of Art, 1933-35. 

Still Life with Fruit PL. 344 

[1928] Oil on canvas 

20 x 28 in. (50.8 x 71.2 cm.) 

Signed lower right: S. J. Peploe 

Ace. no. 48.67 

collections: Mrs. Samuel J. Peploe; (Alex Reid & Le- 
fevre, London). 

exhibitions: London, Lefevre Gallery, Paintings by 
S. J. Peploe, 1948, no. 50 (as 1928). 



GIOVANNI ANTONIO PELLEGRINI 

1675-1741. Italian. Born in Venice, he studied with 
Paolo Pagani and was influenced by Giordano and Se- 
bastiano Ricci. Like many other Venetian painters of 
his time, he did much work abroad in Austria, England, 
the Low Countries, Germany, and France, bringing the 
lightness and gaiety of the Venetian decorative style to 
many European centers. 

Sophonisba Receiving the Cup of Poison pl. 32 

[1708-13] Oil on canvas 

73MJ x 60M in. (185.7 x 154-3 cm -) 

Ace. no. 66.128 

collections: Private collection, England; (G. Gasparini, 
Rome); (Colnaghi, London). 

exhibitions: Art Institute of Chicago, Painting in Italy 



PESELLINO 

1422-1457. Italian. Born Francesco di Stefano in Flor- 
ence, where he was brought up and probably trained 
by his grandfather, also a painter. From 1453 he worked 
with Pier di Lorenzo di Pratese and Zanobi Migliore. 
Although strongly influenced by Filippo Lippi, he was 
also indebted to the low relief sculpture of contempo- 
raries such as Luca della Robbia, and to the work of 
Uccello and especially Fra Angelico. 



[COLOR PL. IJ PL. 5 



Madonna and Child 
with Saint John 

[Ca. 1455] Tempera on wood panel 
28^2 x 2iJ4 in. (72.4 x 54 cm.) 

Ace. no. 44.34 

collections: William Graham, London, by 1875 

(Christie, London, Apr. 8, 1886, lot 261, as Filippo 



124 



PICASSO 



Lippi); Oscar Hainauer, Berlin, 1886-97; Robert Hoe, 
New York (American Art Association, New York, Feb. 
17, 1911, lot 97, as follower of Filippo Lippi); (T. J. 
Blakeslee, New York); (Duveen, New York); Harold I. 
Pratt, New York, by 1924; (Wildenstein, New York). 
exhibitions: London, Royal Academy, Exhibition of 
Works by Old Masters, 1875, no. 185, p. 20; Berlin, 
Kaiser Friedrich Museum, Kunstwerken des Mittelalters 
und der Renaissance auf Berliner Frivatbesitz, 1898 (cat. 
by H. Mackowsky, publ. 1899), p. 38, pi. vii; New York, 
Duveen, Early Italian Paintings, 1924, no. 10, repr. (cat. 
by W. Valentiner, 1926). 

references: F. Harck, "Quadri di maestri Italiani in 
possesso di privati a Berlino," Archivo storico dell' arte 
11, 1889, p. 205; W. Bode, Die Sammlung Oscar Hain- 
auer, Berlin, 1897, pp. 14-5, repr.; London, 1906, p. 67, 
no. 45; M. Logan, "Compagno di Pesellino et quelques 
peintures de 1'ecole," Gazette des Beaux-Arts, xxvi, July 
1901, pp. 33-4, repr.; W. Weisbach, Francesco Pesellino 
und die Romantik der Renaissance, Berlin, 1901, p. 114; 
F. J. Mather, "Pictures in the Robert Hoe Collection," 
Burlington Magazine, xvn, Aug. 1910, p. 315, fig. 1; 

A. F. Jaccaci, Catalogue of the Valuable Art Property 
Collected by the Late Robert Hoe, New York, 1911, no. 
97, repr.; P. H. Hendy, "Pesellino," Burlington Maga- 
zine, on, Aug. 1928, pp. 68-73, pl- H> R- Van Marie, 
The Development of the Italian Schools of Painting, The 
Hague, x, 1928, pp. 512-13; xin, 1931, p. 447; H. Mack- 
owsky, "The Masters of the 'Pesellino Trinity'," Bur- 
lington Magazine, lvii, Nov. 1930, p. 218; P. H. Hendy, 
The Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum: Catalogue of 
the Exhibited Paintings and Drawings, Boston, 1931, pp. 
253, 259; B. Berenson, "Quadri senza casa: II quattro- 
cento Fiorentino, II," Dedalo, in, Sep. 1932, p. 671, repr. 
p. 673; B. Berenson, Italian Pictures of the Renaissance, 
Oxford, 1932, p. 443; L. Venturi, Italian Paintings in 
America, New York, 1933, n, no. 227, repr.; (B.-M. 
Godwin), "Pesellino's Masterpiece," Toledo Museum of 
Art Museum News, No. no, Dec. 1945, unpaginated; 

B. Berenson, The Italian Painters of the Renaissance, 
New York, 1952, p. 161; F. Zeri and E. Gardner, Italian 
Paintings; A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metro- 
politan Museum of Art: Florentine School, New York, 
1971, p. 107; B. Fredericksen and F. Zeri, Census, p. 162; 
P. H. Hendy, European and American Paintings in the 
Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, 2nd ed., Boston, 
1974, PP- 176, 180. 

While this painting, which Hendy (1974, p. 176) charac- 
terizes as "one of the most sensuous devotional panels 
of the Renaissance," has been attributed to Filippo Lippi 
or his workshop (London, 1875; Berlin, 1898; Mather), 



Giovanni Pesello (Jaccaci), Pier Francesco Fiorentino 
(New York, 1924; Van Marie) and Graffione (Mackow- 
sky, 1930), it has for more than forty years been ac- 
cepted as the work of Pesellino. 

The influence of Filippo Lippi is strong, and Godwin 
used comparisons with Lippi's Madonna and Child in 
the Uffizi to date Toledo's painting. 

Hendy (1974, p. 180) compared the heads in the 
Gardner Museum's Madonna and Child by Pesellino 
with those of the later Toledo picture and wrote that 
in addition to the many contemporary copies of both 
pictures, there are versions which combine features from 
the two, suggesting that drawings from Pesellino's work- 
shop were circulated or that both paintings were acces- 
sible to artists in Florence. The best known copy of To- 
ledo's painting is that attributed to Pier Francesco 
Fiorentino in the Uffizi. Other variants are in Budapest, 
Berlin, the Jacquemart Andre Museum, Paris, and Metro- 
politan Museum. While the last is called "Lippi-Pesel- 
lino Imitators," most of the other works are assigned 
to the prolific hand of Pier Francesco Fiorentino and to 
Pseudo-Pier Francesco Fiorentino. 



PABLO RUIZ PICASSO 

1881-1973. Spanish. Born in Malaga. Studied at the 
Academy in Barcelona, 1895, and at the School of Fine 
Arts and the Madrid Academy, 1895-97. Settled in Paris, 
1904, living until 1909 at the Bateau Lavoir. Influenced 
by Cezanne and Iberian and African art. Developed Cu- 
bism with Braque from about 1907. Worked in a great 
number of styles and media throughout his long and 
prolific career. Picasso is widely considered the most in- 
fluential artist of the 20th century. 

Woman with a Crow pl. 285 

[1904] Charcoal, pastel and watercolor on paper 

25^2 x i9/ / 2 in. (54.6 x 49.5 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: Picasso/1904 

Ace. no. 36.4 

collections: Paul Guillaume, Paris; (Edouard Jonas, 
Paris). 

exhibitions: Paris, Galeries Serrurier, 1905, no. 21 
(intro. by G. Apollinaire); Paris, Galerie Georges Petit, 
1932, no. 24, fig. iv; Paris, Petit Palais, 1935; Toledo 
Museum of Art, Contemporary Movements in Euro- 
pean Art, 1938, no. 89; New York, Museum of Mod- 
ern Art, Picasso, Forty Years of his Art, 1940, no. 25, 
repr. p. 36 (cat. by A. Barr); Los Angeles County Mu- 
seum, From Cezanne to Picasso, 1941, no. 40; Mexico 
City, Sociedad de Arte Moderno, Retrospective Exhibi- 



i-5 



PIERO 



tion of the Work of Picasso, 1944, p. 44; New York, Mu- 
seum of Modern Art, Picasso, Fifty Years of his Art, 
1946, p. 284, repr. p. 30 (cat. by A. Barr); Lyons, Musee 
des Beaux-Arts, Retrospective Exhibition of the Work 
of Picasso, 1953, no. 10, fig. 3; Milan, Palazzo Reale, 
Mostra de Pablo Picasso, 1953, no. 3, repr.; New York, 
Museum of Modern Art, Picasso, 75th Anniversary Exhi- 
bition, 1957, no. 15, repr. (cat. by A. Barr). 

references: W. George, La grande peinture contempo- 
raine a la collection Paul Gnillaume, Paris, n.d. (1929), 
pp. 115, 120, repr. p. 116; C. Zervos, Pablo Picasso, I: 
Oenvres de 189s a 1905, Paris, 1932, no. 240, fig. 107; 
P. Daix and G. Boudaille, Picasso, The Blue and Rose 
Periods, London, 1967, no. xi.io, p. 242, repr. p. 243; 
A. Moravia and P. Lecaldano, L'opera completa de Pi- 
casso blu e rose, Milan, 1968, no. 132, fig. xxv; T. Reff, 
"Love and Death in Picasso's Early Work," Picasso 
1881-19J3 (ed. R. Penrose and J. Golding), London, 
1973, PP- 2.2., 28, fig. 24. 

Woman with a Crow was painted during Picasso's "Blue 
Period." According to Barr (1946), Picasso saw the crow 
at the restaurant Lapin Agile, where it was the pet of 
Margot, the daughter of the owner, Frede. Another ver- 
sion, also dated 1904, is in a French private collection 
(Daix and Boudaille, p. 342, A. 7; Moravia and Lecal- 
dano, no. 133, repr.) 



PIERO DI COSIMO 

1462— 1521. Italian. Born and worked in Florence. In the 
workshop of Cosimo Roselli, whom Piero accompanied 
to Rome, 1481-84, probably to assist with the frescoes 
in the Sistine Chapel for Sixtus IV. The influences of 
Filippino Lippi, Signorelli and Leonardo da Vinci can 
be found in Piero's mythological and religious paintings. 
Andrea di Cosimo and Andrea del Sarto were his pupils. 

The Adoration of the Child pl. 6 

[Ca. 1490-1500] Oil on wood panel 
Diameter 63 in. (160 cm.) 

Ace. no. 37.1 

collections: Lorenzo de'Medici (?), Florence; Guiducci 
family, Florence; (Metzger, Florence); Alexander Barker, 
London (Christie, London, June 6, 1874, lot 81, as Sig- 
norelli); George Edmund Street, R. A., London, 1874; 
Arthur E. Street, London, by 1893; (Duveen Bros., New 
York). 

exhibitions: London, Burlington Fine Arts Club, Exhi- 



bition of the Work of Luca Signorelli and His School, 
1893, p. xvi, no. 17; London, Royal Academy, Exhibi- 
tion of Works of the Old Masters, 1904, no. 33. 

references: G. F. Waagen, Treasures of Art in Great 
Britain, London, 1854, 11, p. 126; Von Hermann Ulmann, 
"Piero Di Cosimo," Jahrbuch der koniglich preussischen 
Kunstsammlungen, xvn, 1896, p. 126; F. Knapp, Piero 
di Cosimo, ein Ubergangsnieister vom Florentiner Quat- 
trocento zum Cinquecento, Halle, 1899, pp. 40-3, repr.; 
H. Haberfeld, Piero di Cosimo, Breslau, 1900, pp. 57- 
61; G. Mancini, Vita di Luca Signorelli, Florence, 1903, 
p. 176; B. Berenson, The Florentine Painters of the Ren- 
aissance, New York, 1909, p. 165; A. Venturi, Storia 
dell' arte italiana, Milan, 191 1, vn, part 1, p. 706; J. A. 
Crowe and G. B. Cavalcaselle, A History of Painting 
in Italy: Umbria, Florence and Siena, v: Umbrian and 
Sienese Masters of The Fifteenth Century (ed. T. Boren- 
ius), London, 1914, p. 88, n. 3 (as Signorelli in text; as 
Piero di Cosimo in editor's annotation); "The Virgin and 
Child, by Piero Di Cosimo," Burlington Magazine, 
xxix, Dec. 1916, p. 351, repr. p. 350; R. Van Marie, 
The Development of the Italian Schools of Painting, The 
Hague, 1931, xiii, pp. 352-53; L. Venturi, Italian Paint- 
ings in America, Milan, 1933, II: Fifteenth Century Ren- 
aissance, pl. 288; B. Degenhart, "Piero di Cosimo," 
Thieme-Becker, 1933, xxvii, p. 16; B.-M. Godwin, "An 
Important Italian Painting," Toledo Museum of Art 
Museum News, No. 78, Mar. 1937, pp. [1103-12], 
repr.; K. B. Nielson, Filippino Lippi, Cambridge, 1938, 
p. 131, fig. 59; R. L. Douglas, Piero di Cosimo, Chicago, 
1946, pp. 18, 41, 43-4, 46, 48, 50, 97, 112, 1 18-19, 129, 
pis. xxn-xxv; Duveen Pictures in Public Collections of 
America, New York, 194 1, nos. 127-31; P. Morselli, 
"Saggio di un catalogo delle opere di Piero di Cosimo," 
L'Arte, xxm, 1958, p. 85; L. Grassi, Piero di Cosimo e 
il problema della conversione al cinquecento mella pit- 
tura fiorentina ed emiliane, Rome, 1963, p. 54; M. Bacci, 
Piero di Cosimo, Milan, 1966, pp. 27-8, 72.-3, 80-2, pl. 9. 

Attributed to Signorelli by Waagen and Crowe and 
Cavalcaselle, this painting was reattributed to Piero di 
Cosimo in the 1893 London Signorelli exhibition by 
analogy with the Dresden Holy Family with the Infant 
St. John. 

Various dates in the 1490s have been suggested for 
this painting. Bacci relates the Toledo tondo to The Visi- 
tation and Two Saints (National Gallery, Washington), 
which is dated ca. 1490 (J. Walker, National Gallery of 
Art, Washington, D.C., New York, 1963, p. 87). Douglas 
supports this by pointing out that if one is to accept the 
tradition as related by Crowe and Cavalcaselle that Lor- 
enzo de'Medici presented this tondo to a lady of the 



126" 



PISSARRO 



Guiducci family, then the work must date before April 
1492, the date of Lorenzo's death. Venturi (1933) also 
dates it around 1490 by associating its forms and colors 
with the Madonna Enthroned with Child and Saints 
(Galleria dello Spedale degli Innocenti, Florence). 

Van Marie places it after 1495 based on Lorenzo di 
Credi's influence and by comparison to the Magdalen 
(National Gallery, Rome) and the Dresden tondo, while 
Neilson says that it was probably painted ca. 1494-97, 
when Filippino Lippi's influence was greatest, and Grassi 
dates it between 1495 and 1500. 

Knapp traces the motif of the Virgin's hands about to 
be clasped in prayer to the same gesture in the Portinari 
Altarpiece by Hugo van der Goes (ca. 1474-76; Uffizi, 
Florence). While generally called an Adoration of the 
Child, this is said to be the first time the motif of a sleep- 
ing Child is used in Florentine art (Douglas). Michael 
Jaffe (verbally, Jan. 1961, and letter, Apr. 1975) says 
that the subject also incorporates the Rest on the Flight 
into Egypt. This latter theme is indicated by the Child's 
head resting on a sack holding the Family's belongings, 
the donkey drinking water from a stream, and Joseph 
shown asleep, wrapped in a mantle and holding a walk- 
ing stick. 



EVERT PIETERS 

1856-1932. Dutch. Born in Amsterdam. Moved to An- 
twerp in the early 1880s, where he studied at the Acad- 
emy with Verlat and Verstraetens. Member of the Pulchri 
Studio and the Society "Arti et Amicitae;" exhibited 
frequently in Europe and the United States. In Paris, 
1895-97. Settled in Blaricum, 1897. 



In the Month of May 

[1899] Mixed media on canvas 
59^4 x 79^4 in. (150.5 x 201.3 cm -) 
Signed and dated lower right: E. Pieters '99 

Ace. no. 12. 511 

collections: Edward Drummond Libbey. 

Mother Love 

[Before 1902] Oil on canvas 
26 x 22 in. (66.1 x 55.8 cm.) 
Signed lower left: E. Pieters 

Ace. no. 22.26 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: Arthur J. Secor, 1902-22. 



PL. 171 



PL. 170 



JOHN PIPER 

1903-. British. Born in Epsom, Surrey. He studied with 
William Rothenstein at the Royal College of Art. Com- 
missioned by the Queen to make drawings of Windsor 
Castle, 1941-42. As an official war artist during World 
War II, he recorded bomb damage to the House of Com- 
mons and Bath. A painter of landscapes and architec- 
tural subjects, he is also an illustrator and has made 
designs for stained glass and the theater. 

Rocky Valley, North Wales PL. 353 

[1948] Oil on canvas 

35-)4 x 48 in. (90.8 x 121. 9 cm.) 

Signed lower right: John Piper 

Ace. no. 49.82 

collections: (Leicester Galleries, London). 

references: S. J. Woods, John Piper: Paintings, Draw- 
ings and Theatre Design, London, 1955, no. 115, fig. 115. 



CAMILLE PISSARRO 

1 8 30-1 903. French. Born in the Danish Virgin Islands, 
Pissarro came to France in 1855, remaining there the rest 
of his life. Worked under Corot and studied at the 
Academie Suisse, where he met Monet, Manet, and prob- 
ably Courbet and Cezanne. Exhibited at the Salon in 
early years and at the Salon des Refuses in 1863. From 
the late 1860s he was a leader of the Impressionist group 
and was the only one to exhibit in all eight of its exhi- 
bitions, 1874-86. In London with Monet to escape 
Franco-Prussian War, 1870-71. He painted landscapes, 
figure subjects and still lifes. 

Still Life pl. 248 

[1867] Oil on canvas 

31% x 39M in. (81 x 99.6 cm.) 

Signed and dated upper right: C. Pissarro. 1867 

Ace. no. 49.6 

collections: Madame Pissarro (Georges Petit, Paris, 
Dec. 3, 1928, lot 33, repr.); Georges Viau, Paris, 1928 
(Galerie Charpentier, Paris, June 22, 1948, lot 5); (Wil- 
denstein, New York). 

exhibitions: Paris, Orangerie, Centenaire de la nais- 
sance de Camille Pissarro, 1930, no. 6; Paris, Gazette des 
Beaux-Arts, Naissance de I'impressionisme, 1937, no. 73; 
Amsterdam Stedelijk Museum, Honderd Jaar fransche 
Kunst, 1938, no. 186; New York, Wildenstein, Camille 
Pissarro: His Place in Art, 1945, no. 1; Paris, Orangerie, 



127 



PISSARRO 



De David a Toulouse-Lautrec: Chefs d'oeuvre des col- 
lections americaines, 1955, no. 24, repr.; New York, Wil- 
denstein, C. Pissarro, 1965, no. 3, repr. 

references: C. Kunstler, "Camille Pissarro," La renais- 
sance de I' art francaise, xi, Dec. 1928, p. 504, repr. p. 498; 
L. R. Pissarro and L .Venturi, Camille Pissarro, son art- 
son oeuvre, Paris, 1939, 1, p. 20, no. 50; 11, pi. 9; J. Re- 
wald, The History of Impressionism, 1st ed., New York, 
1946, pp. 139-40, repr. p. 138; 4th ed., New York, 1973, 
pp. 157-58, repr. p. 156; H.L.F. (Henry La Farge), "Ruis- 
dael to Pissarro to Noguchi," Art News, xlix, Mar. 
1950, p. 32, repr. p. 33; J. Rewald, Camille Pissarro, New 
York, 1963, pp. 19, 69, repr. p. 69; C. Kunstler, Camille 
Pissarro, Milan, 1972, p. 14, repr.; K. Champa, Studies 
in Early Impressionism, New Haven, 1973, pp. 74-5, 
pi. 18. 

This is among Pissarro's few pictures to survive the 
Franco-Prussian War, when his studio at Louveciennes 
was ransacked and much early work destroyed. Accord- 
ing to Rewald (1963), "Pissarro here seems to have ven- 
tured suddenly into a style of incredible forcefulness 
and originality . . . only very few of Pissarro's works 
were painted in this vein, with broad brushstrokes and 
the use of a pallette knife . . . but it was to remain a 
fairly unique endeavor, as if, in spite of the fact that 
he has been so successful in this daring canvas, he did 
not feel tempted to pursue further a road that might have 
led him away from the intimate contact with nature 
toward which he had been so persistently inclined until 
then." 



Peasants Resting pl. 250 

[1881] Oil on canvas 

32 x 25-M in. (81 x 65 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: C. Pissarro. 81 

Ace. no. 35.6 

COLLECTIONS: Paul Durand-Ruel, Paris, to 1921; (Du- 
rand-Ruel, Paris). 

exhibitions: Paris, Durand-Ruel, ye Exposition des ar- 
tistes independants, 1882, no. 104; Paris, Durand-Ruel, 
Tableaux et gouaches par Pissarro, 19 10, no. 17; New 
York, Wildenstein, Camille Pissarro: His Place in Art, 
1945, no. 19, repr. p. 29; Boston, Museum of Fine Arts, 
Barbizon Revisited, 1961, no. no, repr. p. 204; Bor- 
deaux, Musee des Beaux-Arts, La peinture francaise: 
collections americaines, 1966, no. 172, pl. 50. 

references: L. R. Pissarro and L. Venturi, Camille 
Pissarro, son art-son oeuvre, Paris, 1939, 1, no. 542; 11, 
pl. 112. 



In 1881 Pissarro worked with Cezanne and Gauguin at 
Pontoise painting landscapes and peasant genre subjects. 
This painting was included in the 7th Impressionist 
group exhibition of 1882. A pastel sketch for it was pub- 
lished by Pissarro and Venturi (11, no. 1549). 

The Roofs of Old Rouen pl. 249 

[1896] Oil on canvas 

28^ x 36 in. (72.3 x 91.4 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: C. Pissarro. 1896. 

Ace. no. 51.361 

collections: Pissarro estate (inventory no. 125 on 
stretcher and back of canvas); (Durand-Ruel, Paris); 
Dr. Hans Ullstein, Berlin; Dr. and Mrs. Heinz Pinner 
(nee Ullstein); (Knoedler, New York). 
exhibitions: Paris, Durand-Ruel, Exposition d'oeuvres 
recentes de Camille Pissarro, 1896, no. 21; Pittsburgh, 
Carnegie Institute, Third Annual International Exhibi- 
tion, 1898, no. 46; Toledo Museum of Art, One Hundred 
Paintings by the Impressionists from the Collection of 
Durand-Ruel & Sons, Paris, 1905, no. 83; Paris, Galerie 
Manzi et Joyant, Retrospective C. Pissarro, 1914, no. 13; 
New York, Wildenstein, C. Pissarro, 1965, no. 64, repr. 

references: G. Mourey, "Camille Pissarro," Les Arts, 
11, Dec. 1903, p. 40, repr.; G. Lecomte, Camille Pissarro, 
Paris, 1922, p. 84, repr.; C. Mauclair, Les maitres de 
I'impressionisme, Paris, 1923, p. 192, repr.; A. Tabarant, 
Pissarro, Paris, 1924, pl. 33; E. Waldmann, Die Kunst 
des Realismus und des Impressionismus , Berlin, 1927, 
repr. p. 460; E. Koenig, Camille Pissarro, Paris, 1927, 
repr.; L. R. Pissarro and L. Venturi, Camille Pissarro, son 
art-son oeuvre, Paris, 1939, I, p. 64, no. 973; 11, pl. 196; 
J. Rewald, ed., Camille Pissarro: Letters to his son Lu- 
cien, New York, 1943, PP- 2.83, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288, 
pl. 69; G. Bazin, L'epoque impressioniste, Paris, 1947, pl. 
38; J. Rewald, Camille Pissaro, New York, 1963, pp. 43, 
144, repr. p. 145; L. Nochlin, "Camille Pissarro: The 
Inassuming Eye," Art News, lxiv, Apr. 1965, p. 61, repr. 
p. 25. 

Pissarro went to Rouen in January 1896. Letters to his 
son Lucien document the development of this painting. 
On February 26 he wrote, "I have found a really un- 
common motif in a room of the hotel facing north. Just 
conceive for yourself: the whole of old Rouen seen from 
above the roofs, with the Cathedral, St. Ouen's church, 
and the fantastic roofs, really amazing turrets. Can you 
picture a canvas about 36 x 28 inches in size, filled with 
old, grey, worm-eaten roofs? It is extraordinary!" (Re- 
wald, 1943, p. 283). The Roofs of Old Rouen was com- 
pleted by March 7 and exhibited at Durand-Ruel in 



128 



POUSSIN 



April. Pissarro, along with Degas, considered this paint- 
ing an outstanding work (Rewald, 1943, p. 187) and 
kept it in his own collection until his death. 



CORNELIS VAN POELENBURGH 

1595/1600-1667. Dutch. Studied in his native Utrecht 
with Abraham Bloemaert. In Rome by 1617. Co-founder 
of the Netherlandish artists' society in Rome. By 1621 
at Florence in the service of the Grand Duke of Tuscany. 
In 1627 he returned to Utrecht, and about 1637 went to 
London for two years at the invitation of King Charles 
I. Together with Bartholomeus Breenbergh, he was the 
chief representative of the first generation of Dutch 
Italianate landscape painters. 

Roman Landscape PL. 92 

[Ca. 1620] Oil on wood panel 
17^2 x 23^ in. (44.4 x 60 cm.) 

Ace. no. 56.52 

collections: (Nystad, The Hague). 

exhibitions: Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Mu- 
seum of Art, Italy through Dutch Eyes, 1964, no. 50, pi. 
1; Utrecht, Centraal Museum, Nederlandse iye eeuwse 
Italianiserende Lands chapschilders, 1965, no. 13, pi. 14; 
New York, Wildenstein, Gods and Heroes, Baroque 
Images of Antiquity, 1969, no. 28, pi. 42. 

references: E. P. Lawson, "Dutch Painters in Italy," 
Toledo Museum of Art Museum News, 1, Fall 1957, pp. 
11-5, repr. (as Breenbergh); W. Stechow, 1968, pp. 149, 
153, fig. 289. 

Until Stechow (letter, Sep. 1962) attributed this painting 
to Poelenburgh, it had been attributed to Breenbergh. 
Stechow (1968) points out that it corresponds closely 
in style and composition to two landscapes dated 1620 
(Louvre), and that the figures reflect Poelenburgh's classi- 
cizing style, which differs greatly from Breenbergh's. 



NICOLAS POUSSIN 

1594-1665. French. Born near Les Andelys, Normandy, 
where he studied under Quentin Varin, ca. 1611-12; 
later in Paris. In 1624 he settled in Rome, and formed his 
style there under the influence of ancient Roman art, 
Raphael, Titian and the contemporary Bolognese. In 
1640 he returned to Paris to work for Louis XIII; by 
1642 he was back in Rome, where he spent the rest of 
his life. 



The Holy Family with Saint John PL. 187 

[Ca. 1627] Oil on canvas 

66H x 47^2 in. (169.5 x I2 7 cm -) 

Inscribed on the scroll: ecce agnus dei 

Ace. no. 76.23 

collections: Brought to England ca. 1822; Vittore 

Zanetti, Manchester, England, by 1835; then probably 

with his descendants in Italy until the late 19th century; 

Marquess of Crewe (Christie, London, Dec. 9, 1955, lot 

70, as Carracci); Private collection, London; (Agnew, 

London). 

references: H. de Triqueti, Repertoire de I'oeuvre de 
Poussin, MS in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, ca. 1850, 
p. 48; A. Andresen, Nicolaus Poussin, Verzeichniss der 
nach seinen Gemalden gefertigten Kupferstiche, Leipzig, 
1863, French ed. by G. Wildenstein, in Gazette des Beaux 
Arts, lx, July-Aug. 1962, p. 162, no. A. 126, repr. (Ander- 
loni engraving); R. Giolli, "Un quadro del Poussin," Vita 
d'arte, 1909, pp. 28-9, repr. (copy with composition re- 
duced at top); A. Blunt, "La premiere periode romaine 
de Poussin," in Colloque Poussin, (ed. A. Chastel), Paris, 
i960, 1, pp. 165-66, fig. 135 (as by Poussin, ca. 1629); D. 
Wild, "Charles Mellin ou Nicolas Poussin," Gazette des 
Beaux Arts, lxviii, Oct. 1966, p. 204 (as by Mellin); A. 
Blunt, The Paintings of Nicolas Poussin, A Critical Cata- 
logue, London, 1966, no. 49, repr. (as Poussin, "probably 
painted just before 1630"); A. Blunt, Nicolas Poussin, 
New York, 1967, text vol., pp. 75, 77, 81; plate vol., pi. 
26 (as Poussin, ca. 1627-29); J. Thuillier, Tout I'oeuvre 
peint de Poussin, Paris, 1974, no. B30, repr. (Anderloni 
engraving) (questions attribution to Poussin). 

Prior to Blunt's first publication of it in i960, this paint- 
ing was unknown to scholars except through an en- 
graving of its composition. Blunt subsequently (1966, 
1967) confirmed his belief that it was painted by Poussin 
during his early years in Rome, about 1629 or somewhat 
earlier. More recently, D. Mahon (verbally, 1972) and K. 
Oberhuber (verbally, 1975, 1976) have also agreed this 
painting belongs to Poussin's early Roman years, about 
1627. Both scholars believe it was painted shortly before 
The Death of Germanicus (1627; Minneapolis Institute 
of Arts) and reflects the strong influence of Raphael on 
Poussin at this time. Oberhuber also noted the influence 
of Guercino, saying that Poussin found in Guercino an 
example of a painter who was, like himself, trying to 
turn from Venetian to Roman tradition. Thuillier, on the 
other hand, questioned the painting's attribution to Pous- 
sin, as earlier documentation is lacking and because he 
believed the style incongruous with the artist's mature 
work. 



129 



POUSSIN 



As Blunt has pointed out, "The chronology of Pous- 
sin's paintings in the early Roman years is extremely un- 
certain and has given rise to much discussion. The firm 
points are few. While Poussin was going through his ex- 
perimental phase he does not seem to have followed a 
steady line of development, and furthermore, he seems 
to have been led to treat different subjects in different 
manners" (1967, p. 59). 

There are marked similarities between the Virgin and 
Child and the right hand group of women and children 
in The Death of Germanicus. The Toledo composition 
most nearly resembles The Holy Family with Saint John 
Holding a Cross (Staatliche Kunsthalle, Karlsruhe) of 
about 1627 (Blunt, 1966, no. 48). The figures in the 
latter, however, are far smaller in scale than the grave, 
monumental group in the Toledo painting, which belongs 
among the few pictures of about 1627-30 in which Pous- 
sin used large-scale figures of this kind, culminating in 
The Martyrdom of Saint Erasmus (1628-29; Pinacoteca, 
The Vatican). 

A copy of the Virgin and Child alone was in an anony- 
mous sale, Anderson Galleries, New York, Apr. 15, 1926, 
lot 56 (as Puglio). Engraved by Faustino Anderloni (d. 
1847) after a drawing by Giovita Garavaglia (d. 1835). 

Mars and Venus pl. 186 

[Ca. 1633-34] Oil on canvas 
62 x 74 -54 in. (157.5 x 189.8 cm.) 
Ace. no. 54.87 

collections: Jean Baptiste Grimbergs, Brussels (Brus- 
sels, May 4, 1716; as Poussin, Mars and Venus); Prince 
de Carignan (Poilly, Paris, July 30, 1742, p. 27, and June 
18, 1743, p. 23 (as Poussin, Mars and Venus); Bragge, 
London (London, Oct. 31, 1755, lot 60)?; Sir Nathaniel 
Curzon, later 1st Lord Scarsdale, 1758; Viscounts Scars- 
dale, Kedleston Hall, Derbyshire; (Wildenstein, New 
York). 

exhibitions: London, Arts Council, Landscape in French 
Art, 1550-1900, 1949, no. 60 (cat. by A. Blunt); Minne- 
apolis Institute of Arts, Nicolas Poussin, 1594-1665, 
1959, essays by A. Blunt and W. Friedlander, pp. 6, 7, 
12, cat. entry p. 25, fig. 7 (as Mars and Venus, late 1620s); 
Paris, Louvre, Nicolas Poussin, i960, no. 1, pp. 214-15 
(as Poussin, Dido and Aeneas, ca. 1624; cat. by A. Blunt 
and C. Sterling). 

references: J. Smith, viii, no. 289 (as Rinaldo and Ar- 
mida); G. Waagen, Treasures of Art in Great Britain, 
London, 1854, m > P- 393 ( as Rinaldo and Armida); O. 
Grautoff, Nicolas Poussin, sein Werk und sein Leben, 
Munich, 1914, 1, p. 130; 11, no. 60 (as Rinaldo and Ar- 
mida, ca. 1633-35); P- Jamot, Connaissance de Poussin, 



Paris, 1948, pp. 14-5, pl. 4 (as Rinaldo and Armida, 
pre-Roman period); A. Blunt, "Nicolas Poussin," Bur- 
lington Magazine, xci, Dec. 1949, p. 356 (as Poussin, 
Rinaldo and Armida, after 1624); W. Friedlander, ed., 
The Drawings of Nicolas Poussin, Catalogue Raisonne, 
London, 1949, 11, p. 21 (as Rinaldo and Armida); R. W. 
Lee, review of W. Friedlander, ed., The Drawings of 
Nicolas Poussin, Part II, in Art Bulletin, xxxv, 1953, p. 
159 (suggests title Toilet of Venus); A. Blunt, "La pre- 
miere periode romaine de Poussin," in Colloque Nicolas 
Poussin, (ed. A. Chastel), Paris, i960, 1, pp. 167, 168 (as 
Poussin, Mars and Venus); D. Mahon, "Poussin's Early 
Development: An Alternative Hypothesis," Burlington 
Magazine, en, i960, pp. 289, 290, 300 (as Poussin, Dido 
and Aeneas, mid-i630s); A. Blunt, review of A. Chastel, 
ed., Colloque Nicolas Poussin, in Burlington Magazine, 
en, i960, p. 331 (as Dido and Aeneas; questions attri- 
bution to Poussin); A. Blunt, "Poussin Studies, XII: The 
Hovingham Master," Burlington Magazine, cm, 1961, 
pp. 457, 458, 461 (as The Hovingham Master); J. Thuil- 
lier, "L'annee Poussin," Art de France, 1, 1961, p. 340 
(rejects Poussin attribution); D. Mahon, "Poussiniana, 
Afterthoughts Arising from the Exhibition," Gazette des 
Beaux-Arts, lx, 1962, p. 82, n. 241, p. 135, n. 405 (as 
Poussin, ca. 1634-35); R. Wallace, "The Later Version 
of Nicolas Poussin's 'Achilles in Seyms'," Studies in the 
Renaissance, ix, 1962, p. 329 (as Dido and Aeneas at- 
tributed to Poussin); A. Blunt, The Paintings of Nicolas 
Poussin, A Critical Catalogue, London, 1966, no. R-74 
(as the Hovingham Master); J. Thuillier, Tout I'oeuvre 
peint de Poussin, Paris, 1974, no. R64 (as by Charles- 
Alphonse du Fresnoy). 

Although consistently attributed to Poussin since the 
early 18th century, the attribution of this painting has 
been debated since the i960 Paris Poussin exhibition, 
where it was shown as one of Poussin's earliest known 
works, following the opinion of P. Jamot. However, in 
the context of other early works exhibited there, this 
dating proved untenable. A. Blunt, who had formerly- 
accepted the painting as by Poussin, subsequently (1961, 
1966) attributed it to the artist he named the Hoving- 
ham Master. On the other hand, J. Thuillier (1974) sug- 
gested that it is a pastiche by Charles-Alphonse du Fres- 
noy (1611-1688). Neither of the attributions seems 
convincing in view of the quality of the painting. Mahon, 
however, accepted the painting as by Poussin and 
pointed out (1962) that the painting could very well fit 
into Poussin's development in the 1630s. He dated it 
1634-35 and compared it to the Choice of Hercules 
(Stourhead, Wiltshire), and the lost Nymphs Bathing 
(formerly Due de Crequi). K. Oberhuber, who has re- 



130 



PRIMATICCIO 



cently taken a fresh look at Poussin's early development, 
essentially agrees (letter, Feb. 1976) with Mahon's view, 
and believes it is without question by Poussin, slightly 
earlier than the Bacchanals painted for Cardinal Riche- 
lieu in 1635—36. 

In the 1 8th century the subject was identified as Mars 
and Venus. By 1837 (Smith) it was thought to be Rinaldo 
and Armida, from Jerusalem Delivered by Tasso. The 
subject was restudied after the painting was acquired 
by the Museum, and at that time the title returned to 
Mars and Venus. This identification was confirmed by 
R. W. Lee (1953; verbally, 1956) and E. Panofsky (letter, 
Nov. 1958). In the catalogue of the i960 Paris exhibition, 
however, the subject was related to a passage in Virgil's 
Aeneid (iv: 175 ff.); subsequently the picture was called 
Dido and Aeneas. While the subject is exceptional in 
certain details such as the shield used as a mirror, the 
title Mars and Venus seems to best fit the circumstances 
illustrated. In showing Venus at her toilet attended by 
the Three Graces, Poussin may have varied his mytho- 
logical subject with details inspired by other literary 
sources. Because the scene does not accurately depict a 
specific scene from either Tasso or Virgil, and because 
of the presence of elements usually associated with 
Venus and classical mythology (such as the putti, satyr, 
river god, rose bush), the present title seems most appro- 
priate. 



MATTIA PRETI 

1613— 1699. Italian. Born in Taverna, Calabria. To Rome 
about 1630, when he studied with his elder brother, Gre- 
gorio. Periodically in Rome until 1655, with trips to Mo- 
dena, Bologna, Venice and possibly to France. Influ- 
enced during this period by the Caravaggisti, Lanfranco, 
Guercino and Veronese. Elected to the Roman Academy 
of St. Luke, 1653. To Naples, 1656. By late 1661 he was 
in Malta, where he worked until his death. 

The Feast of Herod pl. 20 

[1656-61] Oil on canvas 

70 x 99>4 in. (177.8 x 252.1 cm.) 

Ace. no. 61.30 

COLLECTIONS: Marchese Ferdinando van den Eynden, 
Naples; Principe Belvedere Caraffa, Naples, by 1742; 
Principe Colonna di Stigliano, Naples, to ca. 1920; Prof. 
Zoccoli, Palazzo Roccagiovine; (M. & C. Sestieri, Rome, 
i960); (Colnaghi, London). 

exhibitions: London, Colnaghi, Paintings by Old Mas- 
ters, 1961, no. 5, repr.; Detroit Institute of Arts, Art in 



Italy 1600-1700, 1965, no. 151, repr. (entry by F. Cum- 
mings). 

references: B. de Dominici, Vite de'pittori, scultori, 
ed architetti napoletani, Naples, 1742-43, in, p. 344; 
B.N. (B. Nicolson), "Current and Forthcoming Exhibi- 
tions," Burlington Magazine, cm, May 1961, p. 195; 
"New National Gallery Acquisitions," Burlington Maga- 
zine, cv, July 1963, p. 296; F. H. Dowley, "Art in Italy, 
1 600-1 700 at the Detroit Institute of Arts," Art Quar- 
terly, xxvii, 1964, pp. 524-25, fig. 6; A. Frankfurter, 
"Museum Evaluations, 2: Toledo," Art News, lxiii, Jan. 
1965, pp. 5, 24, 53, repr. cover, p. 5; H. Hibbard and 
M. Lewine, "Seicento at Detroit," Burlington Magazine, 
evil, July 1965, pp. 370, 371; E. Herzog and J. Lehmann, 
Unbekannte Schatze der Kasseler Gemalde-Calerie, Kas- 
sel, 1968, p. 23; B. Fredericksen and F. Zeri, Census, pp. 
170, 417. 

The death of John the Baptist is told in Matthew xiv:i- 
12. Salome is shown presenting the head of St. John to 
her mother Herodias and her uncle Herod, the ruler of 
Galilee and husband of Herodias. 

This is probably one of the scenes from the life of St. 
John the Baptist which De Dominici described as having 
been painted for Marchese Ferdinando van den Eynden. 
Preti probably did these while in Naples from 1656 to 
1661, when he also produced several other Biblical feast 
pictures, inspired by Veronese and by Rubens' Feast of 
Herod (National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh), which 
had been brought to Naples about 1640 by the Flemish 
merchant and collector, Gaspar Roomer, the business 
partner of Van den Eynden's father. 

A smaller version of the same subject by Preti with 
fewer figures is in the Gemaldegalerie, Kassel. 



FRANCESCO PRIMATICCIO 

1504-1570. Italian. As a student of Giulio Romano, Pri- 
maticcio assisted in the decoration of the Palazzo del Te, 
Mantua. In 1532, the Duke of Mantua sent him to the 
French court at Fontainebleau, where in 1542 he suc- 
ceeded G. B. Rosso as Director of Works to the King, 
Francis I. From 1552 his chief collaborator was Nic- 
colo dell'Abbate. He remained at Fontainebleau for the 
rest of his life, except for several trips to Italy. His few 
surviving works show the influence of his first teacher, 
as well as of Raphael, Parmigianino, Correggio and 
Rosso. Primaticcio was the leader of the first School of 
Fontainebleau after Rosso's death and was primarily 
responsible for establishing the Mannerist Fontainebleau 
style. 



131 



PUVIS DE CHAVANNES 



Ulysses and Penelope pl. 15 

[Ca. 1560] Oil on canvas 

44M x 48M in. (113. 6 x 123.8 cm.) 

Ace. no. 64.60 

collections: Earls of Carlisle, Castle Howard, York- 
shire, by 1805 to 191 1; Geoffrey W. A. Howard, Castle 
Howard, 1911 to ca. 1935; Private collection, England; 
(Wildenstein, New York, 1945-64). 

exhibitions: Manchester, Exhibition of the Art Trea- 
sures of the United Kingdom, 1857, p. 26, no. 180; Na- 
ples, Fontainebleau e la maniera italiana, 1952, p. 20, 
pl. 27; Indianapolis, John Herron Art Museum, Pon- 
tormo to Greco: The Age of Mannerism, 1954, no. 28, 
repr.; Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, he triomphe du man- 
ierisme europeen, 1955, no. 101a (entry by C. Sterling; 
as by Niccolo dell'Abbate); New York, Wildenstein, 
The Painter as Historian, 1962, no. 4, repr. p. 31; Paris, 
L'Oeil Galerie d'Art, L'ecole de Fontainebleau, 1963, no. 
16, repr.; New York, Wildenstein, The Italian Heritage, 
1967, no. 41, repr.; Paris, Grand Palais, L'ecole de Fon- 
tainebleau, 1972, no. 141, repr. (entry by S. Beguin); 
Ottawa, National Gallery of Canada, Fontainebleau: 
Art in France, 1528-1610, 1973, 1, fig. 30, p. 245; 11, no. 
141 (entry by S. Beguin), pp. 42, 153. 
references: A Descriptive Catalogue of the Pictures at 
Castle-Howard, Malton, 1814, no. 32; G. F. Waagen, 
Treasures of Art in Great Britain, London, 1854, in, p. 
322; W. Burger, Musee d'Anvers et tresors d'art en Angle- 
terre, Paris, 1865, p. 107; L. Dimier, French Painting in 
the Sixteenth Century, London, 1904, p. 184, repr. opp. 
p. 186; L. Dimier, Histoire de la peinture francaise des 
origines au retour de Vouet, 1300 a 1617, Paris, 1925, 
p. 53; L. Dimier, "Deux tableaux du Primatice," Bulle- 
tin de la societe de I'histoire de I'art francais, 1926, pp. 
148-49; L. Dimier, Le Primatice, Paris, 1928, pp. 32, 45, 
98, pl. xxxvi; P. Barocchi, "Precisazioni sul Primatic- 
cio," Commentari, 11, 1951, p. 215, n. 5; A. Blunt, Art 
and Architecture hi France ijoo to 1700, Harmonds- 
worth, 1953, p. 65, pl. 44b; S. Beguin, L'ecole de Fon- 
tainebleau, Paris, i960, p. 54, repr. p. 50; A. Chatelet 
and J. Thuillier, French Painting from Fouquet to Pous- 
sin, Geneva, 1963, p. 106, repr. p. 103; A. Hauser, Man- 
nerism, London, 1965, 1, p. 213; 11, pl. 113; A. Frank- 
furter, "Museum Evaluations, 2: Toledo," Art News, 
lxiii, Jan. 1965, pp. 26, 27, 52, 62, repr. p. 27; W. McA. 
Johnson, "Niccolo dell'Abbate's Eros and Psyche," Bul- 
letin of The Detroit Institute of Arts, xlv, 1966, pp. 30, 
32, repr. p. 29; D. Rondorf, "Der Ballsaal im Schloss 
Fontainebleau zur Stilgeschichte Primaticcios in Frank- 
reich," Bonn, 1967, p. 347 (unpublished Ph.D. thesis); 
S. Howard ed., Classical Narratives in Master Drawings 



Selected from the Collections of the E. B. Crocker Art 
Gallery, Sacramento, 1972, pp. 13, 14, n. 2; P. Verdier, 
Catalogue of the Painted Enamels of the Renaissance, 
Baltimore, 1967, p. 103; H. Miles, "The 'Treasure-House 
of Marvels' at Paris," Burlington Magazine, cxv, Jan. 
1973, p. 32; B. Fredericksen and F. Zeri, Census, pp. 170, 
478, 641. 

"And in turn, Ulysses, of the seed of Zeus, recounted to 
her (Penelope) all the griefs he had wrought on men, 
and all his own travail and sorrow, and she was delighted 
with the story, and sweet sleep fell not upon her eyelids 
till the tale was ended" [Odyssey, xxm). 

Beginning about 1541 Primaticcio and his assistants 
carried out a complex scheme of painted and sculptural 
decoration in the Ulysses Gallery at Fontainebleau Pal- 
ace. This canvas is based on one of the 58 frescoes on 
the gallery walls illustrating the story of Ulysses. Al- 
though the gallery was destroyed in 1738-39, the com- 
positions of the Story of Ulysses are known from en- 
gravings by the Flemish artist Theodore van Thulden 
published in 1633. The Toledo Ulysses and Penelope 
is an independently conceived version of a fresco in this 
series; the tender gesture with which Ulysses takes his 
young wife's face appears neither in the fresco nor in the 
copies or variations by others of it (Paris, 1972; Ottawa, 

1973)- 

Scholars have widely agreed on the attribution of this 
painting to Primaticcio himself. "The Ulysses and 
Penelope is the finest picture we know that reflects Pri- 
maticcio's inspiration and style and seems worthy of his 
hand" (S. Beguin, Paris, 1972; Ottawa, 1973). 



PIERRE PUVIS DE CHAVANNES 

1824-1898. French. Born in Lyons. Studied in Paris with 
Henri Scheffer and briefly with Delacroix and Couture, 
1848. Most important influence was that of Chasseriau. 
Exhibited at Salon of 1850 but did not achieve first suc- 
cess until Salon of 1861. Received several commissions 
for large decorative schemes, including the Pantheon, 
Paris and the Boston Public Library. Influenced younger 
Symbolist writers and painters. 

Ludtts Pro Patria pl. 242 

[Ca. 1880] Oil on canvas 

37 x 49^4 in. (94 x 125. 1 cm.) 

Signed lower left: P. Puvis de Chavannes 

Ace. no. 51.313 

COLLECTIONS: Prince de "Wagram; (Knoedler, New 

York). 



132 



RAEBURN 



exhibitions: Paris, Galerie Georges Petit, Cent ans de 
peinture francaise, 1930, no. 11; New York, Knoedler, 
Masterpieces by Nineteenth Century French Painters, 
1930, no. 9, repr.; New York, Knoedler, Figure Pieces, 
1937, no. 13, repr.; Los Angeles County Museum, The 
Development of Impressionism, 1940, no. 57, repr.; De- 
troit Institute of Arts, Two Sides of the Medal, French 
Painting from Gerome to Gauguin, 1954, no. 92, repr. 
p. 53; Toronto, Art Gallery of Ontario, Puvis de Cha- 
vannes and the Modern Tradition, 1975, no. zo, repr. 

references: L. Werth, Puvis de Chavannes, Paris, 192.6, 
pp. 15, 125, no. 15 (as 1881). 

This canvas corresponds to the composition of the right 
third of the large mural, Ludus Pro Patria, painted for 
the main staircase of the Musee de Picardie, Amiens be- 
tween 1880 and 1882. Puvis received this commission in 

1879. The full-size cartoon was shown in the Salon of 

1880, and the completed mural (on canvas) in the Salon 
of 1882, where it won Puvis the Medal of Honor. It is 
uncertain whether the Toledo painting is a preparatory 
study for the mural or whether it is a repetition by Puvis 
painted soon after the mural was finished. From about 
1880 until his death, the artist often made reduced copies 
of his large decorative works as records of their com- 
positions. There are reductions by Puvis of the right 
section in the Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore (dated 
1883), and of the entire mural in the Metropolitan Mu- 
seum of Art, New York. 

The subject of Ludus Pro Patria (A Game for the Na- 
tion) was chosen to exalt the virtues of devotion to fam- 
ily and country. 

ADAM PYNACKER 

1622-1673. Dutch. Born in Pynacker near Delft. Accord- 
ing to Houbraken, he spent three years in Italy. In Delft, 
1649; Schiedam, 1657/58; and finally in Amsterdam 
from about 1659. One of the second generation of Dutch 
Italianate landscape painters, he was also an etcher, and 
in his later years designed wall decorations and tapes- 
tries. 

Italian Landscape PL. 119 

[Ca. 1655-60] Oil on canvas 

zjYa, x zi]/2 in. (69.2 x 54.6 cm.) 

Signed bottom center: APynacker (AP in monogram) 

Ace. no. 72.31 

collections: Jean Antoine Gros (Lebrun, Paris, Apr. 
13, 1778, lot 15); Charles Alexandre de Calonne (Skin- 
ner &C Dyke, London, Mar. 26, 1795, lot 48H?); Presi- 



dent Haudry; Van Eyl Sleuter (Paillet, Delaroche, Paris, 
Jan. 25, 1802, lot 135); Ralph Bernal, London (Christie, 
London, May 8, 1824, lot 18); Ralph Fletcher, Glouces- 
ter (Christie, London, June 9, 1838, lot 53); Edmund Hig- 
ginson, Saltmarshe, Herefordshire, by 1841 (Christie, 
London, June 4, 1846, lot 194); James Morrison and de- 
scendants, Basildon Park, by 1857; Walter Morrison 
(Sotheby, London, Apr. 19, 1972, lot 20); (Speelman, 
London). 

exhibitions: London, Grosvenor Gallery, III National 
Loan Exhibition, 191 4, no. 92. 

references: J. Smith, vi, nos. 4 and 45; H. Artaria, A 
Descriptive Catalogue of the Gallery of Edmund Higgin- 
son, Esq. of Saltmarshe Castle, London, 1841, p. 99; J. 
Smith, Supplement, no. 10 (incorrect transcription of 
Artaria); G. Waagen, Galleries and Cabinets of Art in 
Great Britain, Supplement, London, 1857, p. 310; C. 
Hofstede de Groot, ix, nos. 134 (incorrectly as identical 
with Smith no. 18) and 175. 

Dating about 1655-60 is based on the similarity of the 
composition to a landscape dated 1654 (Staatliche Mu- 
seum, East Berlin) and to the similar mountain range in 
a painting dated 1659 (Alte Pinakothek, Munich). The 
cylindrical watchtower also appears in a painting dated 
1661 (Christie, Feb. 23, 1934, lot 57). Stechow (in Oud 
Holland, lxxv, i960, p. 92; and 1968, p. 157) states 
that Pynacker's mature work from the mid-i650S to the 
60s still reflects the influence of the Dutch Italianate land- 
scape painter Jan Both, and differs greatly from his later 
decorative wall paintings. 

The provenance and subject have been confused with 
that of other pictures, and this led to its having been 
catalogued under more than one number by Smith and 
Hofstede de Groot. 



SIR HENRY RAEBURN 

1756-1823. British. This leading Scottish portrait 
painter was essentially self-taught. Lived in Edinburgh 
except for a brief stay in Rome, 1785-87, which had 
little influence on his style. The consistent manner in 
which he painted allows relatively few of his paintings 
to be firmly dated. Associate of the Royal Academy, 
1812; full Academician, 1815. Knighted by George IV, 
1822, and appointed "His Majesty's First Limner and 
Painter in Scotland" in 1823. 



Lady ]anet Traill 

[Ca. 1800] Oil on canvas 
50J4 x 40J4 in. (128 x 102 cm.) 



133 



REMBRANDT 



Acc. no. 26.70 

collections: James Christie Traill, Castlehill House, 
Caithness (Christie, London, July 14, 1911, lot 109); 
(Duveen, New York); (Henry Reinhardt, New York, 
1912); Edward Drummond Libbey, 1912-25. 

references: J. Greig, Sir Henry Raeburn, R.A., London, 
1911, p. 61. 

Lady Janet Traill (died 1806), daughter of William, 10th 
Earl of Caithness, married James Traill of Hobbister and 
Rattar in 1784. Raeburn's pendant portrait of her hus- 
band is in a New York private collection. Dating is 
based on costume and hair style. 

Mrs. Bell PL. 324 

[Early 1800s] Oil on canvas 
30 x 25 J4 in. (76 x 64 cm.) 

Acc. no. 33.26 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

COLLECTIONS: W. Hamilton Bell, Edinburgh, by 1880 
until at least 1901; (Howard Young, New York); Ar- 
thur J. Secor, 1927-33. 

exhibitions: Edinburgh, Royal Scottish Academy, 1880, 
no. 321. 

references: W. Armstrong, Sir Henry Raeburn, Lon- 
don, 1901, p. 96; J. Grieg, Sir Henry Raeburn, R.A., Lon- 
don, 1911, p. 38; F. Rinder (compiler), The Royal Scot- 
tish Academy 1826-1916, Glasgow, 1917, p. 323. 

A manuscript note of 1927 by William Roberts describes 
this portrait as a typical Raeburn of the early years of 
the 19th century and identifies the Toledo portrait 
among the various sitters listed by Armstrong as "Mrs. 
Bell" as that of Grizel Hamilton, wife of the surgeon 
Benjamin Bell (1749-1806). 

Miss Christina Thomson pl. 325 

[Ca. 1822] Oil on canvas 
30H x zs l A in. (76 x 64 cm.) 
Acc. no. 33.25 
Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

COLLECTIONS: Robert Thomson (sitter's father), Camp- 
hill, Renfrewshire, Scotland; Sir Robert White-Thomson, 
K.C.B., Broomford Manor, Devon, by 1901; Ven. Leon- 
ard Jauncey White-Thomson, Archdeacon of Canter- 
bury, until 192,1; (Sulley & Co., London); (Howard 
Young, New York); Arthur J. Secor, 1922-33. 

references: W. Armstrong, Sir Henry Raeburn, R.A., 
London, 1901, p. 113; E. Pinnington, Sir Henry Raeburn, 



R.A., London, 1904, p. 253 (as Mrs. Christine White); 
J. Grieg, Sir Henry Raeburn, R.A., London, 191 1, pp. 
61-2 (as "Mrs. White"); W. Roberts, Miss Christina 
Thomson (Mrs. White) by Sir Henry Raeburn, London, 
1921 (brochure). 

Christina Thomson (ca. 1800— 1848) married Rev. 
Thomas H. White in 1834. Armstrong and Roberts both 
date this portrait about 1822. 



REMBRANDT VAN RIJN 

1606-1669. Dutch. Born in Leyden. Apprenticed to Ja- 
cob van Swanenburgh about three years. May have 
studied with Jan Pynas ca. 1623 in Amsterdam, and then 
with Pieter Lastman. Returned to Leyden ca. 1625, then 
collaborated with another Lastman pupil, Jan Lievens. 
In 163 1 settled in Amsterdam, where his reputation 
reached its height by 1640. Although he did not travel 
outside of Holland, he absorbed and reinterpreted the 
major developments of the international Baroque style, 
represented by Caravaggio, Rubens and Poussin. His 
activity as a painter, draughtsman and etcher touched 
all subject categories, including portraiture, landscape, 
genre, classical and religious themes. 

Young Man with Plumed Hat PL. 100 

[1631] Oil on wood panel 
32 x 26 in. (81.2 x 66 cm.) 
Signed and dated lower left: RHL 1631 

Acc. no. 26.64 

collections: Stephen Lawley, London; (Henry Rein- 
hardt, New York, 1906); Edward Drummond Libbey, 
1906-25. 

exhibitions: Leyden, Stedelijk Museum, Exposition de 
tableaux et de dessins de Rembrandt . . . , 1906, no. 38; 
New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Catalogue of 
Paintings by Old Dutch Masters, 1910, no. 75; Toledo 
Museum of Art, Inaugural Exhibition, 1912, no. 200; 
New York, Wildenstein, Rembrandt, 1950, no. 1, repr. 

references: W. R. Valentiner and W. Bode, Rembrandt 
in Bild und Wort, Berlin, 1906, p. 45, repr. (as a self- 
portrait); W. R. Valentiner, "Opmerkingen over Enkele 
Schilderijen van Rembrandt," Onze Kunst, 1907, pp. 
64-5 (as a self-portrait); A. Rosenberg, Rembrandt, 
New York, 1909, p. 33, repr.; C. Hofstede de Groot, VI, 
no. 577 (as a self-portrait); A. Bredius, The Paintings of 
Rembrandt, Vienna, 1936, no. 143; K. Bauch, Re?n- 
brandt Gemalde, Berlin, 1966, no. 138, repr.; F. Erpel, 



134 



RENOIR 



Die Selbst Bildnisse Rembrandts, Berlin, 1967, p. 233, 
repr. p. 201; H. Gerson, Rembrandt Paintings, Amster- 
dam, 1968, pp. 204, 490, repr. p. 205; A. Bredius, The 
Paintings of Rembrandt (3rd ed., rev. by H. Gerson), 
London, 1971, no. 143. 

This portrait was painted the year Rembrandt left Ley- 
den to settle in Amsterdam. According to J. Bruyn (let- 
ter, Feb. 1975), it is one of the first experimental large- 
scale busts Rembrandt painted, probably after his arrival 
in Amsterdam. 

Although the painting was considered a self-portrait 
by Valentiner, Hofstede de Groot and by this Museum 
until recently, Rembrandt scholars since Bredius (1936) 
have identified it as a portrait of an unknown young 
man. 



GUIDO RENI 

1575-1642. Italian. Born in Bologna. Studied with Denis 
Calvaert ca. 1584-ca. 1593 before entering the Caracci 
Academy in Bologna about 1595. First trip to Rome, 
1602. Worked in Bologna and Rome 1603-15, where he 
received important commissions from the Borghese fam- 
ily and Pope Paul V. After 1615 mostly in Bologna, but 
carried out commissions for Mantua, Ravenna, Naples 
and Rome. He employed a large studio and had many 
pupils. 

Venus and Cupid. [color pl. v] pl. 18 

[1626] Oil on canvas 

89% x 62 in. (228.3 x I 57-5 cm -) 

Signed and dated lower right: •gvidvS'V'F-/ , ob-T'P\/ 

■16-6- 
Ace. no. 72.86 

COLLECTIONS: Painted for a goldsmith by whom it was 
sold in Venice; Dukes of Mantua, 1665-after 1709; 
Count Poletti, Pozzuoli; Giuseppi Longhi, Milan (died 
1831); Angelo Boucheron, Turin; (William Buchanan, 
London); Sir Andrew C. Fountaine and descendants, 
Narford Hall, Norwich, by 1854 to 1972 (Christie, Lon- 
don, July 7, 1894, lot 62, bought in); (Agnew, London). 

exhibitions: London, Royal Academy, Exhibition of 
Works by Old Masters, Winter, 1880, no. 101 (as "II 
Diamante"). 

references: L. Scaramuccia, Le finezze de'pennelli itali- 
ani, Pavia, 1674, p. 122; C. C. Malvasia, Felsina pittrice, 
Vite de'pittori Bolognesi, Bologna, 1678; 1841 ed., II, 
pp. 32, 65; G. F. Waagen, Treasures of Art in Great 
Britain, 111, London, 1854, p. 430; A. Luzio, La galleria 



dei Gonzaga venduta allTnghilterra, 162-7-28, Milan, 
1913, p. 317; D. S. Pepper, "Guido Reni's 'II Diamante': 
A New Masterpiece for Toledo," Burlington Magazine, 
cxv, Oct. 1973, pp. 630-41, figs. 1, 2, 5, 6. 

According to his biographer, Malvasia, Reni painted a 
Venus for a goldsmith in exchange for a diamond. Be- 
cause of this account, in the 19th century this picture 
was known as II Diamante (the diamond), although 
from that time until 1972 it remained almost unknown 
to scholars. 

Venus is shown teasing her son Cupid. A putto in the 
window arranges roses, the flowers of love. Two doves, 
also attributes of the goddess, are near the bed, whose 
decorative freize shows Mars and Venus with Cupid. 

As the style of this painting agrees with others of the 
1620s, Pepper believes the partly effaced date may be 
read as 1626. Reni signed only one other painting, ac- 
cording to Pepper, who suggests C.B.T.P. may stand for 
"Civis Bononiae (or Bononiensis) tabulam pinxit (citi- 
zen of Bologna painted the picture)", while V.F. may be 
the goldsmith's initials. 

A copy attributed by Pepper to Reni's pupil, Giovanni 
Andrea Sirani (1610-1670) was formerly in the Kaiser 
Friedrich Museum, Berlin (destroyed, 1945; C. Garboli 
and E. Bacceschi, L'opera completa di Guido Reni, 
Milan, 1971, no. 159, repr.). 



PIERRE-AUGUSTE RENOIR 

1841-1919. French. Born at Limoges, but raised in Paris. 
Studied with Gleyre and at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, 
1862-64. Exhibited at the Salon irregularly 1863-90, 
and with the Impressionists in 1874, 1876, 1877 and 1882. 
Worked in Paris and elsewhere in France. First of sev- 
eral trips to Italy, 1881. Painted Parisian life, portraits 
and figures. Also a printmaker and sculptor. 

Road at Wargemont pl. 253 

[1879] Oil on canvas 

31^4 x 39^ in. (80.6 x 100 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: Renoir. 79. 

Ace. no. 57.33 

collections: (Durand-Ruel, Paris, 1891-1908); Stein- 
hart collection, 1908; (Durand-Ruel, Paris, by 1914); 
Pinkus collection, by 1917; Walther Halvorsen, Oslo, by 
1932; Mrs. Walther Halvorsen; Nicolai Andresen, New 
York, by 1950; (Wildenstein, New York, 1956). 

exhibitions: Copenhagen, Statens Museum for Konst, 
Exposition d'art franfais du XIX siecle, 1914, no. 179; 



135 



RENOIR 



London, Royal Academy, French Art, 1200-1900, 1932, 
no. 483, pi. 133; Paris, Orangerie, Renoir, 1933, no. 48, 
pi. xxix; London, Reid & Lefevre, Renoir, 1935, no. 7; 
New York, Wildenstein, Renoir, 1950, no. 26, repr. p. 52; 
Art Institute of Chicago, Paintings by Renoir, 1973, no. 
26, repr. 

references: J. Meier-Graefe, Renoir, Leipzig, 1929, 
p. 121, pi. in; K. Clark, "A Renoir Exhibition," Burling- 
ton Magazine, lxvii, July 1935, pp. 3-4; A. C. Barnes 
and V. de Mazia, The Art of Renoir, New York, 1935, 
pp. 74n, 75n, 451, no. 95; W. Seitz, "The Relevance of 
Impressionism," Art News, lxvii, Jan. 1969, p. 37, repr.; 
E. Fezzi, L'opera completa di Renoir del periodo impres- 
sioniste, 1869-1883, Milan, 1972, no. 365, repr. 

In the summer of 1879 Renoir made his first visit to 
Wargemont near Dieppe in Normandy, where his friend 
and patron Paul Berard had a chateau. As Kenneth 
Clark observed, it was at this time that he began to feel 
the limits of Impressionism, for this landscape is not 
only a record of natural appearances but also a formal 
exercise in composition and technique. 

The Green jardiniere PL. 254 

[1882] Oil on canvas 

36/^ x 26M in. (92.7 x 67.9 cm.) 

Signed lower right: A Renoir. 

Ace. no. 33.174 

collections: (Paul Rosenberg, Paris); (Durand-Ruel, 
Paris and New York, 1911-33). 

exhibitions: New York, Durand-Ruel, Paintings by 
Modern French Masters, 1920, no. 19; New York, Du- 
veen, Renoir, 1941, no. 46, repr. p. 68; San Francisco, 
California Palace of the Legion of Honor, Paintings by 
Pierre- Augnste Renoir, 1944, p. 43, repr.; New York, 
Wildenstein, Loan Exhibition of Renoir, 1950, no. 37, 
repr. p. 54; London, Tate Gallery, Renoir, 1953, no. 16, 
pi. iv; Los Angeles County Museum, Pierre- Auguste 
Renoir, 1955, no. 26, repr. p. 50; New York, Wilden- 
stein, One Hundred Years of Impressionism: A Tribute 
to Paul Durand-Ruel, 1970, no. 50, repr.; Art Institute 
of Chicago, Paintings by Renoir, 1973, no. 42, repr. 

references: J. Meier-Graefe, Renoir, Leipzig, 1929, p. 
18, pi. 152; W. Gaunt, Renoir, New York, 1962, p. 78, 
no. 27, repr.; F. Daulte, Auguste Renoir, catalogue rai- 
sonne de I'oeuvre peint, Vol. I: Figures, i860— 1890, Lau- 
sanne, 1971, no. 412, repr.; E. Fahy, in The Wrightsman 
Collection, Vol. V: Paintings, Drawings, Sculpture, New 
York, 1973, pp. 191-93, repr.; E. Fezzi, L'opera completa 
di Renoir del periodo impressioniste, 1869-1883, Milan, 
1972, no. 535, repr. (as 1882). 



According to Meier-Graefe and Daulte, this picture was 
painted in 1882, though Meier-Graefe believed the To- 
ledo painting was probably completed much later. Ac- 
cording to the 194 1 Duveen exhibition catalogue, The 
Green Jardiniere was finished in 19 12. This was later 
confirmed by Paul Rosenberg, who stated that he was 
with Renoir in his studio in 1912 while the picture was 
being finished (quoted in a letter from Duveen, April 
195 1). Daulte, however, notes the Toledo painting was 
sold by Rosenberg to Durand-Ruel in December 191 1. 

A second version, Young Woman with a Cat (Wrights- 
man Collection, Metropolitan Museum of Art) has been 
dated by Fahy, autumn of 1881, and by Daulte 1882. In 
both pictures the sitter is identified as Aline Charigot, 
whom Renoir later married. 

Landscape at Cagnes pl. 255 

[1910] Oil on canvas 

ziH x 25^; in. (54.3 x 65.4 cm.) 

Stamped lower right (estate stamp): Renoir. 

Ace. no. 62.1 

Gift of Mrs. C. Lockhart McKelvy 

collections: The artist's estate; Pierre Renoir, Paris 
(the artist's son); Etienne Vautheret, Lyons (Hotel 
Drouot, Paris, June 16, 1933, lot 23); Hodebert collec- 
tion, Paris; Private collection, Switzerland; (Carstairs, 
New York); Mrs. C. Lockhart McKelvy, Perrysburg, 
Ohio. 

exhibitions: Toledo Museum of Art, The Collection of 
Mrs. C. Lockhart McKelvy, 1964, p. 16, repr. p. 17. 

references: L' atelier de Renoir, 11, Paris, 193 1, no. 402, 
pl. 130. 

Suffering from arthritis, Renoir moved in 1906 to Cagnes 
on the French Riviera, where he lived until his death. 
The same view appears in another landscape of 1910 
(J. Meier-Graefe, Renoir, Leipzig, 1929, fig. 356). 

Bather pl. 256 

[1912] Oil on canvas 

25M x 22 in. (65.4 x 55.9 cm.) 

Signed lower right: Renoir. 

Ace. no. 55.87 

Gift of Mrs. C. Lockhart McKelvy 

collections: Maurice Gangnat, Paris, 191 2 (Hotel 
Drouot, Paris, June 25-26, 1925, lot 88, repr.; as 1912); 
Henri Canonne, Geneva, 1925-39 (Galerie Charpentier, 
Paris, Feb. 18, 1939, lot 47, repr.); (Sam Salz, New York); 
Mrs. C. Lockhart McKelvy, Perrysburg, Ohio. 



136 



REYNOLDS 



exhibitions: Toledo Museum of Art, The Collection of 
Mrs. C. Lockhart McKelvy, 1964, p. 18, repr. p. 19. 

references: R. Bouyer, "Les Renoir de la collection 

Gangnat," Gazette des Beaux Arts, xi, Apr. 1925, p. 248; 
J. Rewald, ed., Renoir Drawings, New York, 1958, p. 23. 

From the time Renoir moved to Cagnes in 1906, nudes 
formed a large part of his work. In this, as in many 
other late paintings, the model was probably Gabrielle 
Renard. 

Bather was bought from the artist in 1912 by Maurice 
Gangnat, who owned an important collection of Renoirs. 
A crayon drawing for the figure is illustrated by Rewald 
(no. 84, as 1912). 



ALAN REYNOLDS 

1926-. British. Studied at Woolwich Polytechnic School 
of Art and Royal College of Art. Taught at Central 
School of Arts and Crafts and St. Martin's School of Art. 
About i960 his representational style became entirely 
abstract. 



Ace. no. 53.42 

Gift of Mrs. Samuel A. Peck 

collections: (Greenwood, London, Apr. 15, 1796, lot 
14); Marquess of Hertford, 1796 to 1884; Charles John 
Wertheimer, London; W. C. Whitney, New York; Mrs. 
H. P. Whitney, New York; Mrs. Samuel A. Peck, New 
York. 

exhibitions: London, Royal Academy, Works of the 
Old Masters . . . , 1872, no. 50; London, Grosvenor Gal- 
lery, Works of Sir Joshua Reynolds, P.R.A., 1883, no 
79- 

references: A. Graves and W. V. Cronin, A History 
of the Works of Sir Joshua Reynolds, P.R.A., London, 
1899-1901, 11, p. 511 (as "Miss Jacobs: The Blue Lady"); 
iv, repr. opp. p. 1376; W. Armstrong, Sir Joshua Reyn- 
olds, London, 1900, p. 214; E. K. Waterhouse, Reyn- 
olds, London, 1941, p. 49. 

Waterhouse dated this portrait from Reynolds' sitter 
books. It was engraved in mezzotint in 1762 by Jonathan 
Spilsbury, as "Miss Jacob" [sic]. 



Cbeveley Well, Suffolk PL. 356 

[1952] Oil on cardboard 

39% x 30 in. (101.3 x 76.2 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: Reynolds '52 

Ace. no. 58.41. 

Museum Purchase 

collections: Miss Dorothy Searle; (Redfern, London). 

exhibitions: Pittsburgh, Carnegie Institute, The 1958 
Pittsburgh Bicentennial Exhibition of Contemporary 
Painting and Sculpture, 1958, no. 368. 



SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS 

1723-1792. British. Born in Devonshire. Apprenticed to 
the portraitist Thomas Hudson. Traveled and studied in 
Italy, 1749-53. First President of the Royal Academy, 
1768. Influenced by Rubens during visit to Holland and 
Flanders in 1781. Delivered his famous Discourses to 
Royal Academy students, 1769-90. The most famous 
British portraitist of his time, he employed many pupils 
and assistants. As both painter and aesthetician, he was 
probably the single greatest influence on English artistic 
life in the second half of the 18th century. 



Miss Esther Jacobs 

[1761] Oil on canvas 

36 x 28^ in. (91.4 x 73 cm.) 



PL. 309 



Captain William Hamilton PL. 310 

[1757 (or 1762)— 1772] Oil on canvas 
30M x 25/^ in. (76.8 x 63.8 cm.) 

Ace. no. 26.58 

collections: Capt., later Sir William, Hamilton; Miss 
Hamilton (his niece), 1785; Sir William R. Anson, by 
1880 to 1905; Miss F. H. Anson; William McKay, Lon- 
don, by 1917; (Knoedler, New York, 1917); (Henry 
Reinhardt, New York, 1918); Edward Drummond Lib- 
bey, 1918-25. 

exhibitions: London, Royal Academy, Exhibition of 
Works by Old Masters and by Deceased Masters of the 
British School, 1888, no. 23. 

references: C. R. Leslie and T. Taylor, Life and Times 
of Sir Joshua Reynolds, London, 1865, 1, pp. 156, 162, 
219; A. Graves and W. V. Cronin, A History of the 
Works of Sir Joshua Reynolds, P.R.A., London, 1899- 
1901, 11, pp. 424-25; iv, pp. 1329-30; W. Armstrong, 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, London, 1900, p. 210; A. L. Baldry, 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, London, [1905], p. xxviii; E. K. 
Waterhouse, Reynolds, London, 1941, p. 51, pi. 144B; 
O. Warner, Emma Hamilton and Sir William, London, 
i960, p. 15, repr. opp. p. 16. 

This portrait of Captain, later Sir William, Hamilton 
(1730-1803), diplomat and archaeologist, is thought to 
have been begun in 1757 (Graves and Cronin, iv; War- 



137 



REYNOLDS 



ner) or 1762 (Waterhouse), and finished by 1772, with 
some retouching in 1785. Reynolds' account ledgers 
show that he also painted other portraits of Hamilton. 
Hamilton's wife, Lady Emma, was noted for her asso- 
ciation with Lord Nelson. 

Master Henry Hoare pl. 311 

[1788] Oil on canvas 

50^4 x 39% in. (127 x 102 cm.) 

Ace. no. 55.31 

Gift of Mr. and Mrs. George W. Ritter 

collections: Sir Richard Colt Hoare, 2nd Bt., Stour- 
head, Wiltshire, 1788-1838; by descent to Sir Henry 
Ainslie Hoare, 5th Bt., Stourhead, 1857-1883; (S. Wert- 
heimer, London, 1883); Baron S. Albert de Rothschild, 
Vienna, by 1899; Baron Louis de Rothschild; (Agnew, 
London, by 1955). 

exhibitions: London, Royal Academy, Royal Academy 
of Arts Bicentenary Exhibition, 1768-1968, 1968, 1, no. 
120; 11, repr. p. 45. 

references: A Description of the House and Gardens 
at Stourhead, Bath, 1818, p. 9; J. P. Neale, Mansions of 
England . . . , London, 1847, 11, p. X4; A. Graves and 
W. V. Cronin, A History of the Works of Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, P.R.A., London, 1899, 11, p. 468; W. Arm- 
strong, Sir Joshua Reynolds, London, 1900, p. 212; E. K. 
Waterhouse, Reynolds, London, 1941, p. 80; M. Cor- 
mack (transcribed by), "The Ledgers of Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds," Walpole Society, xlii, 1968-70, p. 156; E. K. 
Waterhouse, Reynolds, London, 1973, pl. 112. 

Henry Hoare (1784-1836) was a son of the banker Sir 
Richard Colt Hoare. The painting was engraved by 
Charles Wilkin (1789) and in mezzotint by Samuel Wil- 
liam Reynolds (1773-1835). 

Miss Frances Harris pl. 312 

[1789] Oil on canvas 

55^2 x 44 in. (141 x 112 cm.) 

Ace. no. 75.85 

Gift of Mrs. George M. Jones, Jr. 

collections: Painted for the Earl of Darnley in May 
1789; Earls of Darnley, Cobham Hall, Kent; (Duveen, 
New York); Clement O. Miniger, Perrysburg, Ohio; Mrs. 
George M. Jones, Jr., Perrysburg, Ohio. 

exhibitions: London, Royal Academy, 1790, no. 243; 
London, British Institution, 1813, additions to third cata- 
logue, no. 9; Manchester, Art Treasures of the United 
Kingdom, 1857, no. 63; London, Royal Academy, Ex- 



hibition of Works by Old Masters and by Deceased 
Members of the British School, 1876, no. 249; London, 
Grosvenor Gallery, Catalogue of the Works of Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, P.R.A., 1883, no. 75; London, 45 Park Lane, 
Sir Joshua Reynolds Loan Exhibition, 1937, pl. 83. 

references: G. Waagen, Treasures of Art in Great 
Britain, London, 1854, in, p. 26; A. Graves and W. 
Cronin, A History of the Works of Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
P.R.A., London, 1899, 11, p. 442; iv, p. 1336; W. Arm- 
strong, Sir Joshua Reynolds, London, 1900, p. 211; E. 
Waterhouse, Reynolds, London, 1941, p. 82; M. Cor- 
mack (transcribed by), "The Ledgers of Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds," Walpole Society, xlii, 1968-70, p. 156. 

The subject (1784-1842) was the second daughter of Sir 
James Harris, afterwards 1st Earl of Malmesbury. She 
married Lieutenant-General Sir Galbraith Lowry Cole, 
Governor of Mauritius and the Cape Colony. 

Graves and Cronin quote several contemporary press 
remarks commenting favorably on the picture when it 
was shown at the Royal Academy in 1790. The portrait 
was engraved by J. Grozer (1791), S. W. Reynolds (1836) 
and J. Scott (1875). 



SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS, Copy after 

Sir Joshua Reynolds pl. 313 

[After 1788] Oil on canvas 
29% x 25 in. (57.8 x 63.5 cm.) 

Ace. no. 26.66 

COLLECTIONS: (Henry Reinhardt, New York, 1914); Ed- 
ward Drummond Libbey, 1914-25. 
references: O. Millar, The Later Georgian Pictures in 
the Collection of Her Majesty the Queen, London, 1969, 
p. 98. 

According to Millar, this is one of over 15 copies after 
Reynolds' last self-portrait, painted in 1788 (Royal Col- 
lection, Windsor Castle). 



JUSEPE DE RIBERA 

Ca. 1591-1662. Spanish. Born in Jativa near Valencia. 
He went to Italy ca. 1610, and by 1616 settled in Naples, 
where he remained the rest of his life. Painter of re- 
ligious, mythological and genre subjects; also an etcher. 
He was patronized by the Neapolitan churches, the 



138 




XI. Paul Gauguin, Street in Tahiti 



139 




xii. Pierre Bonnard, The Abduction of Europa 



140 



RICCI 



Spanish viceroys in Naples, and the court at Madrid. 
In Spain his works were the principal source of the 
Carravagesque style there. 

Giovanni Maria Tr abaci, pl. 57 

Choir Master, Court of Naples 

[1638] Oil on canvas 

30^ x 24^ in. (77.2 x 62.5 cm.) 

Signed and dated center right: Jusepe de Ribera/F 1638 

Ace. no. 26.61 

collections: Augustus III, Elector of Saxony and King 
of Poland (reigned 1733-63); given to the Potocki fam- 
ily, Poland; Count Gregory Stroganoff, Rome, by 1908; 
(Sangiorgi, Rome); Edward Drummond Libbey, 1925. 

exhibitions: New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 
Spanish Paintings from El Greco to Goya, 1928, no. 54, 
repr.; Toledo Museum of Art, Spanish Painting, 1941, 
p. 86, no. 54, repr. (cat. by J. Gudiol); Oberlin, Allen 
Memorial Art Museum, Paintings and Graphics by ju- 
sepe de Ribera, 1957, no. 5, repr.; Sarasota, Ringling 
Museums, Baroque Painters of Naples, 1961, no. 11, 
repr. (cat. by C. Gilbert); Indianapolis, John Herron 
Museum of Art, El Greco to Goya, 1963, no. 65, repr. 

references: A. L. Mayer, Jusepe de Ribera (Lo Spagno- 
letto), Leipzig, 1908, pp. 124-25, pl. xxvii; 2nd ed., 
1923, pp. 127-28, pl. xxxni; A. Munoz, Pieces de choix 
du collection du Comte Gregoire Stroganoff, Rome, 
1912, 11, p. 107, pl. lxxxii; A. L. Mayer, La pintura es- 
panola, 2nd ed., Barcelona, 1929, p. 149; T. Kapterewa, 
Velazquez und die spanische Portrdtmalerei, Leipzig, 
1956, pp. 39-40, pl. 23; J. A. Gaya Nufio, La pintura 
espahola fuera de Espaha, Madrid, 1958, no. 2348; G. 
Kubler and M. Soria, Art and Architecture in Spain and 
Portugal and their American Dominions, 1500-1800, 
Harmondsworth, 1959, p. 241; U. Prota-Giurleo, "Gio- 
vanni Maria Trabaci e gli organisti della Real Cappella 
di Palazzo di Napoli," L'Organo, Dec. i960, pp. 190- 
91, repr.; C. M. Felton, "Jusepe de Ribera: A Catalogue 
Raisonne," unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of 
Pittsburgh, 1971, p. 35, no. A-64, repr. 

Relatively few portraits by Ribera are presently known. 
This portrait of a musician has been identified as Gio- 
vanni Maria Trabaci (ca. 1 575-1647), organist and choir 
master of the royal chapel at the viceregal court of Na- 
ples from 1604 until his death (Prota-Giurleo). The long 
staff and roll of music {"sol-fa") held by Trabaci were 
used by seventeenth century choir masters to beat time. 



SEBASTIANO RICCI 

1659-1734. Italian. Left his native Belluno in 1671 to 
study in Venice with Federico Cervelli and Sebastiano 
Mazzoni. In 1678 was in Bologna, then in Parma and 
Rome until 1694. In 1700 returned to Venice, remain- 
ing about 12 years, with trips to Vienna, Bergamo and 
Florence before going to England with his student and 
nephew, Marco Ricci, for whose landscapes and archi- 
tectural backgrounds Sebastiano often did the figures. 
Returned to Venice in 1716 until his death. Strongly in- 
fluenced by Veronese, Ricci was one of the principal 
painters who carried the Venetian decorative style to all 
parts of Europe. 

Saint Paul Preaching PL. 33 

[1712-16] Oil on canvas 

73^2 x 62^ in. (186.9 x 158.8 cm.) 

Ace. no. 66.112 

collections: Probably painted for Richard Boyle, 3rd 
Earl of Burlington, ca. 1712/16-1753; Charlotte Eliza- 
beth Boyle (his daughter), 1753-54; William Cavendish, 
Marquess of Hartington and 4th Duke of Devonshire 
(her husband), 1754-64 and by descent to nth Duke of 
Devonshire (Christie, London, June 27, 1958, lot 12, 
repr.); (Agnew, London). 

exhibitions: London, Whitechapel Art Gallery, Eigh- 
teenth Century Venice, 195 1, no. 109 (cat. by F. J. B. 
Watson); Art Institute of Chicago, Painting in Italy in 
the Eighteenth Century: Rococo to Romanticism, 1970, 
no. 38, repr. p. 99 (entry by B. Hannegan). 

references: Vertue Notebooks, IV, Walpole Society, 
xxiv, 1935-36, p. 118; O. Osti, "Sebastiano Ricci in 
Inghilterra," Commentari, 11, 1951, p. 122, fig. 127; B. 
Nicolson, "Sebastiano Ricci and Lord Burlington," Bur- 
lington Magazine, cv, Mar. 1963, p. 122; B. Frederick- 
sen and F. Zeri, Census, pp. 175, 439; E. H. Gombrich, 
The Ideas of Progress and their Impact on Art, New 
York, 1971, p. 12, repr. p. 13. 

This painting was seen by the engraver and antiquarian 
George Vertue in Burlington House, London, and men- 
tioned in his 1736-41 notebooks on artists and collec- 
tions in England. It was probably commissioned by 
Lord Burlington, who took a close interest in Ricci and 
his work. Two mythological decorations by Ricci are 
still in Burlington House, now the home of the Royal 
Academy. While Ricci was in England from 1712 to 
1716, Nicolson suggests that 1712-14, before Burling- 
ton's Grand Tour and his enthusiasms for Neoclassicism, 
is the most likely date for such a commission. This 



141 



RICHARDS 



painting, strongly influenced by Veronese, is possibly 
connected with the designs Ricci submitted for the com- 
petition for the decoration of the dome of St. Paul's Ca- 
thedral. 

It is unclear whether the saint is shown preaching at 
Athens (Acts XVIL22-23) or at Corinth (Acts XVIII: 
1-17, especially verse 4). Vertue, who described the paint- 
ing as St. Paul preaching to the Corinthians, wrote of 
"one figure of a man — the face almost profil [sic] of the 
painter of the picture." There are self-portraits by Ricci 
(J. von Derschau, Sebastiano Ricci, Heidelberg, 1922, p. 
1, n. 3), and in this painting the artist is almost certainly 
the prominent portly figure with his hands in his belt 
at center left. 

The Marriage at Cana (Nelson Gallery of Art, Kansas 
City) is the pendant to the Toledo painting. 

Christ and the Woman of Samaria pl. 34 

[1720s] Oil on canvas 

3 1/4 x 24M in. (79 x 62.8 cm.) 

Signed lower center: Riccivs Fecit 

Ace. no. 71.5 

collections: Private collection, England; (Ian G. Ap- 
pleby, London); (Hazlitt Gallery, London). 

references: D. Ewing, "A New Sebastiano Ricci," To- 
ledo Museum of Art Museum News, xvn, No. 1, 1974, 
pp. 7-10, fig. 4. 

While Ewing tentatively dated this painting about 1730, 
late in Ricci's career, more recently, M. Milkovich (let- 
ter, Aug. 1974) has suggested that it was done in the 
1720s. A larger version of the same subject probably 
painted in the mid-i72os is in the Royal Collection, 
Hampton Court Palace (M. Levey, The Later Italian 
Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty the Queen, 
London, 1964, no. 638). Although certain elements of 
composition in the two pictures are similar, it is unclear 
which painting preceded the other. 



CERI RICHARDS 

1903-1971. British. Born in Wales. Student at Swansea 
School of Art, 1920-24, followed by three years at Royal 
College of Art, where he was named an honorary fellow 
in 1961. In 1933 exhibited with the Objective Abstrac- 
tion Group and from 1940 to 1944 was head of the 
painting department at Cardiff College of Art. Known 
for surrealist figures and landscapes. 



Music Room pl. 354 

(Composition in Red and Black) 

[1951] Oil on canvas 

40-1/16 x 36-3/16 in. (101.8 x 91.9 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: Ceri/Richards/'5i 

Ace. no. 52.95 

collections: (Redfern Gallery, London). 

HYACINTHE RIGAUD 

1659-1743. French. Born in Perpignan, Rigaud studied 
in Montpellier and Lyons before becoming a student at 
the Academie Royale. In 1682 he won the Prix de Rome, 
but did not go to Italy. He entered the Academie in 1700 
as a history painter. Inspired by Van Dyck and Philippe 
de Champaigne, his own portraits became models for 
other artists, and they represent a culmination of the 
state portrait tradition. He was official portrait painter 
to three generations of the Bourbons of France and 
painted distinguished Europeans. A large studio helped 
Rigaud meet the great demand for his work. 

Marquis Jean-Octave de Villars pl. 196 

[1715] Oil on canvas 

i8 T /2 x 14 in. (47 x 35.5 cm.) 

Ace. no. 59.15 

collections: Private collection, Paris; (Wildenstein, 
New York). 

exhibitions: Cleveland Museum of Art, Style, Truth 
and the Portrait, 1963, no. 20, repr. 

references: J. Roman, Le livre de raison du peintre Hy- 
acinthe Rigaud, Paris, 1919, p. 176. 

This portrait study has been identified by George V. 
Gallenkamp (letter, Mar. 1968), who is preparing a 
monograph on Rigaud, as Marquis Jean-Octave de Vil- 
lars (born 1658), brother of the famous Claude-Louis- 
Hector, Due de Villars and Marechal General des Camps 
et Armees du Roi. While his first name is not given in 
Rigaud's account book, it is clear that the entry under 
1 71 5, "M r le marquis de Villars, la tete settlement, la 
reste n'a point ete acheve," is Jean-Octave, rather than 
Honore-Armand, Marquis de Villars (born 1702), son 
of the Marechal, as identified by Roman. An age of 57 
would agree with the sitter's appearance. Painted from 
life, this head was probably intended for a large finished 
work which was never executed. 



ROBUSTI (see TINTORETTO) 



14Z 



ROSSETTI 



GEORGE ROMNEY 

1734-1802. British. Apprenticed to a traveling portrait- 
ist, 1755-57. In London, 1763-73, followed by two years 
in Italy. Returned to London where he remained until 
1798, when he retired to his native Lancashire. Romney 
was one of the best known English portrait painters of 
his time. 

Lord Macleod pl. 321 

[1788] Oil on canvas 

50M* x 40% in. (127.2 x 101.8 cm.) 

Ace. no. 28.192 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: Earls of Cromarty, Tarbat House, Scot- 
land; Sir Hugh Lane; (Agnew, London, by 1913-19); 
Marquise de Ganay, 1919-22 (Georges Petit, Paris, May 
8-10, 1922, lot 66, repr.); (Agnew, London, 1922-25); 
(Howard Young, New York, 1925); Arthur J. Secor, 
1925-28. 

references: W. Fraser, The Earls of Cromartie, Edin- 
burgh, 1876, 1, p. eclviii, repr. preceding p. cclix; H. 
Ward and W. Roberts, Romney, London, 1904, II, p. 98; 
R.-C. Catrous, "Collections de Mme. la Marquise de 
Ganay," Revue de I'art, xli, Apr. 1922, p. 288, repr. p. 
291; A. McK. Annand, "Major-General Lord Macleod, 
Count Cromartie, First Colonel, 73rd Macleod's High- 
landers (later 71st and now 1st Bn. The Highland Light 
Infantry)," journal of the Society for Army Historical 
Research, xxxvn, 1959, pp. 26-7, repr. facing p. 26. 

Lord Macleod (John MacKenzie, 1729-1789) was con- 
victed of high treason in 1745. In 1748 he was pardoned 
and entered the military service of Sweden, becoming 
aide-de-camp to the Swedish king. He returned to En- 
gland in 1777. He had five sittings for this portrait in 
June 1788, and is shown wearing the 1786 Great Uni- 
form of a Major General of the British Army and the 
ribbon and star of the Swedish Order of the Sword. 



SALVATOR ROSA, Style of 

Italian. Rosa (1615-1673) was born at Naples. He was 
active there, in Rome and in Tuscany, chiefly as a land- 
scape painter. Died at Rome. 

Hagar and the Angel PL. 21 

Oil on canvas 

63 x 74% in. (160 x 192 cm.) 

Ace. no. 61.29 

collections: Private collection, France; (Heim, Paris). 



According to Genesis XXL9-21, Hagar and the illegiti- 
mate son she bore to Abraham wandered in the wilder- 
ness of Beersheba after being expelled from the house 
of Abraham. The angel of the Lord appeared to Hagar 
as a sign of God's protection of her and of the nation 
which would come from her son, Ishmael. 

Rosa scholars, including L. Salerno, M. Kitson, and 
R. W. Wallace agree (letters, Oct. and Dec. 1975) this 
painting is not by Rosa although containing Rosa-related 
motifs. In the opinion of Salerno, the figures are like 
those in two paintings with the same subject by the 
Roman landscape painter and pupil of Domenichino, 
Francesco Cozza (1605-1682) (1664, Statens Museum 
for Kunst, Copenhagen; 1665, Rijksmuseum, Amster- 
dam). Kitson and Wallace believe the Toledo picture may 
have been painted in the 18th century. 



DANTE GABRIEL ROSSETTI 

1828-1882. British. Born in London, the son of Italian 
political refugees. Studied at Royal Academy, 1845-47. 
Briefly in the studio of Ford Madox Brown in 1848. 
With Holman Hunt, J. E. Millais, F. G. Stephens and 
W. M. Rosetti, formed the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood 
in 1848. Influenced the younger William Morris and 
Burne-Jones. In the 1860s designed stained glass, furni- 
ture and tiles with the firm Morris, Marshall, Faulkner, 
and Co. Painter and poet, Rossetti drew his subject mat- 
ter primarily from medieval literature. 

The Salutation of Beatrice pl. 336 

[1880-82] Oil on canvas 

60M x 36 in. (154.3 x 91-4 cm -) 

Ace. no. 60.8 

collections: Painted for Frederick R. Leyland, London 
(Christie, London, May 28, 1892, lot 54); Sir John C. 
Holder, Birmingham, 1892; Mrs. J. M. S. Holder, Bir- 
mingham, 1927; (Wildenstein, New York). 

exhibitions: London, Royal Academy, Exhibition of 
Works by Old Masters . . . including a Special Selection 
from the Works of John Litwell and Dante Gabriel Ros- 
setti, 1883, no. 323; London, New Gallery, Winter Ex- 
hibition, 1897, no. 58; Manchester, City Art Gallery, 
Loan Exhibition of Works by Ford Madox Brown and 
the Pre-Raphaelites, 1911, no. 214; Indianapolis, Herron 
Museum of Art, The Pre-Raphaelites, 1964, no. 78, repr. 
references: W. Sharp, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, A Rec- 
ord and a Study, London, 1882, pp. 264-65, no. 311; 
"Dante Gabriel Rossetti," Harper's, lxv, May 1882, 
p. 700, repr. p. 696; W. M. Rossetti, "Notes on Rossetti 



143 



ROTHENSTEIN 



and His Works," Art Journal, 1884, p. 208; T. Childs, "A 
Pre-Raphaelite Mansion," Harper's, LXXXII, Dec. 1890, 
p. 84; H. C. Marillier, "The Salutation of Beatrice as 
Treated Pictorially by D. G. Rossetti," Art Journal, Dec. 
1899, pp. 356-57, repr.; E. L. Carey, The Rossettis, New 
York and London, 1900, pp. 177, 295, no. 194; W. M. 
Rossetti, "D. G. Rossetti," Art Journal, Easter Art An- 
nual, 1902, p. 32; H. C. Marillier, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 
An Illustrated Memorial of His Art and Life, London, 
1904, pp. 141-42, 172, no. 385; E. Waugh, Rossetti, His 
Life and Works, New York, 1928, p. 212; O. Doughty, A 
Victorian Romantic, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, London, 
i960, p. 632; M. F. Rogers, Jr., "The Salutation of Bea- 
trice: by Dante Gabriel Rossetti," Connoisseur, cliii, 
July 1963, pp. 180-81, repr.; V. D. Coke, The Painter 
and the Photograph, Albuquerque, 1964, p. 15, repr. p. 
14; A. Scharf, Art and Photography, London, 1968, pp. 
80, 266; V. Surtees, The Paintings and Drawings of 
Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-1882), A Catalogue Rai- 
sonne, Oxford, 1971, 1, no. 260; 11, pi. 390. 

This painting illustrates lines from the second sonnet of 
Dante's Vita Nuova which Rossetti translated into 
English by 1849 and published in 1861. Beatrice, for 
whom Mrs. William Morris posed, is shown in the 
streets of Florence. Dante, protected by the wings of 
Love, appears in the background. The architectural set- 
ting, according to W. M. Rossetti (1884), was composed 
from photographs sent to the artist by Fairfax Murray. 
The passage from Vita Nuova and Rossetti's translation 
are inscribed on the original frame. 

According to Sharp and W. M. Rossetti (1884), this 
painting, Rossetti's last large work, was not considered 
finished at the time of his death, though it was very 
close to completion. Surtees, who suggests that either 
Madox Brown or Treffey Dunn added the final touches, 
lists four preparatory drawings which date from about 
1872 to 1881. Sharp recorded (no. 292) a fifth drawing 
of ca. 1878, a crayon sketch for the head of Beatrice. 



SIR WILLIAM ROTHENSTEIN 

1872-1945. British. Born in Bradford. Studied with 
Legros at the Slade School, 1888. Moved to Paris, 1889, 
and attended the Academie Julian, 1889-93. Close friend 
of Whistler. Returned to England in 1893 and exhibited 
with New English Art Club from 1894. A painter and 
printmaker, he was also Principal of the Royal College 
of Art, 1920-35. 



47-^8 x 21M in. (120.3 x 55- 2 cm -) 

Signed and dated lower left: Will Rothenstein/'92 

Ace. no. 52.86 

collections: Llewellyn Hacon, Dieppe, from 1894; 
Mrs. Amaryllis Robichaud, until 1951; (Leicester Gal- 
lery, London). 

exhibitions: Paris, Salon du Champ de Mars, 1892 (as 
L'homme qui sort); London, New English Art Club, 
1894; London, Tate Gallery, Sir William Rothenstein, 
i8y2-ip4<;, A Memorial Exhibition, 1950, no. 4; Co- 
lumbus Gallery of Fine Arts, British Art 1890-1928, 
1971, no. 85, fig. 10 (cat. by D. Sutton). 

references: W. Rothenstein, Men and Memories: A 
History of the Arts 1872-1922, New York, n.d., 1, p. 121; 
J. Rothenstein, The Life and Death of Conder, New 
York, 1938, pp. 141-42; J. Rothenstein, Modern English 
Painters: Sickert to Smith, London, 1952, p. 124; J. Flai- 
zik, "Pictorial Literature," Toledo Museum of Art Mu- 
seum Neil's, in, Spring i960, pp. 45, 46, repr. p. 44; 
R. Speaight, William Rothenstein, London, 1962, pp. 49, 
71-2, repr.; V. Hoff, Charles Conder, Melbourne, 1972, 
pp. 51, 93, n. 21, fig. 20. 

Charles Conder (1868-1908) was a painter of land- 
scapes and figure subjects whom Rothenstein met in 
1890. The following year Rothenstein exhibited for the 
first time in a joint showing with Conder in Paris. This 
is the first of several portraits of Conder by Rothenstein 
which include at least two paintings and several draw- 
ings. Conder was not particularly pleased by this por- 
trait, and Rothenstein (Men and Memories) later ex- 
plained his friend's displeasure by saying, "Conder 
wished me to make him look more Daumieresque, to 
style his coat and give him a fatale and romantic appear- 
ance." The second portrait, dated 1896, is in the Musee 
de Jeu de Paume, Paris. 



GEORGES ROUAULT 

1871-1958. French. Born in Paris. Apprenticed to a 
maker of stained glass in 1885. Studied at Ecole des 
Beaux-Arts, 1891 and with Gustave Moreau, 1892-98. 
Early Biblical paintings influenced by Rembrandt. 
Briefly associated with the Fauve group, 1905-06. Ex- 
hibited regularly at Salon des Independants, 1905-12. 
He developed an independent Expressionist style as a 
painter and important printmaker. 



The Painter Charles Conder 
[1892] Oil on canvas 



PL. 338 



The Judge 

[Ca. 1937] Oil on canvas 
31/^ x 11% in. (79 x 58 cm.) 



PL. 299 



144 



ROUSSEAU 



Acc. no. 48.63 

collections: Marie Bell, Paris; (Bignou, Paris). 

Judges first appeared in Rouault's work in 1906, and he 
later commented that if he had made them such lament- 
able figures it was because he had portrayed the anguish 
he felt at the sight of a human being who had to pass 
judgment on others. Rouault returned frequently to this 
subject, and because he often reworked pictures years 
later, the dating of his work is difficuh. The style of this 
painting is similar to others painted in 1937-39, notably 
The Judge, 1937 (L. Venturi, Georges Rouault, Paris, 
1948, pi. 93; present location unknown). 



PIERRE-ETIENNE-THEODORE ROUSSEAU 

1812-1867. French. Studied with his cousin, the land- 
scape painter Pau de Saint-Martin, Remond and Guillon 
Lethiere, and was greatly influenced by Claude and the 
Dutch 17th century masters. Painted at Fontainebleau as 
early as 1826-29 an d throughout France during the 
1830s. He divided his time between Barbizon and Paris 
after 1837. Exhibited at the Salons, 1831-36 and again 
from 1849, having been excluded in the interim. Dupre 
and later Millet were his close friends, and he was a 
great influence on Diaz. 



In the Auvergne Mountains pl. 224 

[1837] Oil on canvas 

XS 1 / 2 x 31% in. (65 x 81 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: TH. Rousseau 1837 

Acc. no. 22.39 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: (Vose, Boston, ca. 1880); Mrs. S. D. War- 
ren, Boston; (Vose, Boston); Oren Westcott, Boston; 
(Vose, Boston); Arthur J. Secor, 1912-22. 

exhibitions: Detroit Institute of Arts, French Fainting 
from David to Courbet, 1950, no. 85, repr.; Boston, Mu- 
seum of Fine Arts, Barbizon Revisited, 196}, no. 90, 
repr.; Minneapolis Institute of Arts, The Past Rediscov- 
ered: French Fainting 1800-1900, 1969, no. 75, repr. 

references: J. Foucart, "Paysagistes et petits maitres," 
Art de France, iv, 1964, p. 348. 

Although Rousseau employed the strong tonal contrasts 
seen here throughout his career, this picture shows un- 
usually restrained brushwork and a particularly dry and 
grainy paint surface that is unusual in his work. 



Under the Birches, Evening pl. 223 

[1842-43] Oil on wood panel 
i6Vs x z$H in. (42.3 x 64.4 cm.) 
Signed lower left: Th. Rousseau 

Acc. no. 33.27 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: Louis-Desire Veron, Paris (bought from 
Rousseau) — 1858 (Hotel Drouot, Paris, Mar. 17, 1858, 
lot 60); Henri Didier, Paris, by i860 (Hotel Drouot, 
Paris, June 15, 1868); Baron Nathanial de Rothschild, 
Paris, from 1868; Baronesse Nathanial de Rothschild, 
Paris, to 1897; (E. Leroy, Paris, 1897-98); George J. 
Gould, New York, 1898 — after 1910; Arthur J. Secor, 
I92-7-33- 

exhibitions: Paris, Galerie Francis Petit, Salon Intime, 
i e Exposition Boulevard des Italiens, i860, no. 294 (as 
Ee Cure); Paris, Cercle de l'Union des Arts, Tableaux 
modernes, 1865, no. 116 (as Cure dans un chemin 
creux); Paris, Galerie Georges Petit, Cent chefs- 
d'oeuvre, 1883 (cat. published by Knoedler and Petit, 
New York, 1885, no. 71, etched by F. Kratke, repr. opp. 
p. 62, as Evening); Paris, Exposition Universelle, 1889, 
no. 607, cat. Chefs-d'oeuvre de I'Exposition Universelle 
de Paris, Paris and Philadelphia, 1889, 1, no. 607, pp. 42-3, 
repr. p. 23 (as Evening); London, Royal Academy, French 
Art: 1200-1900, 1932, no. 498, pl. 107; Paris, Expo- 
sition International, Chefs-d'oeuvre de I'art fraticais, 
1937, no. 409, pl. 78B; Columbus Gallery of Fine Arts, 
Relationships Between French Eiterature and Painting 
in the iyth Century, 1938, no. 4; Boston, Museum of 
Fine Arts, Barbizon Revisited, 1962, no. 95, p. 28, repr. 
p. 32; Paris, Musee de Louvre, Theodore Rousseau, 1968, 
no. 22, in biography 1842—43 and i860. 

references: Z. Astruc, Ees 14 Stations du Salon, Paris, 
1859, p. 244; T. Gautier, "Exposition de tableaux mod- 
ernes," Gazette des Beaux-Arts, v, i860, p. 286; L. La- 
grange, "Bulletin Mensuel," Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 
xvni, 1865, p. 295; A. Sensier, Souvenirs sur Th. Rous- 
seau, Paris, 1872, p. 132; E. Michel, Great Masters of 
Landscape Painting, London, 19 10, repr. p. 320; P. Dor- 
bee, Theodore Rousseau, Paris, 1910, p. 79; P. Dorbec, 
"L'oeuvre de Theodore Rousseau aux Salons 1849 a 
1867," Gazette des Beaux-Arts, ix, 1913, p. 107; P. Dor- 
bec, E'art du pay sage en France, Paris, 1925, pp. 106, 
115; J. Canaday, Mainstreams of Modern Art, New 
York, 1959, p. 119, repr. p. 118; P. Granville, "Theodore 
Rousseau un siecle plus tard," L'Oeil, No. 156, Dec. 1967, 
pp. 14, 15, repr.; J. Kolpinski, Die Kunst des 19. Jahr- 
hunderts, allgemeine Geschichte der Kunst, Leipzig, 
1969, vi, p. 72, repr. no. 59; J. Bouret, E'Ecole de Barbi- 



145 



RUBENS 



zon et le pay sage francais aux XlX e siecle, Neuchatel, 
1972, p. 128, repr. p. 129. 

Discouraged by continued exclusion from the Salon, 
Rousseau left Paris in May 1842 for the remote hamlet 
of Fay in Berry, remaining there until December. Ac- 
cording to Sensier, this painting was begun in late Oc- 
tober and finished in Paris after Rousseau's return in 
1843. 

An unpublished preparatory black crayon drawing 
for this painting in the Museum's collection was appar- 
ently drawn by Rousseau on the spot. Although it re- 
peats the basic composition of the trees, the drawing in- 
cludes a foreground pond which Rousseau eliminated 
in the painting, but which appears in its pendant, La 
Mare (Musee Saint Denis, Reims; Louvre exhibition, 
1968, no. 21), done a few months before the Toledo 
picture and showing the same site from another angle. 

Landscape pl. 2.2.6 

[Ca. 1845-50] Oil on wood panel 
i6J4 x 24% in. (41.3 x 63.2 cm.) 
Signed lower left: TH Rousseau 

Ace. no. 36.3 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: G. Gerardts, Antwerp; (Goupil, New 
York); L. Z. Leiter, Chicago; Arthur J. Secor, 1934-35. 

According to the catalogue of the 1968 Paris Rousseau 
exhibition (p. 56), pictures of this kind, directly inspired 
by 17th century Dutch landscapes, were painted for cli- 
ents who preferred bucolic pastoral scenes to Rousseau's 
more ambitious compositions. A related painting in the 
Louvre is dated ca. 1845-48 by H. Adhemar and C. Ster- 
ling (Peintures, ecole francaise XlXe siecle, Paris, 1961, 
iv, no. 1673, pl. 656). 



PETER PAUL RUBENS 

1577-1640. Flemish. Born at Siegen, near Cologne. His 
parents were natives of Antwerp, where he lived mostly 
after ca. 1588. Studied there and became a master of the 
Antwerp painters guild in 1598. In 1600 he went to Italy, 
remaining for eight years in the service of the Duke of 
Mantua, who sent him to Spain in 1603. After returning 
to Antwerp, he became court painter to successive Span- 
ish governors of the Netherlands. In 1621 Marie de 
Medici commissioned decorations for the Luxembourg 
Palace in Paris. He was involved in diplomatic negotia- 
tions for a Spanish-English peace, 1625-30, after which 



Charles I knighted him and commissioned decorations 
for the Banqueting Hall of Whitehall Palace. He later 
made paintings for Philip IV of Spain, by whom he was 
ennobled in 1624. One of the principal artists of his 
century, he was also a scholar, antiquarian, collector and 
diplomat, as well as a painter. 



The Crowning of 
Saint Catherine 



[COLOR PL. Vl] PL. I02 



[1633] Oil on canvas 

104H x 84H in. (265.8 x 214.3 cm -) 

Ace. no. 50.272 

COLLECTIONS: Church of the Augustinians, Malines, 
1633-1765; Gabriel-Francois-Joseph de Verhulst, Brus- 
sels, 1765 (de Neck, Brussels, Aug. 16, 1779, lot 43); 
Dukes of Rutland, Belvoir Castle, Leicestershire, 1779- 
1911; (Francis Kleinberger, Paris, 1911-12); Leopold 
Koppel, Berlin, 1912-33; Albert Koppel, Berlin, 1933- 
50; (Rosenberg and Stiebel, New York). 

exhibitions: Berlin, Akademie der Kunst, Austellung 
von Werken alter Kunst, 1914, no . 139. 

references: N. de Tombeur, Frovincia Belgica ordinis 

F. F. Eremitarum, S. P. N. Augustini, Louvain, n.d. (ca. 
1723-27), p. 118 (Stadsarchief Mechelen MS. 5); G. P. 
Mensaert, Le peintre amateur et curieux, Brussels, 1763, 
p. 175; J.-B. Descamps, Voyage pittoresque de la Flandre 
et du Brabant, Paris, 1769, p. 122; J. F. Mols, Pieces jus- 
ticatives pour I'etat des tableaux de Pierre Paid Rubens 
existant en Europe, 1776, pp. 56-7 (Bibliotheque Royal 
de Belgique, MS 5736); J. Reynolds, "A Journey to Flan- 
ders and Holland in the year 1781," The Works of Sir 
Joshua Reynolds, Knight (ed. E. Malone), Edinburgh, 
1867, pp. 177-78; J. Smith, 1830, 11, p. 47, no. 134 (incor- 
rectly described); J. Smith, 1842, Supplement, p. 256, no. 
57 (incorrectly described); G. Waagen, Treasures of Art 
in Great Britain, London, 1854, in, p. 399; J. Schoeffer, 
Historische Aanteekeningen Mechelen, Malines, 1858, 
11, p. 509 (Stadsarchief, Mechelen, MS. M 3014/11 (a); 
M. Rooses, L'Oeuvre de P. P. Rubens, Antwerp, 1888- 
92, 11, pp. 236-38, no. 400, pl. 139 (engraving by P. de 
Jode), v, p. 432; M. Rooses, Rubens, Philadelphia, 1904, 
11, p. 541; E. Plietzsch, "Die Ausstellung von Werken 
alter Kunst in der Berliner Kgl. Academie der Kiinste," 
Zeitschrift fur bildende Kunst, xxv, 1914, repr. p. 229; 
R. Oldenberg, P. P. Rubens, Stuttgart, 19 21, repr. p. 343; 

G. Gliick and F. Haberditzl, Die Handzeichnungen von 
P. P. Rubens, Berlin, 1926, in no. 206; H. G. Evers, Ru- 
bens und sein Werk, Brussels, 1944, p. 79; L. van Puy- 
velde, Rubens, Paris, 1952, pp. 155, 214 (nn. 184, 185), 
detail repr. opp. p. 146; H. Gerson and E. H. ter Kuile, 
Art and Architecture in Belgium, 1600-1800, Harmonds- 



146 



RUISDAEL 



worth, i960, pp. 104-05; J. Jacob, "The Liverpool Ru- 
bens and other Related Pictures," Liverpool Bulletin, ix, 
No. 3, 1960-61, pp. 20-1, fig. 10; L. Burchard and R.-A. 
d'Hulst, Rubens Drawings, Brussels, 1963, in nos. 174, 
186, 187, 194. 

The Crowning of St. Catherine was painted for the 
church of the Augustinian fathers in Malines. According 
to documents published by De Tombeur (transcribed by 
Rooses, 1888), in 1633 Rubens was paid 620 florins for 
this work, 100 of which were contributed by the Tan- 
ners Guild. However, though Mols later recorded these 
payments as made in 163 1 (quoted by Puyvelde), 1633 
appears a more reasonable date, because from the end 
of 1630 until early 1632 Rubens was occupied with the 
St. Ildefonsus Triptych (Vienna), for Archduchess Isa- 
bella, Governess of the Spanish Netherlands. As the 
center of that altarpiece and the Toledo canvas are 
closely related in composition, it is logical that in the 
latter Rubens should have subsequently painted a varia- 
tion on an invention made for his greatest patroness. 

St. Catherine of Alexandria was martyred for her 
faith in early Christian times. Rubens shows a dream 
of St. Catherine in which she is crowned by Christ. She 
is attached by two richly dressed virgin martyr saints, 
Apollonia of Alexandria (left) and Margaret of Antioch 
(right), bearing their respective attributes, a pair of pin- 
cers and a dragon. The radial trellis above the Virgin's 
head, and the angel bearing flames and lightning bolts 
between her and St. Margaret are probably allusions to 
the miraculous bolt that destroyed the wheel on which 
Catherine was to suffer death, and to the fiery deaths of 
the other two saints. Rubens probably modeled the 
standing figures on his beautiful young wife, Helena 
Fourment. Cherubs, emblematic of the divine event, 
bring wreaths and the palms of martyrdom. Although 
this painting was intended for the Augustinian's altar of 
St. Barbara, she does not appear in it, and, according to 
Rooses, a sculptured figure of the saint may have formed 
part of the altar ensemble. 

A drawing with compositional studies is in the Boy- 
mans-van Beuningen Museum, Rotterdam (Burchard and 
d'Hulst, no. 194 verso; other drawings related to this 
painting, the St. Ildefonsus Triptych and The Garden of 
Love (Prado, Madrid) are discussed under no. 174). Of 
four engravings after the Toledo painting, the earliest is 
by Pieter de Jode the Elder (1570-1634) (J. V. Schnee- 
voogt, Catalogue des estampes gravees d'apres P. P. 
Rubens, Haarlem, 1973, nos. 36-39). 



PETER PAUL RUBENS, Follower of 

Holy Family with Saint Elizabeth pl. 105 

and Saint John 

Oil on canvas 

73M x 6zH in. (187.3 x I 59-4 cm -) 

Ace. no. 30.107 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: Count Nesselrode, Moscow; P. Mersch, 
Paris (Galerie Georges Petit, Paris, May 28, 1909, lot 80, 
repr., as "Rubens ? "); Contini collection, Rome; (How- 
ard Young, New York). 

references: J.-A. Goris and J. Held, Rubens in Amer- 
ica, New York, 1947, no. A50. 

According to Goris and Held, this composition may have 
been inspired by a Rubens such as the Holy Family un- 
der the Apple Tree (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna). 
Recently, Held (letter, Apr. 1976) has stated the Toledo 
picture is by an unidentified follower of Rubens. M. 
Jaffe (letters, Jan. 1964 and Sep. 1975) relates it to a 
drawing of the Virgin and Child with winged cherub 
heads inscribed with the name of the Antwerp painter 
Gerard Seghers (1591-1651), who was influenced by 
Rubens late in his career. E. Haverkamp-Begemann and 
A.-M. Logan {European Drawings and Watercolors in 
the Yale University Art Gallery, 1500-1900, New Haven, 
1970, 1, no. 619), however, believe that this drawing 
may be a copy after a painting by Seghers. 



JACOB VAN RUISDAEL 

1629-1682. Dutch. Son of a Haarlem framemaker and 
painter with whom he may have studied. Later he may 
have worked with his uncle Salomon van Ruysdael. En- 
tered the Haarlem guild of painters in 1648. About 1650 
he traveled in east Holland and probably in western 
Germany as well, where he first saw mountains. About 
1655 he settled in Amsterdam, remaining there until his 
death. Ruisdael was the greatest of the realist Dutch 
landscape painters, and he exerted great influence on 
European landscape painting of the 19th century. His 
chief pupil was Meyndert Hobbema. 

Landscape with Waterfall pl. 138 

[Ca. 1665] Oil on canvas 

45/4 x 58K in. (114. 8 x 147.5 cm.) 

Signed lower right: JvRuisdael (JvR in monogram) 

Ace. no. 30.312 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 



147 



RUYSCH 



COLLECTIONS: Vernon Harcourt, Nuneham Park, 1857; 
Lewis Harcourt, Nuneham Park; Edward Dent; (How- 
ard Young, New York); Arthur J. Secor, -1930. 

references: G. Waagen, Art Treasures in Great Britain, 
London, 1854, Supplement, p. 350; C. Hofstede de Groot, 
iv, no. 267b; W. Stechow, 1968, pp. 7, 146, fig. 3. 

According to Stechow, the Scandinavian character of 
the Toledo landscape, as well as the use of vast open 
spaces within a forest view are distinctive features of 
Ruisdael's work in the 1660s. J. Rosenberg [Jacob van 
Kuisdael, Berlin, 1928, p. 42 ff.) believed that Ruisdael's 
use of northern motifs was influenced by the painter 
Allaert van Everdingen (1621-1675), who visited Sweden 
and Norway. 

Stechow believed that the figures at right are an 18th 
century addition. In verbal opinions, J. van Gelder (Mar. 
1954), K. Boon (Mar. 1959), and H. Gerson (Feb. i960) 
stated that while the figures are not by Ruisdael, they 
were done in the 17th century. When the painting was 
cleaned in 1958 by the conservator E. Korany, he also 
felt the figures are contemporary with the landscape. 



RACHEL RUYSCH 

1664-1750. Dutch. Apprenticed to Willem van Aelst, 
1680-83. Married the portraitist Juriaen Pool; in 1701 
they left Amsterdam for The Hague, where they became 
members of the painters guild. In 1708 she went to 
Diisseldorf as court painter to the Elector Palatine. 
After his death in 1716, she returned to Amsterdam. 
Ruysch was esteemed for the inventive arrangements and 
refined execution of the flower still lifes in which she 
specialized. 

Flower Still Life PL. 144 

Oil on canvas 

29M x 23% in. (75.6 x 60.6 cm.) 

Signed lower right: Rachel Ruysch 

Ace. no. 56.57 

collections: Bryan, London, (Coxe, Burrell and Fos- 
ter, London, May 17, 1798, lot 49) (?); William Wells, 
Redleaf, England, by 1835 (Christie, London, May 12, 
1848, lot 54); J. E. Fordham; (Speelman, London). 

exhibitions: London, British Institution, 1832, no. 54; 
1855, no. 68. 

references: J. Smith, vi, no. 17; C. Hofstede de Groot, 
x, no. 57; M. H. Grant, Rachel Ruysch 1664-1750, 
Leigh-on-Sea, 1956, p. 32, no. 75, pi. 4; P. Mitchell, 
European Flower Painters, London, 1973, p. 224, fig. 318. 



The present location of the pendant still life of fruit 
and flowers (Hofstede de Groot, no. 89) is unknown. 



SALOMON VAN RUYSDAEL 

1600/03-1670. Dutch. Born in Naarden. Admitted to the 
Haarlem painters guild in 1623. Although his teacher is 
unknown, his earliest work reflects the influence of Esaias 
van de Velde. His work of the 1630s, together with that 
of Pieter Molijn and Jan van Goyen, best represents the 
tonal phase of 17th century Dutch landscape painting. 
Father of Jacob Salomonsz. van Ruisdael; uncle of Ja- 
cob Isaacksz. van Ruisdael. 

River Landscape with Ferryboat pl. 115 

[1653] Oil on wood panel 

29'Ki x 41-M in. (74.6 x 106 cm.) 

Signed and dated (on ferryboat): S.v. Rvysdael 1653 

Ace. no. 67.15 

collections: Dr. Edward Beith (Christie, London, Apr. 
8, 1938, lot 51); (N. Katz?); (P. de Boer, Amsterdam, 
1938, no. 15); K. Jonas, E. Hesselman, Storangen, Swe- 
den, by 1945; (Nystad, The Hague). 

references: W. Stechow, Salomon van Ruysdael, eine 
Einfiihrung in seine Kunst, Berlin, 1938, no. 322A; 2nd 
ed., Berlin, 1975, no. 373A. 

Stechow believed that the building in the right back- 
ground, which also appears in other paintings by Ruys- 
dael (Stechow, 1975, nos. 358, 371, 414 and 508A), is 
similar, though not identical, to the castle at Duurstede. 

Landscape with Cattle pl. 116 

[1660s] Oil on canvas 

34K' x 44-% in. (87.5 x 1 13.5 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower left: S. Ruysdael i66(?) 

Ace. no. 48.77 

Gift of William E. Levis 

COLLECTIONS: Lord Carrington, Wycombe Abbey (Chris- 
tie, London, May 9, 1930, lot 62, as Jacob van Ruisdael); 
(Duits, London, 1930-); (J. Goudstikker, Amsterdam, 
1936?); Private collection, -1947; (Schaeffer, New York). 
exhibitions: Amsterdam, J. Goudstikker, Catalogus der 
Tentoonstelling van Werken door Salomon van Ruys- 
dael, 1936, no. 57 (as Salomon van Ruysdael, with fig- 
ures by Adriaen van de Velde). 

references: J. Smith, Supplement to the Catalogue 
Raisonne of the Most Eminent Dutch, Flemish and 
French Painters, London, 1842, no. 40 (as Jacob van 



148 



SCHREYER 



Ruisdael, with figures by A. van de Velde); C. Hofstede 
de Groot, iv, no. 558 (as Jacob van Ruisdael, with fig- 
ures by A. van de Velde); W. Stechow, Salomon van 
Ruysdael, eine Einfiihrung in seine Kunst, Berlin, 1938, 
no. 541; 2nd ed., Berlin, 1975, no. 541. 

Smith and Hofstede de Groot incorrectly catalogued 
this painting as by Jacob van Ruisdael although it bears 
Salomon van Ruysdael's characteristic signature. Ste- 
chow disagrees with Smith and Hofstede de Groot's 
statement that the figures are by Adriaen van de Velde. 



ter, Oct. 1957), I. Cheney (1963 and letter, Dec. 1975), 
and E. Pillsbury (letter, Dec. 1975). Mortari, Cheney 
and Pillsbury suggest a date of about 1540, when Salvi- 
ati's style strongly reflected the influence of Parmigianino, 
and according to Cheney, that of Perino del Vaga. Voss 
and Mortari suggested that Salviati may have been aware 
of Parmigianino's Madonna of the Rose (Dresden). 

Cheney noted a similar, though much repainted ver- 
sion in the Church of S. Pietro, Tivoli. 



RYCKHALS (see TENIERS) 



FRANCESCO SALVIATI 

1510— 1563. Italian. Born Francesco de' Rossi; Salviati 
was the surname of his first patron in Rome. First trained 
as a goldsmith, he later painted in his native Florence 
with Bandinelli and Andrea del Sarto. He went to Rome 
in 153 1, occasionally returning to Florence, and also 
visiting Bologna, Venice, and the court of Francis I of 
France. He did frescoes, portraits, altarpieces, easel paint- 
ings and designs for the decorative arts. His friend Va- 
sari's Lives of the Artists included a detailed biography 
of Salviati, who had an important role in the diffusion 
of Mannerism. 

The Holy Family with Saint John pl. 12 

[Ca. 1540] Oil on wood panel 
51M x 31^2 in. (130 x 98 cm.) 
Ace. no. 75.83 

collections: P. Ducasble, Annemasse, Switzerland, by 
1911; Robert Caby, Champigny (Seine), France, by 1957; 
(Galerie Pardo, Paris); (H. Schickman, London). 

references: H. Voss, "Kompositionen des Francesco 
Salviati in der italienischen Graphik des XVI. Jahrhun- 
derts.," Die Graphischen Kiinste (supplement), xxxv, 
191 2, pp. 66-7, fig. 12; H. Voss, Die Malerei der Spat- 
renaissance in Rom und Florenz, Berlin, 1920, 1, pp. 
246-47; A. Venturi, Storia dell'arte Italiana, Milan, 193 5, 
ix (part 6), p. 212, n. 1; L. Mortari, "Alcuni inediti di 
Francesco Salviati," Studies in the History of Art Dedi- 
cated to William E. Suida on his Eightieth Birthday, 
London, 1959, p. 247, fig. 1; I. Cheney, "Francesco Sal- 
viati 1510-1563," unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, New 
York University, 1963, 11, p. 355. 

The attribution of this painting to Salviati by Voss (1912) 
has been confirmed by Venturi, Mortari, R. Longhi (let- 



ADOLPH SCHREYER 

1828-1899. German. Born in Frankfort-am-Main. Stu- 
dent of Jakob Becker at the Staedel Institute, and briefly 
attended the Diisseldorf Academy. Traveled extensively 
in Russia, Syria and North Africa. Lived in Paris, 1862- 
70, and exhibited at the Salon. Returned to Germany in 
1870. Best known for romantic scenes of Arabian horse- 
men. 



The Wallachian Team pl. 72 

Oil on canvas 

19% x 33H in. (49.8 x 84.1 cm.) 

Signed lower right: Ad. Schreijer 

Ace. no. 22.30 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: Arthur J. Secor, 1904-22. 

references: Adolf Schreyer, Paine Art Center and Ar- 
boretum, Oshkosh (Wise), 1972, p. 57, repr. Schreyer 
painted several pictures of the outposts along the roads 
of Wallachia, a part of present-day Romania. His paint- 
ings are difficult to date because the chronology of his 
work has not been established. 

The Standard Bearer pl. 71 

Oil on canvas 

36^6 x 28 in. (93 x 71. 1 cm.) 

Signed lower right: Ad. Schreyer 

Ace. no. 22.31 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: Baron de Tuyll, Washington, D.C.; 
(Henry Reinhardt, Milwaukee); Arthur J. Secor, 1906- 

22. 

references: Adolf Schreyer, Paine Art Center and Ar- 
boretum, Oshkosh (Wise), 1972, p. 56, repr. The sub- 
ject and style of this painting are closely related to the 
Arabian scenes of Delacroix and Fromentin. 



149 



SCOTT 



WILLIAM SCOTT 

19 1 3-. British. Born in Greenock, Scotland and raised 
in Northern Ireland. Studied at Belfast College of Art 
and Royal Academy Schools, London, 1928-35. Lived 
in Italy and France, 1937-39. In 1953 he went to Amer- 
ica, where he met Pollock, Kline and Rothko and as a 
result his work became more abstract. By the 1950s be- 
gan abstract geometric still lifes for which he is cur- 
rently known. He is also a sculptor. 

Homage to Corot pl. 350 

[1946] Oil on canvas 

21^ x i834 in. (51. 1 x 46.4 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: W. Scott 46 

Ace. no. 50.255 

collections: (Leicester Galleries, London). 

Painted during Scott's second visit to Pont Aven, Brit- 
tany, in 1946. 

DANIEL SEGHERS 

1590-1661. Flemish. Born in Antwerp; lived and studied 
in Utrecht until 1610, when he returned to Antwerp to 
study with Jan Brueghel the Elder. Became a Jesuit lay 
brother in 1614, taking final vows in 1625. From 1625 
he was with the Order in Rome, returning by 1628 to 
Antwerp, where he remained the rest of his life. Spe- 
cialized in flower paintings, especially garlands sur- 
rounding a trompe-l'oeil sculptured cartouche in which 
a collaborator painted a religious subject or portrait. 

Flowers in a Glass Vase pl. 104 

[1635] Oil on wood panel 
32-1/16 x 20 -Hi in. (81.2 x 51.7 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: D. Segers. Soc.tis/Jesu 
Ao. 1635 

Ace. no. 53.85 

collections: Leo Spick, Berlin, to 1953; (Eugene Slat- 
ter, London). 

references: M. Hairs, Les peintres flamands de fleurs 
an XVUe siecle, Paris, 1955, pp. 60-1, 72, 75, 77, 238, 
pl. 21, n. 638; G. Bazin, A Gallery of Flowers, London, 
i960, pp. 102-05, repr.; M. Burke-Gaffney, S.J., Daniel 
Seghers (1590-1661), New York, 1961, p. 15, repr.; P. 
Mitchell, European Flower Painters, London, 1973, p. 
234. 

This is Seghers' earliest known signed and dated paint- 
ing, and it is his largest work on panel. Bouquets of 



flowers in a vase are rare in Seghers' work; the only 
other dated pictures are two at Dresden (both 1643). 



ANDRE DUNOYER DE SEGONZAC 

1884-1974. French. Born near Paris. Studied first with 
Olivier Merson, and then at the Academie Julian. He 
developed a realistic style that is largely independent 
of the French art movements of his time. Important as a 
draftsman, painter in both oils and watercolors and 
printmaker, he also did book illustrations and stage 
designs. 

Landscape at Saint Tropez pl. 290 

[1926] Oil on canvas 

23^4 x 39->^ in. (60.3 x 99 cm.) 

Signed lower left: A. D. de Segonzac 

Ace. no. 56.73 

collections: M. Monteux, by 1929; Lord Ivor Spencer- 
Churchill, by 1948; (Sam Salz, New York). 

exhibitions: Paris, Galerie Charpentier, Dunoyer de 
Segonzac: cinquante annees de peinture, i960, no. 31 
(as Ferme a I'aire en fin de I'apres-midi, 1928). 

references: P. Jamot, Dunoyer de Segonzac, Paris, 
1929, p. 233, repr. p. 3 (as Fa ferme a I'aire: crespuscide, 
1926); C. Roger-Marx, Dunoyer de Segonzac, Geneva, 
195 1, p. 80, fig. 88 (as Fa ferme a I'aire, 1926). 

The same farm buildings and oaks with a type of stone 
threshing floor (I'aire) peculiar to Provence appear in a 
series of paintings, drawings and etchings of 1925-26 
done by Segonzac near Saint-Tropez. Part of the round 
floor appears in the lower left corner of this landscape. 
Both paintings and prints show light effects at different 
times of day; in the case of the Toledo picture, later 
afternoon or twilight. 

Jamot illustrates (p. 148) a drawing of this subject. 
The same motif was also used in seven etchings of 1925- 
26 (A. Liore and P. Cailler, Catalogue de I'oeuvre grave 
de Dunoyer de Segonzac, Geneva, 1958, 1, nos. 152-58). 



JUAN DE SEVILLA 

Spanish. Active in the first half of the 15th century in 
Castille, principally in Sigiienza (Guadalajara). Identical 
with the Master of Sigiienza and Juan de Peralta. Per- 
haps born in Seville. The style of his paintings connect 
him with the school of Toledo. 



150 



SICKERT 



Retable of Saint Andrew pl. 47 

and Saint Antonin of Patniers 

Top (left to right): (a) Saint Jerome; (b) Crucifixion of 
Saint Andrew; (c) left: Saint Bartholomew; center, Cru- 
cifixion; right: Saint John the Baptist; (d) Execution of 
Saint Antonin; (e) Saint Augustine; Bottom (left to right): 
(f) upper: Saint Lawrence; lower: Saint Margaret; (g) 
Saint Andrew Warning the Bishop; (h) upper left: Saint 
James Major; lower left: Saint Catherine; center: Saint 
Andrew and Saint Antonin; upper right: unidentified 
saint; lower right: Saint Lucy; (1) Recovery of Saint An- 
tonin s Body; {}) upper: unidentified saint; lower: Saint 
Barbara. 

[Ca. 1417-19] Tempera on wood panel 

(a) 16^x3^ in. (41.2 x8 cm.); (b) 25^ x i6 7 /s in. 
(64.7 x 42.7 cm.); (c) left: iyH x 3 J A in. (44.1x8.2 
cm.); center: 32 x 26 in. (81.2 x 66 cm.); right: ijH x 
3*4 in. (44.1 x 8.2 cm.); (d) 25^8 x 17H in. (65 x 43.7 
cm.); (e) i6 l A x 3 in. (41. 1 x 7.6 cm.); (f) upper: 15 x 
3/4 in. (38.1 x 8.2 cm.); lower: isMs x }A in. (38.2 x 
8 cm.); (g) 30M x 16H in. (78 x42.5 cm.); (h) upper 
left: 17 x 3M? in. (43.1 x 8 cm.); lower left: 17A x 3^ 
in. (43.3 x 8 cm.); center: 39^ x 2634 in. (100.5 x 66.5 
cm.); upper right: 17 x 3 A in. (43.1 x 8.2 cm.); lower 
right: 16-M x 3A in. (42.5 x 8.5 cm.); (1) }o 7 A x xj$4 
in. (78.5 x 44.5 cm.); (j) upper: 15 x 3 in. (38.1x7.6 
cm.); lower: 15A x 3 in. (38.6 x 7.6 cm.) 

Ace. no. 55.213 a-j 

Museum Purchase 

collections: Cathedral of Sigiienza; Private collection, 

Barcelona (?). 

exhibitions: Barcelona, Museo del Palacio Nacional, 
El arte en Espana, 1929, p. 275, no. 1703 (cat. by M. 
Gomez Moreno). 

references: C. R. Post, A History of Spanish Painting, 
Cambridge, 1930, III, pp. 175-76 (as probably Arago- 
nese); 1933, IV (part 2), p. 637 (as Retable of Sts. An- 
drew and Vincent); J. Gudiol, "Juan de Sevilla — Juan de 
Peralta," Goya, No. 5, Mar.-Apr. 1955, pp. 261-62, fig. 
5 (detail) (as St. Andrew and a Holy Deacon); C. R. Post, 
A History of Spanish Painting, Cambridge, 1958, xn 
(part 2), p. 611 (as Retable of St. Andrew and a Hal- 
lowed Deacon); Tresors de la peinture espagnole (exh. 
cat.), Paris, Musee des Arts Decoratifs, 1963 (by M. La- 
clotte); J. Camon Aznar, Pintura medieval Espanola, 
Summa Artis, Madrid, 1966, XXII, p. 310, repr. (detail) 
(as by Juan de Peralta; as Sts. Andrew and Vincent); M. 
Heriard-Dubreuil, "Juan de Peralta," L'Oeil, No. 209, 
May 1972, pp. 4-8, 10, 12, figs. 6-10 (as Retable of Sts. 
Andrew and Antonin). 



This retable altarpiece, originally in Sigiienza Cathedral 
(New Castille), is dedicated to St. Andrew and St. An- 
tonin of Pamiers. According to Heriard-Dubreuil, it was 
probably commissioned by Alonso de Argiiello, Bishop 
of Sigiienza 1417-19, who had previously been bishop 
of Palencia, where St. Antonin was especially venerated. 
St. Antonin was a legendary 10th century martyr who 
was thought to have caused miracles; St. Andrew is the 
patron saint of bishops. The coat of arms repeated at 
the top has not yet been identified (Heriard-Dubreuil, 
note 10). 

The retable was attributed to the Master of Sigiienza 
by Post (1933), who invented this name to identify the 
painter of this and another altarpiece in Sigiienza. In 
1955 Gudiol identified this artist with both Juan de Se- 
villa and Juan de Peralta, relating his style to the school 
of Toledo and its Italianate tendencies. Post (1958) ac- 
cepted the first part of this identification, though he did 
not believe that Juan de Sevilla and Juan de Peralta were 
the same. 



WALTER RICHARD SICKERT 

1860-1942. British. Born in Munich; his father was a 
Danish painter, his mother British. To England, 1868. 
After a brief acting career, in 1882 he entered the Slade 
School, but shortly left to become "Whistler's only pupil. 
In Paris, 1883, where he met Degas, whose close friend 
he became. In Venice, 1895, 1901, 1903-04. Lived in 
Dieppe (Normandy), 1899-1905 and 1918-22. Returned 
to England, 1905 and in 191 1 helped form Camden Town 
Group. Associate of the Royal Academy, 1924; member, 
1934; resigned, 1935. Painted architectural, figure and 
music hall subjects. 

Rio di San Paolo, Venice pl. 342 

[1903-04] Oil on canvas 

24 x I9>2 in. (61 x 49.5 cm.) 

Signed lower right: Sickert. 

Inscribed on reverse by the artist: Rio da San Polo {sic) 

Ace. no. 54.70 

collections: Mme. Bordeaux, Paris; (Roland, Browse 
and Delbanco, London, 1954). 

exhibitions: London, Tate Gallery, Sickert, Paintings 
and Drawings, i960, no. 76; New York, Hirschl and 
Adler, Walter R. Sickert, 1967, no. 40; Columbus Gal- 
lery of Fine Arts, British Art 1890-1928, 1971, no. 96, 
fig. 24 (cat. by D. Sutton). 

references: A. Bertram, A Century of British Painting 
1851-1951, London, 1951, pl. 14; L. Browse, Sickert, 



151 



SIGNAC 



London, i960, pp. 27, 28, 60, 115, pi. iv; W. Dimson, 
"Four Sicken Exhibitions," Burlington Magazine, en, 
Oct. i960, p. 441; W. Baron, Sickert, London, 1973, pp. 
73, 81, n. 6, no. 162. 

According to Browse and Baron, this picture dates from 
Sickert's third stay in Venice. The flickering, luminous 
surface is characteristic of his work at this time, much 
of which, like this canvas, was acquired by collectors 
in France, where Sickert had many admirers. 



LUCA SIGNORELLI 

Ca. 1441-1523. Italian. A pupil of Piero della Francesca, 
commissions took him from his native Cortona to 
Arezzo, Volterra, Citta di Castello, Monte Oliveto, Ur- 
bino, Perugia, Siena and Rome. His most important com- 
mission was the completion of the frescoes in the Cap- 
pella Nuova in Orvieto Cathedral. He also worked for 
Pope Julius II and was one of the artists called by Pope 
Sixtus IV to decorate the walls of the Sistine Chapel. His 
bold handling of the human figure had a significant in- 
fluence on the painting of the High Renaissance. 



PAUL SIGNAC 

1863-1935. French. Born in Paris. No formal art train- 
ing. Exhibited in last Impressionist show, 1886. Strongly 
influenced by Seurat and the theories of Pointillism. Ex- 
hibited regularly at Salon des Independants, 1884-1934. 
He was the theorist of Neo-Impressionism. 

Entrance to the Grand Canal, Venice PL. 282 

[1905] Oil on canvas 

28-15/16 x 36^4 in. (73.5 x 92.1 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: P. Signac/1905 

Ace. no. 52.78 

collections: (Bernheim-Jeune, Paris); G. Loury, Paris; 
J. J. Puritz, New York; (M. Moos, Geneva). 

exhibitions: Paris, Bernheim-Jeune, Paul Signac, 1907, 
no. 12, repr. (as Entree du Grand Canal); Paris, Bern- 
heim-Jeune, Paul Signac, 1930, no. 27, repr.; Paris, Petit 
Palais, Paul Signac, 1934, no. 21; New York, Wildenstein, 
Camille Pissarro: His Place in Art, 1945, no. 68; Paris, 
Louvre, Signac, 1963, no. 65, repr.; New York, Solomon 
R. Guggenheim Museum, Neo-Impressionism, 1968, no. 
104, repr. 

references: G. Besson, Paul Signac, Paris, 1935, pi. 8; 
R. Jullien, Les impressionistes francais et I'ltalie, Paris, 
1968, pp. 17, 29. 

After a trip to Venice in 1904, the same year Signac ex- 
hibited in Paris paintings of the harbor at Venice. This 
view of the entrance to the Grand Canal with the Church 
of Santa Maria della Salute appeared again later in an 
oil painting (Sotheby, London, June 28, 1961, lot 166, 
repr.) and a watercolor (Musee Marmottan, Paris), both 
of 1908. Signac's interest in Venice was further stimu- 
lated by the Paris publication in 1905 of Ruskin's Stones 
of Venice and by a trip in 1898 to London, where he was 
impressed by Turner's Venetian scenes such as the To- 
ledo Museum's Venice, The Campo Santo. 



Figures in a Landscape PL. ya-b 

(a) Two Nude Youths; (b) Man, Woman and Child 

[1498] Oil on wood panel 

(a) 27J4 x i6/4 in. (69.2 x 41.2 cm.); (b) z6H x 16K in. 
(67.9 x 41.9 cm.) 

Ace. no. 55.222 a&b 

COLLECTIONS: Baron Marochetti; Sir Francis Cook, be- 
fore 1893-1901; Sir Herbert Cook, Bt., Doughty House, 
Richmond, Surrey, 1901-39; Sir Francis Cook, Bt., 
I 939 _ 55 (lent to Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, ca. 
1947-55); (Rosenberg & Stiebel, New York). 

exhibitions: London, Burlington Fine Arts Club, The 
Work of Euca Signorelli and his School, 1893, nos. 10, 
11; London, Burlington Fine Arts Club, Winter Exhibi- 
tion, 1906, nos. 18, 21; London, Grafton Galleries, Ex- 
hibition of Old Masters, 1911, nos. 10, 12, figs. 8, 10; 
London, Royal Academy, Exhibition of Italian Art, 
1200-1900, 1930, nos. 219, 220. 

references: R. Vischer, Euca Signorelli und die Itali- 
enische Renaissance, Leipzig, 1879, p. 244; M. Cruttwell, 
Euca Signorelli, London, 1899, p. 132; B. Berenson, The 
Central Italian Painters of the Renaissance, London, 
1909, p. 250; R. Fry, "Exhibition of Old Masters at the 
Grafton Galleries, I," Burlington Magazine, xx, Nov. 
1911, pp. 72, 77, pi. 111; T. Borenius, "The Reconstruc- 
tion of a Polyptych by Signorelli," Burlington Maga- 
zine, xxiv, Oct. 1913, p. 35; H. Cook, ed., A Catalogue 
of the Paintings at Doughty House, Richmond and Else- 
where in the Collection of Sir Frederick Cook Bt., Lon- 
don, 1913, 1 (T. Borenius, Italian Schools), nos. 50, 51, 
pi. viii; A. Venturi, Storia dell'arte italiana, Milan, 1913, 
vii, part 2, p. 410, fig. 321 (panel A); J. A. Crowe and 
G. B. Cavalcaselle, A History of Painting in Italy, Lon- 
don, 19 14, v, pp. 96-7; A. Venturi, Euca Signorelli, Flor- 
ence, 1922, p. 65, pi. 87; L. Dussler, Signorelli (Klassiker 
der Kunst), Stuttgart, 1927, p. 203, repr. pp. 76-7; B. Ber- 
enson, Italian Pictures of the Renaissance, Oxford, 1932, 



152 



SISLEY 



p. 533; R. van Marie, The Development of the Italian 
Schools of Fainting, The Hague, 1937, xvi, pp. 49-50, 
115; B. Berenson, The Drawings of the Florentine Paint- 
ers, Chicago, 1938, i, p. 41; B. Berenson, The Italian 
Painters of the Renaissance, New York, 1952, pi. 287; 
M. Salmi, Luca Signorelli, Novara, 1953, pp. 22, 55, fig. 
37; O. A. Rand, Jr., Luca Signorelli: Martyrdom of St. 
Catherine and the Bichi Altar, Sterling and Francine 
Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, 1961, pp. [7, 8], fig. 
9 (photographic reconstruction of Bichi altar; also see 
exh. cat., Italian Paintings and Drawings, Mar. 1961, last 
plate); "Signorelli Masterpiece Reconstructed in Wil- 
liamstown, Mass.," Art News, lx, Mar. 1961, pp. 36, 
37; 55) fig s - 4) 5! A. Martingale, "Luca Signorelli and 
the Drawings Connected with the Orvieto Frescoes," 
Burlington Magazine, cm, June 1961, p. 220; P. Scar- 
pellini, Luca Signorelli, Milan, 1964, pp. 39, 132, pis. 
44a, 44b; A. Chastel, Studios and Styles of the Italian 
Renaissance, New York, 1966, p. 350, fig. 307 (panel 
A incorrectly assigned to Fitzwilliam Museum, Cam- 
bridge); B. Berenson, Italian Pictures of the Renaissance: 
Central Italian and North Italian Schools, London, 1968, 
1, p. 400; F. R. Presenti, "Dismembered Works of Art — 
Italian Paintings," in An Illustrated Inventory of Famous 
Dismembered Works of Art: European Painting, Paris 
(unesco), 1974, pp. 25, 49, repr. p. 50. 

These panels are probably fragments of an altarpiece 
commissioned in 1498 for the Bichi family chapel in 
the Church of S. Agostino at Siena, according to the 
Sienese author Sigismondo Tizio in 1513 (Dussler). It 
was described in situ in a detailed account of the mid- 
18th century by Abbot Calgano. Bichi (Vischer). The 
altarpiece was dismembered by 1850. Borenius, who re- 
constructed the plan of the altarpiece (1913), believed 
that the two Toledo panels probably formed part of 
the Baptism of Christ which Bichi described as behind 
the central wood figure of St. Christopher, to whom the 
chapel was dedicated. Later scholars agreed with Bore- 
nius except for Venturi, who first (1913) attributed the 
panels to a Signorelli assistant and later (1922) to his 
workshop; and Van Marie, who believed they were 
by Signorelli, though not from the Bichi altar. 

According to Borenius, the center included the sculp- 
tural St. Christopher (Louvre, Paris) in front of the 
painted element of which the Toledo panels formed a 
part. This was flanked by panels with (left) Sts. Cather- 
ine of Siena, Mary Magdalen and Jerome and (right) 
Sts. Augustine, Catherine of Alexandria and Anthony of 
Padua (both Dahlem Museum, Berlin). In the predella 
were The Feast in the House of Simon (National Gal- 
lery, Dublin); Pieta (Estate of Sir John Stirling-Maxwell, 



Glasgow); and Martyrdom of St. Catherine (Clark Art 
Institute, Williamstown, Mass.). 

In the Toledo panels, the youth removing his shirt 
may be compared to the similar figure in The Baptism 
by Piero della Francesca (National Gallery, London), 
while the youth removing his sandal appears in reverse 
in Signorelli's Virgin and Child (ca. 1490-94; Pinako- 
thek, Munich). The figure of the man in the other panel 
resembles the piping figure of Olympus in the Education 
of Pan by Signorelli (ca. 1492; formerly Kaiser Friedrich 
Museum, Berlin; destroyed, 1945). Berenson (1938) re- 
lates a drawing in the Marignane collection, Paris to the 
same figure. 



MARIO SIRONI 

1885-1961. Italian. Born in Sardinia. Studied engineering 
in Rome, where he met Severini, Boccioni and Balla. 
Joined the Futurist movement in 1915, and after World 
War I exhibited with the Novecento group. He also did 
frescoes and mosaics. 

Composition PL. 44 

[Ca. 1952] Mixed media on paper 
38M x 31^ in. (98.4 x 80 cm.) 
Signed lower right: Sironi 

Ace. no. 52.141 

collections: (II Milione Gallery, Milan). 

exhibitions: San Francisco Museum of Art, Art in the 
20th Century, 1955, p. 17. 



ALFRED SISLEY 

1839-1899. French. Born in Paris of English parents and 
spent most of life in France. In 1862 entered the Ecole 
des Beaux Arts, where he met Monet, Renoir and Bazille. 
Exhibited in the Salon des Refuses, 1863, and in four of 
the Impressionist exhibitions. Almost exclusively a land- 
scape painter. 

The Aqueduct at Marly pl. 251 

[1874] Oil on canvas 

ztYs, x 32 in. (54.3 x 81.3 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: Sisley/74 

Ace. no. 51.371 

collections: (Durand-Ruel, Paris, from 1876); (Alex 
Reid & Lefevre, London). 

exhibitions: Paris, Durand-Ruel, Pissarro, Renoir et 
Sisley, 1899, no. 130; Paris, Durand-Ruel, Tableaux de 



153 



SOLIMENA 



Sisley, 1930, no. 19; New York, Paul Rosenberg, Loan 
Exhibition of Paintings by Alfred Sisley, 1961, repr. p. 
8; Bordeaux, Musee des Beaux-Arts, La peinture fran- 
faise: collections americaines, 1966, no. 80, pi. 35; New 
York, Wildenstein, Alfred Sisley, 1839-1899, 1966, no. 
15, repr. 

references: G. Besson, Sisley, Paris, n.d., pi. 20; F. 
Daulte, Alfred Sisley: Catalogue raisonne de I'oeuvre 
peint, Lausanne, 1959, no. 133, repr.; J. Lanes, "Current 
and Forthcoming Exhibitions: New York," Burlington 
Magazine, cvm, Dec. 1966, p. 645, fig. 58. 

Sisley lived in the neighborhood of Marly, on the north- 
western outskirts of Paris, from 1871 to 1877. The year 
he painted this picture, Sisley participated in the first 
exhibition of the original group of Impressionists. 

The Marly Aqueduct was built in 1681-84 to bring 
water from the Seine to the palace fountains at Marly 
and Versailles. 

Nut Trees at Thomery pl. 252 

[1880] Oil on canvas 

22^ x 28 in. (57.5 x 71.2 cm.) 

Signed lower left: Sisley. 

Ace. no. 52.10 

collections: (Durand-Ruel, Paris, from 1881); H. Vever 
(Galerie Georges Petit, Paris, Feb. 1-2, 1897, lot 109); 
(Durand-Ruel, Paris); Leon Orosdi (Hotel Drouot, Paris, 
May 25, 1923, lot 67); (Rosenberg & Stiebel, New York). 

exhibitions: New York, Paul Rosenberg, Loan Exhibi- 
tion of Paintings by Alfred Sisley, 1961, repr. p. 12; New 
York, Wildenstein, Alfred Sisley, 1S39-1899, 1966, no. 
46, repr. 

references: B. Bibb, "The Work of Alfred Sisley," The 
Studio, xviii, Dec. 1899, repr. p. 154; G. Geffroy, Sisley, 
Paris, 1927, pl. 52; F. Daulte, Alfred Sisley: Catalogue 
raisonne de I'oeuvre peint, Lausanne, 1959, no. 397, repr. 
(as 1880). 

Thomery, near Fontainebleau, is on a part of the Seine 
River where Sisley did much painting while living nearby 
at Veneux-Nadon from 1880 to 1882. 



FRANCESCO SOLIMENA 

1657-1747. Italian. Born near Naples, where he settled 
in 1674. Influenced by Giordano, Preti, Maratta and 
Lanfranco. He became the leading artist in Naples after 
Giordano's death in 1705. His fame was international 



and his paintings were sought in England, France, Spain 
and Germany. The last great figure of the Neapolitan 
Baroque, his pupils included Francesco Mura, Corrado 
Giaquinto and Sebastiano Conca. 

Heliodorus Expelled from the Temple pl. 24 

[Ca. 1725] Oil on canvas 

60 x 80/4 in. (152.4 x 203.8 cm.) 

Ace. no. 73.44 

collections: (Hotel Drouot, Paris, July 17, 1877); 
(Heim, Paris). 

exhibitions: London, Heim, Paintings and Sculptures 
of the Italian Baroque, 1973, no. 10, repr. 

The subject is taken from the Apocryphal books of the 
Bible (Maccabees II, III: 1-30). A divinely sent horseman 
and two angels drove Heliodorus, Chancellor of the 
King of Asia, from the Temple of Jerusalem after he 
attempted to seize monies deposited there for safekeep- 
ing. 

This is a full compositional study for Solimena's vast 
fresco of 1725 on the entrance wall of the Church 
as Gesu Nuovo, Naples, one of his most famous 
works. As reported by the Neapolitan biographer De 
Dominici, Mons. Camillo Cybo, who visited Solimena's 
studio while the Naples fresco was in progress, wrote 
"It will be one of the most beautiful works from his 
brush: as evidence of this the sketch {sbozzo), though 
well finished, has already been bought by an English- 
man for one thousand scudi" (Bologna, p. 194). The 
fresco, related oil paintings and drawings are discussed 
by F. Bologna (Francesco Solimena, Naples, 1958, pp. 
114, 115, 194, 206, 259, 272-74, 276, figs. 165-67). Al- 
though in 1958 Bologna identified the sketch mentioned 
by Cybo with an oil version in the Louvre, he now (let- 
ters, May 1973 and Apr. 1976) believes that Cybo was 
describing the recently discovered Toledo canvas, un- 
known to him in 1958. He bases this conclusion on the 
free handling, presence of pentimenti and high quality 
of execution. 

Bologna also stated (letters) that because composi- 
tional elements present in the other versions of this 
subject are all present in the Toledo painting, the latter 
must have preceded other variants. Other oil versions 
are in the Galleria Sabauda, Turin and the Galleria 
Nazionale d'Arte Antica, Rome. Related drawings are 
in the Louvre (Cabinet des Dessins, no. 9819) and the 
Duke of Devonshire collection, Chatsworth (J. B. 
Shaw and T. Wragg, Old Master Drawings from Chats- 
worth, Washington, International Exhibitions Founda- 
tion, 1969, no. 63, repr.). 



154 



STEELINK 



JUAN RODRIGUEZ DE SOLI'S, Attributed to 

Spanish. Active in the early 16th century, mainly in the 
provinces of Leon and Zamora. 

(a) The Stoning of Saint Stephen PL. 52a 

(b) The Burial of Saint Stephen PL. 52b 

Oil on wood panel 

(a) 50 T S x 32^ in. (128.3 x 81.6 cm.); (b) 51 x 32^ in. 

(129.5 x 82.5 cm.) 
Ace nos. (a) 56.17; (b) 56.18 

collections: Monastery of Valparaiso (Zamora prov- 
ince); Parish Church of Fuentelcarnero (Zamora). 

references: M. Gomez-Moreno, Catdlogo monumen- 
tal de Espaha, Provincia de Zamora, Madrid, 1927, pp. 
275-76, no. 693; C. R. Post, A History of Spanish Paint- 
ing, Cambridge, Mass., 1947, IX, part 2, pp. 514, 516, 
517, fig. 192. 

These panels formed part of a large altarpiece dedicated 
to St. Stephen that may have been painted for the Mon- 
astery of Valparaiso. The complete altarpiece, now dis- 
persed, is described by Post. Another panel, Juliana Se- 
lecting the Bones of Stephen, is in the Springfield (Mass.) 
Museum of Fine Arts. 

Post agreed with the suggestion of Gomez-Moreno 
that this altarpiece was by the painter of Christ as 
Pantocrator in the retro-choir of Zamora Cathedral, and 
he attributed both the Zamora panel and the altarpiece 
to Rodriguez de Soli's. Gudiol (letters, May 1956, Oct. 
1974) also attributes Toledo's Stoning panel to the mas- 
ter of the Zamora panel. However, he does not identify 
this artist as de Soli's, but instead names him the Zamora 
Master. Gudiol believes Toledo's Burial panel to be by 
another hand, that of the Astorga Master. 

The depiction of St. Stephen in the Stoning panel, 
standing upright and tied to a stake, rather than kneel- 
ing, is an iconographic invention of de Soli's, according 
to Post. 

The example of an artist such as Perugino is espe- 
cially evident in the Burial panel (Gomez-Moreno), in- 
dicative of the strong Italian influence in Spanish art in 
the early 16th century. 



SPANISH, CATALONIA 

Saint John 

[Ca. 1250-75] Fresco 

60% x 24 ?4 in. (153 x 62.9 cm.) 

Fragmentary inscription, upper right: jo . . . N 



PL. 46 



Acc. no. 56.15 

collections: Church of San Lorenzo, Isabarre, Cata- 
lonia, Spain. 

references: J. Gudiol-Cunill, £/s Primitius, Barcelona, 
1927-29, 1, p. 484; C. Kuhn, Romanesque Mural Paint- 
ing of Catalonia, Cambridge, Mass., 1930, p. 59, pi. 
lviii, fig. 1; C. R. Post, A History of Spanish Painting, 
Cambridge, Mass., 1930, 1, pp. 144-45, fig. 24; W. Cook 
and J. Gudiol Ricart, Pintura y imageneria romdnicas, 
Madrid, 1950, vi, pp. 95-6. 

This is a fragment of a series of Apostles formerly in 
the apse of the small Church of San Lorenzo at Isabarre 
(Lerida province) in the Pyrenees. Post and Kuhn illus- 
trate the Toledo St. John when it was still in situ. 

According to Post, the date is not earlier than the 
middle of the 13th century; Kuhn places these frescoes in 
the 3rd quarter of the century. Post (letter, Oct. 1958) 
read the inscription at upper right as an abbreviated 
form of Johannes. 

Two other apostles from this series are in the Kunst- 
museum, Basel. 



NICHOLAS DE STALL 

1914-1955. French. Born in St. Petersburg, Russia. 
Studied at Brussels Academy of Fine Arts, 1932-33. Set- 
tled in France in 1937; worked in Leger's studio. Began 
to paint abstractions, 1942. Influenced by Braque. His 
later work marks a return to a kind of representation in 
which forms, though mostly abstract, were recognizably 
still life, landscapes or other real objects. Lived in the 
south of France until his death by suicide in 1955. 

White Flowers in a Black Vase pl. 304 

[1953] Oil on board 

39/4 x z8-)4 in. (99.7 x 72.9 cm.) 

Signed lower left: Stael 

Signed and dated verso: Stael/1953 

Acc. no. 53.142 

collections: (Paul Rosenberg, New York). 

exhibitions: New York, Paul Rosenberg, Loan Exhibi- 
tion of Paintings by Nicholas de Stael, 19 14-1955, 1955, 
no. 3, repr.; New York, Paul Rosenberg, Nicholas de 
Stael, 1963, no. 7, repr. p. 15. 

WILLEM STEELINK 

1 856-1928. Dutch. Worked in The Hague with Israels, 
Bosboom and Jacob Maris. Later moved to Laren where 

155 



STEEN 



he worked with Anton Mauve, who had established an 
art colony there in 1882. 

Sheep in Pasture pl. 164 

[1899] Oil on canvas 
2i34 x 3i/ / 2 in. (53.5 x 80 cm.) 
Signed lower right: Wilm Steelink 
Dated on reverse: 1899 

Ace. no. 02.1 

Gift of Grafton M. Acklin 

collections: (Henry Reinhardt, Milwaukee); Edward 
Drummond Libbey, 1901; Grafton M. Acklin, Toledo, 
to 1902. 

According to the dealer Reinhardt, this picture was 
painted at Laren. It was the first painting to enter the 
Toledo Museum's collection. 



JAN STEEN 

1625/26-1679. Dutch. Born in Leyden. Influenced by (or 
possibly studied with) Nicolaes Knupfer in Utrecht, 
Adriaen and Isaak van Ostade in Haarlem, and Jan van 
Goyen in The Hague. Recorded in Leyden ca. 1644-48. 
Married a daughter of Jan van Goyen in 1649. Lived 
in Warmond near Leyden from 1656 to 1660. Settled in 
Haarlem and became a member of its guild in 1661. Re- 
turned ca. 1670 to Leyden where he remained until his 
death. Best known for moralizing genre subjects. 

Peasants Before an Inn pl. 130 

[1650s] Oil on wood panel 

19M x 24 J4 in. (50.2 x 61.6 cm.) 

Signed lower right: JSteen (JS in monogram) 

Ace. no. 45.32 

collections: Destouches, Paris (Lebrun, Julliot, Boi- 
leau, Paris, Mar. 21, 1794, lot 103)?; M. Paignon Dijon- 
val, Paris (Paillet, Benard, Bonnefonds de la Vialle, 
Paris, Dec. 17, 1821, lot 101)?; Thomas Emmerson, Lon- 
don, 1821?; Thomas French, London (Christie, London, 
May 3-4, 1833); Jeremiah Harman (Christie, London, 
May 17, 1844, lot 109)?; Sir Hugh Hume Campbell, 
Marchmont House, Berwickshire, 1856 (Foster, London, 
May 31-June 1, 1858); Samuel Cunliffe-Lister, 1st Lord 
Masham, Swinton, Yorkshire; Lady Cunliffe-Lister; (D. 
Katz, Dieren, 1938); H. E. ten Cate, Almelo, 1938; 
(Schaeffer Galleries, New York). 

references: J. Smith, iv, no. 133 (described in reverse; 
incorrect dimensions); T. van Westrheene, Jan Steen, 



etude sur I'art en Hollande, The Hague, 1856, no. 84 
(incorrect dimensions); G. Waagen, Galleries and Cabi- 
nets of Art in Great Britain, London, 1857, Supplement, 
p. 442 (incorrect dimensions); C. Hofstede de Groot, 1, 
no. 645 (described in reverse; incorrect dimensions). 

Peasant and inn scenes occur frequently among Steen's 
early works. Both L. de Vries (letter, Sep. 1975) and B. 
Kirchenbaum (letter, Feb. 1976) agree that the Toledo 
picture was painted in the early 1650s, and Kirschen- 
baum compares it to the Village Wedding dated 1653 
(Boymans-van Beuningen Museum, Rotterdam). 



HENDRIK VAN STREEK 

1659-1713/19. Dutch. Lived and worked in Amsterdam. 
Son and pupil of Juriaen van Streek. According to Hou- 
braken, he studied sculpture with Willem van den Hoe- 
ven, and later, after 1678, with Emanuel de Witte, whose 
only pupil he was. 



Interior of the Old Church 

in Amsterdam 



PL. I43 



[1690s] Oil on canvas 
21% x i8^4 in. (55.5 x 47.6 cm.) 
Signed (falsely) lower left: E. de Witte 
Signed lower right: Streek 

Ace. no. 58.05 

collections: Lady Cochran, Abingdon; (John Mitchell, 
London, 1934); Mrs. Geoffrey D. Hart, Forest Row, East 
Sussex; (John Mitchell, London); (Speelman, London). 

references: I. Manke, Emanuel de Witte, Amsterdam, 
1963, no. 327, fig. 116 (as by Van Streek). 

Formerly given to De Witte, this painting was reattrib- 
uted by Manke to Van Streek on the basis of style. Al- 
though there is a De Witte "signature," in 1975 it was 
found that under ultraviolet light the name of Van Streek 
is visible at lower right. 

The manner of representing the interlace ornamenta- 
tion under the column capitals in the Toledo painting 
also appears in other signed works by Van Streek (see 
Manke nos. 328, 342). The costumes of the figures indi- 
cate a date after 1690. 



FRANZ VON STUCK 

1863-1928. German. Born in Tettenweis. Lived in Mu- 
nich from his youth, where he studied at the Academy 
of Art, 1882-84. First exhibited in 1889 at the Munich 



156 



TENIERS 



International. Founder and vice-president of the Munich 
Sezession. His students included Kandinsky, Klee and 
Albers. Important in the development of Jugendstil, he 
painted primarily allegorical and mythological subjects. 

The Artist's Daughter PL. 74 

[Ca. 1910] Oil on wood panel 
14^4 x 1454 in. (36.2 x 36.2 cm.) 

Ace. no. 14.69 

collections: (Eduard Schulte, Berlin); Florence Scott 

Libbey, 1912-14. 

exhibitions: Dayton Art Institute, The Artist and his 
Family, 1950, no. 31. 

Von Stuck often used the octagonal format. As he did 
not marry until 1897, it is presumed this portrait of his 
daughter Maria was painted about 1910. 

LEOPOLD SURVAGE 

1879-1968. French. Studied in his native Moscow. In 
1908 he enrolled in a school conducted by Matisse in 
Paris. Exhibited with the Cubists at the Salon des Inde- 
pendants in 191 1. A founder member of La Section d'Or, 
his work is a personal synthesis of Cubism and Surreal- 
ism. 

Landscape with Figure PL. 294 

[1929] Oil on canvas 

xxYi, x 25M in. (54.3 x 65.4 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: Survage.29. 

Ace. no. 38.83 

Museum Purchase 

collections: (Chester Johnson Gallery, Chicago); 

(Quest Art Galleries, Chicago). 

GRAHAM SUTHERLAND 

1903-. British. Born in London. Studied printmaking at 
Goldsmith's College of Art, 1920-25. Influenced by 
Blake, Turner and Henry Moore. Exhibited with the 
London Group from 1932, and at the International 
Surrealist Exhibition, 1936. 

Thorn Trees PL. 351 

[1947] Mixed media on canvas 

36-1/16 x 35 in. (88.9 x 91.7 cm.) 

Signed and dated upper right: Sutherland 7. IV. 47 

Ace. no. 52.89 



collections: British Council, London, to 1948; (Alex 
Reid & Lefevre, London, 1948-52). 

exhibitions: San Francisco Museum of Art, Art in the 
20th Century, 1955, p. 17, repr. p. 14; Munich, Haus der 
Kunst, Graham Sutherland, 1967, no. 19, fig. 19. 

references: D. Cooper, The Work of Graham Suther- 
land, London, 1961, p. 32, pi. 85b. 

According to Cooper, "Sutherland temporarily subli- 
mated his conception of the Crucifixion (painted for St. 
Matthew's Church, Northampton, 1946) in a succession 
of Thorn Trees and Thorn Heads whose writhings and 
prickings imaginatively evoke the flagellation and pain- 
ful indignities to which Christ's body was submitted. But 
while these thorn bushes become in one sense private 
symbols, they do not lose their real identity, because 
they remain natural growths which have also fascinated 
the artist by virtue of some curious beauty that he had 
found there." 



YVES TANGUY 

1900-1955. French. Born in Paris. Self taught, he began 
painting in 1924 after seeing a painting by Giorgio de 
Chirico. Met Andre Breton in 1927 and became a mem- 
ber of the Surrealist group, contributing to Surrealist 
publications and manifestos. From 1939 he lived in the 
United States, becoming an American citizen in 1948. 

Passage of a Smile PL. 297 

[1935] Oil on canvas 

25^ x 2ij4 in. (64.8 x 54 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: YVES tanguy 35 

Ace. no. 38.84 

collections: (Julien Levy, New York). 

exhibitions: New York, Acquavella Galleries, Yves 
Tanguy, 1974, no. 15, repr. 

references: J. Levy, Surrealism, New York, 1936, p. 
151, repr. 



DAVID TENIERS THE YOUNGER 
and FRANgOIS RYCKHALS 

Teniers. 1610-1690. Flemish. Son and pupil of David 
Teniers the Elder. Early work influenced by Frans 
Francken and Adriaen Brouwer. Entered the Antwerp 
painters' guild, 1632/33; dean, 1645. Moved to Brussels 
ca. 1645, and became court painter and keeper of the 
collections to successive governors of the Spanish Neth- 



157 



TIEPOLO 



erlands. Co-founder of the Antwerp Academy, 1662. 
Painted portraits, landscapes, religious subjects and 
genre scenes. 

Ryckhals. 1600-1647. Dutch. Born in Middelburg; his 
family came from Antwerp. In 1633-34 entered the 
painters' guild at Dordrecht; in Middelburg by 1642/44 
to 1647. His work is closely related to that of Herman 
and Cornelis Saftleven, and he may have been the 
teacher of Willem Kalf. Known for peasant genre, still- 
lifes and landscape subjects. 

Shepherds with their Flocks pl. 112 

[1640] Oil on wood panel 
z$H x 33M in. (64.4 x 85.7 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right (in two locations): D. 
teniers-fe/frans (in monogram) 1640 

Ace. no. 53.73 

collections: Sir William Hamilton (Christie, London, 
Mar. 27, 1801, lot 54 ?); (Sotheby, London, Nov. 28, 
1951, lot 33); (Douwes, Amsterdam). 

references: J. Smith, in, no. 386. 

The complex monogram in the lower right corner be- 
neath Teniers' signature has been identified (letter, May, 
1976) by Margret Klinge-Gross as that of Francois 
Ryckhals. She believes that Ryckhals painted the land- 
scape and animals, while Teniers, who often painted 
staffage, added the figures. 

The city in the background is probably Antwerp. 



GIOVANNI DOMENICO TIEPOLO 

1727-1804. Italian. Born in Venice, the oldest son of 
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, who was his first teacher. By 
1743, active as a draughtsman and as his father's assis- 
tant. Received his first commission before 1747 from the 
Oratorio del Crocefisso, S. Polo, Venice, for a series of 
Stations of the Cross. Collaborated with his father and 
worked independently in Wiirzburg, 1750-53, and in 
Madrid, 1762-70. Elected to the Venetian Academy in 
1756, and served as its president, 1780-83. Also known 
as an etcher. 

Head of an Old Man pl. 38 

[Ca. 1757-75] Oil on canvas 
18JM3 x 16 in (47.4 x 40.6 cm.) 

Ace. no. 26.51 

collections: (Hugo von Grundherr, Munich); George 
M. Richter, New York; Edward Drummond Libbey. 



exhibitions: Art Institute of Chicago, Paintings, Draw- 
ings and Prints by the Two Tiepolos: Giambattista and 
Giandomenico, 1938, no. 17 (as G. B. Tiepolo); Toledo 
Museum of Art, Four Centuries of Venetian Painting, 
1940, no. 52, repr. (cat. by H. Tietze; as G. B. Tiepolo). 

references: A. Morassi, A Complete Catalogue of the 
Paintings of G. B. Tiepolo, London, 1962, p. 50; B. Fred- 
ericksen and F. Zeri, Census, 1972, p. 198 (as Bust of an 
Old Oriental); G. Knox, " 'Philosopher Portraits' by 
Giambattista, Domenico and Lorenzo Tiepolo," Bur- 
lington Magazine, cxvn, Mar. 1975, p. 148, n. 4. 

This painting was formerly attributed to Giovanni Bat- 
tista Tiepolo, who, after 1750, painted and drew nu- 
merous heads, characterized by Knox as 'Philosopher 
Portraits,' that were later etched by Domenico and pub- 
lished in two series after 1770. In neither series does a 
print after this painting appear. Knox, however, has 
pointed out that at least ten heads were painted by 
Domenico after the etchings, and these paintings may 
be distinguished from his father's by the larger scale of 
the head and the omission of details, such as hands and 
accessories (pp. 148-51). These characteristics may be 
observed in the Toledo picture, and coupled with a loose- 
ness of technique indicative of Domenico, but which, 
however, cannot be connected directly to a specific 
print. 

The attribution of this head to Domenico by Morassi 
is accepted by Knox (letters, Apr. and May 1974), Fred- 
ericksen and Zeri. Knox has suggested that the Toledo 
painting is a variation on Print 8 of Series I of the Rac- 
colta di Teste (letter, Apr. 1974), although several sig- 
nificant changes have been made. The Toledo picture 
also bears a close relation to Print 7 of the same series, 
as well as the painting after it, attributed to Domenico, 
in the Art Institute of Chicago, and a similar work also 
given to Domenico in the Springfield (Mass.) Museum of 
Fine Arts. It is equally possible that this picture was in- 
spired by a drawing by Giambattista of The Head of a 
Bearded Man, ca. 1760 (Cambridge, Fogg Art Museum), 
or the corresponding print by Domenico (Series 11, 11). 

According to Knox, the prints may be divided into 
two groups, Style A and B, and dated 1757-58 and after 
1770 respectively. Thus, the Toledo painting can be 
only approximately dated 1757-75, a period which cor- 
responds to the usual dating of the heads by Tiepolo 
scholars. 



JACOPO TINTORETTO 

1518-1594. Italian. Born Jacopo Robusti. Took the 
name Tintoretto after his father's profession of dyer 



158 



TROYON 



(tintore). His early training is unclear, though he was 
influenced by Titian and Michelangelo. Remained in Ven- 
ice his entire career, with exception of a trip to Mantua 
in 1580. Worked almost continuously in the Doge's 
Palace and the Scuola di San Rocco, where he painted a 
large cycle of decorations, 1564-87. Primarily known as 
a master of religious narrative, Tintoretto also painted 
a number of portraits, mythological scenes and histories, 
and employed a large workshop. His assistants included 
two sons and a daughter. 

Noli Me Tangere PL. 16 

[1570-80] Oil on canvas 

8z J A x yz]4 in. (208.9 x 182.9 cm -) 

Ace. no. 67.144 

collections: Col. Hugh D. Baillie, London (Christie, 
London, May 15, 1858, lot 27); A. Jones, London, 1858; 
Private collection, Scotland; (Wildenstein, New York). 

exhibitions: London, British Institution, Exhibition of 
Pictures of Italian, Spanish, Flemish, Dutch, French and 
English Masters, 1856, no. 119. 

references: S. Beguin and P. de Vecchi, Toz^r I'oeuvre 
peint de Tintoret, Paris, 1971, no. A36 (as attributed to 
Tintoretto). 

This subject is traditionally known by its Latin name. 
According to the Gospels (John xx:ii-i8), after Mary 
Magdalene returned to the sepulchre and found there 
two angels, Christ appeared to her disguised as a gar- 
dener. When she asked where he had hidden Jesus, he 
said, "Touch me not {Noli me tangere); for I am not yet 
ascended to my Father; but go to my brethren, and say 
unto them, I ascend unto my Father, and your Father, 
and to my God, and your God." 

F. Zeri and A. Morassi (letters, Dec. 1966 and July 
1967) date this painting in the 1570s. According to Zeri, 
the broad pictorial handling is stylistically related to Tin- 
toretto's cycle in the upper hall of the Scuola di San 
Rocco, Venice (1576-81). R. Palluchini and C. Gould, 
however, believe (letters, Sep. 1975 and July 1975) it 
may be by a member of Tintoretto's workshop, and Pal- 
luchini also stated that there are similarities to early 
works by Tintoretto's son, Domenico (1560-1635). 



to London, 1871. Traveled to the Middle East in 1886, 
1889 and 1896 to make illustrations for the Life of 
Christ and the Old Testament. Best known for scenes 
of fashionable contemporary life, he also made many 
etchings and watercolors. 

London Visitors PL. 241 

[Ca. 1874] Oil on canvas 
63 x 45 in. (160 x 114. 2 cm.) 
Signed lower left: J. J. Tissot 

Ace. no. 51.409 

collections: Mrs. Bannister; (M. Bernard, London); 
(Robert Frank, London). 

exhibitions: London, Royal Academy, 1874, no. 116; 
London, Leicester Galleries, 1937, no. 16; Ottawa, Na- 
tional Gallery of Canada, Victorian Artists in England, 
1965, no. 147, repr.; Providence, Rhode Island School of 
Design, James Jacques Joseph Tissot, 1968, no. 19, repr. 

references: J. Laver, "Vulgar Society," The Romantic 
Career of James Tissot, 1836-1902, London, 1936, p. 
67; G. Reynolds, Painters of the Victorian Scene, Lon- 
don, 1953, p. 99, fig. 102; J. N. Flaizik, "Pictorial Lit- 
erature," Toledo Museum of Art Museum News, m, 
Spring i960, pp. 44-5, repr. p. 41; R. Rosenblum, "Vic- 
torian Art in Ottawa," Art Journal, xxv, Winter 1965- 
66, p. 140, fig. 6; E. P. Janis, "Tissot Retrospective," 
Burlington Magazine, ex, May 1968, p. 303, fig. 98; 
J. Maas, Victorian Painters, London, 1969, p. 243, repr. 
p. 242. 

The scene is the portico of the National Gallery, Lon- 
don, looking toward the church of St. Martin's-in-the- 
Fields. The visitors are typically fashionable Tissot 
models, arranged in an asymmetrical composition that 
recalls Degas. The boys are students of Christ's Hos- 
pital, identifiable by their long blue coats and yellow 
stockings. 

A smaller and slightly different version of the Toledo 
painting is in the Milwaukee Art Center. An etching of 
1878 shows the same scene, the schoolboy in the fore- 
ground replaced by the figure of Kathleen Newton, Tis- 
sot's companion and frequent model. 



JAMES-JACQUES-JOSEPH TISSOT 

1836-1902. French. Born in Nantes. Went to Paris about 
1856, and entered Lamothe's atelier, where he met Degas. 
Exhibited at the Salon from 1859; the Royal Academy 
from 1872; and at the Grosvenor Gallery, 1874. Moved 



CONSTANT TROYON 

1810-1865. French. Early study with Poupart and Rio- 
creaux while painting porcelain in Sevres. Exhibited 
yearly at the Salon from 1833-59. Landscapes from 
1843-47 strongly influenced by Rousseau and Dupre 



159 



TUNNARD 



with whom he worked at Fontainebleau. In Holland in 
1847 where he was influenced by the 17th century Dutch 
painters, Potter and Cuyp. 

The Pasture pl. 225 

[Ca. 1855-60] Oil on canvas 
32 x 39M in.( 81.2 x 101 cm.) 
Stamped lower left: Vente/Troyon 

Ace. no. 22.34 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: (Vente Troyon, Hotel Drouot, Paris, Jan.- 
Feb. 1866, lot 50); Weill, 1866; Arthur J. Secor, 1916-22. 

references: L. Soullie, Peintures, pastels, aquarelles, 
dessins de Constant Troyon, Paris, 1900, p. 137 (as "Une 
vache brune et deux moutons en marche dans en 
prairie"). 

A version of this painting, signed and dated 1855, is in 
the Kunsthalle, Hamburg (inv. no. 2277). Although al- 
most identical to the Toledo picture in its dimensions 
and composition, the Hamburg painting includes an ad- 
ditional animal group at the right. The Toledo painting 
was unfinished at the artist's death, but probably dates 
from 1855-60, since the style is similar to that of the 
Hamburg painting and a picture in the Wallace Collec- 
tion, signed and dated 1857 (Wallace Collection Cata- 
logues: Pictures and Drawings, 16th ed., London, 1968, 
no. P359). 



JOHN TUNNARD 

1900— . British. Born in Bedfordshire. Studied at Royal 
College of Art 1919-23. Early interest in textile design 
and block printing. Turned to painting 193 1. In 1934 
joined the London Group and began painting in a non- 
representational style. 

Painting, 1944 pl. 349 

[1944] Casein on board 

21 x 30K in. (53 x 76.8 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower left: John Tunnard 44 

Ace. no. 53.127 

collections: (Ernest Brown & Phillips, London). 



JOSEPH MALLORD WILLIAM TURNER 

1775-1851. British. Born in London, where he enrolled 
in the Royal Academy, 1789, and exhibited there the fol- 
lowing year for the first time. Trained first as a topo- 



graphical draftsman and worked chiefly in watercolors 
until 1796, when he began exhibiting oils. Exhibited 
regularly at Royal Academy and British Institution from 
1790 to 1850. Traveled in British Isles and Europe on 
annual sketching tours. He and Constable were the 
chief British landscape painters of their century. 



The Campo Santo, Venice pl. 333 

[1842] Oil on canvas 

24/^ x 36^2 in. (61.2 x 91.2 cm.) 

Ace. no. 26.63 

COLLECTIONS: Elhanan Bicknell, London, bought at the 
Royal Academy exhibition, 1842 (Christie, London, Apr. 
25, 1863, lot 112); (Agnew, London); Henry McConnell, 
Cressbrook, Derbyshire, 1863-86; (Agnew, London, 
1886); (Christie, London, Mar. 27, 1886, lot 76); (Silva 
White); Mrs. J. M. Keiller, Dundee, Scotland, 1886- 
1916; (Reinhardt, New York); Edward Drummond Lib- 
bey, 1916-25. 

exhibitions: London, Royal Academy, Annual Exhibi- 
tion, 1842, no. 73; Manchester, Royal Manchester Insti- 
tution, Exhibition of Art Treasures, 1878, no. in; Lon- 
don, Guildhall Art Gallery, Pictures and Drawings by 
J. M. W. Turner, R.A. . . . and Some of his Contempo- 
raries, 1899, no. 36; Boston, Museum of Fine Arts, Tur- 
ner, Constable and Bonington, 1946, no. 16, fig. 16; 
Indianapolis, John Herron Art Museum, Turner in Amer- 
ica, 1955, p. iv, no. 46, repr.; New York, Museum of 
Modern Art, Turner Imagination and Reality, 1966, p. 
38, no. 25, repr. p. 55; London, Royal Academy, Bicen- 
tenary Exhibition: 1768-1968, 1968, I, no. 162; II, p. 64; 
Paris, Petit Palais, La peinture romantique anglaise et 
les Preraphaelites, 1972, no. 273, repr. 

references: J. Burnet and P. Cunningham, Turner and 
His Works, London, 1852, p. 119, no. 216; G. Waagen, 
Treasures of Art in Great Britain, London, 1854, n, pp. 
350-51; W. Thornbury, Life of ]. M. W. Turner, R.A., 
London, 1862, 11, pp. 382, 401; C. F. Bell, Works Con- 
tributed to Public Exhibitions by ]. M. W. Turner, R.A., 
London, 1901, p. 144, no. 232; W. Armstrong, Turner, 
London, 1902, p. 235, repr.; J. Ruskin, The Works of 
John Ruskin (eds. E. T. Cook and A. Wedderburn), Lon- 
don, 1903-12, in, pp. xxiv, 250, 25m (erroneously as 
View of Murano with the Cemetery); vn, pp. 149m 157 
and 15711, pl. 67; x, p. 3811; xm, pp. 409, 454, 499; A. J. 
Finberg, In Venice with Turner, London, 1930, pp. 140, 
157; A. J. Finberg, The Life of ]. M. W. Turner, London, 
1939, pp. 390, 506, no. 546; J. Rothenstein and M. But- 
lin, Turner, New York, 1964, pp. 52, 66, pl. 116; J. Lind- 
say, ]. M. W. Turner, London, 1966, pp. 40-41; K. 



160 



VALLAYER-COSTER 



Garlick, "The Bicentenary Exhibition at the Royal Acad- 
emy," Apollo, lx, Feb. 1969, p. 93, fig. 7; J. Gage, "La 
peinture romantique anglaise et les Preraphaelites," La 
Revue du Louvre, xxn, No. 1, 1972, p. 54, fig. 4. 

The Campo Santo is the cemetery of Venice. This pic- 
ture was painted following Turner's third and last trip 
to Venice, a city whose light and intermingling of archi- 
tecture and water had special significance for him. 

Although Waagen described it in the Bicknell collec- 
tion as a companion to The Giudecca from the Canale 
di Fusina (1841; William Wood Prince collection, Chi- 
cago), it is not certain that the pictures were painted as 
pendants. 



MAURICE UTRILLO 

1883-1955. French. Born in Paris. Son of the painter 
Suzanne Valadon. No formal artistic training. Early 
works show influence of Pissarro and Sisley. Painter of 
environs of Montmartre and churches of France. In his 
signature, V stands for his mother's name. 

Street in Montmartre PL. 284 

[1910-11] Mixed media on canvas 
24 yi x 29 in. (62.2 x 73.6 cm.) 
Signed lower left: Maurice Utrillo, V, 

Ace. no. 51.378 

collections: Francis Carco, Paris; (Lepoutre, Paris, by 
1921); David Eccles, London; S. Kaye, London; (Alex 
Reid &c Lefevre, London). 

exhibitions: London, Lefevre Gallery, Twentieth Cen- 
tury French Fainting, 1943, no. 37; London, Lefevre Gal- 
lery, The School of Paris, 195 1, no. 37; Pittsburgh, Car- 
negie Institute, Maurice Utrillo, 1963, no. 24, repr. 

references: F. Carco, Maurice Utrillo et son oeuvre, 
Paris, 1921, fig. 29 (as 1911); M. Raynal, "Zu dem 
Werk von Maurice Utrillo," Cicerone, Sep. 1923, repr. 
p. 794; P. Petrides, L'oeuvre complet de Maurice Utrillo, 
Paris, 1959, 1, no. 189, repr. (as ca. 1910). 

The identification of the subject by Carco and Petrides 
as the Place Jean-Baptiste Clement is confirmed by a 1910 
photograph showing the identical view {Aujourd'hui, 
XXI, Mar-Apr. 1959, p. 87). This picture is the first of 
several Utrillo painted of the Place Clement (Petrides, 
nos. 739, 780, 900, 1099). The paint is a mixture of 
plaster of Paris and gum with zinc white which Utrillo 
used during his "white period," ca. 1910-18. 



MOYSES VAN UYTTENBROECK 

1590/1600-ca. 1647. Dutch. Spent his life in The Hague. 
It is not known with whom he studied. Became a mem- 
ber of the painters guild in 1620 and was elected its dean 
in 1627. Possibly visited Rome, though the influence of 
the Elsheimer-Bril tradition is evident. He received com- 
missions from Frederik Hendrik, Prince of Orange. He 
also did etchings. 

Landscape with Shepherds PL. 95 

[Ca. 1625] Oil on wood panel 
17H x 25 in. (43.6 x 63.3 cm.) 
Signed lower right: Mo van wtenbrouck/ 16 — 

Ace. no. 66.113 

COLLECTIONS: Minard family, Paris; Anonymous pri- 
vate collection, Paris (?); (Agnew, London, 1965). 

Although this picture was unknown to Weisner at the 
time he published his study of the artist ("Die Gemalde 
des Moyses van Uyttenbroeck," Oud Holland, lxxix, 
1964, pp. 189-228), he later stated (letter, May 1966) 
that it was done about 1625 and is comparable to other 
paintings belonging to Uyttenbroeck's "heroic Italian" 
landscape style. 

The subject is undetermined. However, Uyttenbroeck 
often painted genre-like Arcadian subjects which have 
no specific literary or mythological source (Weisner, p. 
192). 



ANNE VALLAYER-COSTER 

1744-1818. French. Daughter of a silversmith, her artis- 
tic training is unknown. Admitted to the Academie in 
1770, she was chiefly active before 1789. Her entire 
career was in Paris; she exhibited at the Salons from 
1777 to 1817. She was almost exclusively a painter of 
still lifes. 

Still Life with Lobster pl. 206 

[1781] Oil on canvas 

27-Kt x 35M in. (70.5 x 89.5 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower left: Mme Vallayer-Coster/1781 

Frame stamped: E. L. Infroit 

Ace. no. 68.01A 

collections: Marquis Giarardot de Marigny, Paris, 
1783; Achille Fould, Paris; Monsieur X (Paris, Hotel 
Drouot, May 22, 1967, lot 20, with pendant); (Cailleux, 
Paris). 

exhibitions: Paris, Salon de la Correspondence, 1782 
(as Nature morte an homard). 



161 



VASARELY 



references: E. Bellier de la Chavignerie, Les artistes 
franfais du XVlIIe oublies ou meprises, Paris, 1865 (in- 
correctly as Salon of 1783); M. R. Michel, "A propos 
d'un tableau retrouve de Vallayer-Coster," Bulletin de 
la societe de I'histoire de I'art franfais, 1965, p. 186; 
M. R. Michel, Anne V allay er-Coster, 1744-1818, Paris, 
1970, no. 226. 

Painted in 1781, the year of the artist's marriage and her 
appointment as Professor de Peinture to Queen Marie 
Antoinette, this painting and its pendant date from the 
peak of her career. First signed "Mile. Vallayer," it was 
re-signed by the artist after her marriage to Coster. The 
silver objects are probably examples of her father's 
work. According to M. R. Michel, the reflection in the 
tureen is that of the artist's studio window and of her- 
self at the easel. The central motif of a lobster was un- 
usual for Vallayer-Coster. Together with the reflected 
images, it suggests she was inspired by 17th century 
Dutch pictures such as the Van Beyeren, Still Life with a 
Wine Ewer and the De Heem, Still Life with Lobster in 
the Toledo Museum collection. 



VICTOR VASARELY 

1908-. French. Born in Hungary. Studied at Budapest 
Bauhaus, 1929. Settled in Paris in 1930, where he 
worked as a commercial artist. Since 1944 has devoted 
himself to painting. His abstract work is characterized 
by experiments with the optical effects of color. 

Alom I PL. 306 

[1967-69] Tempera on canvas 

78M x 78M (2.00 x 200 cm.) 

Signed lower center in pencil: vasarely 

Inscribed verso: vasarely 1967-69 

Ac. no. 70.49 

collections: (Galerie Chalette, New York). 
references: D. Davis, Art and the Future, New York, 
1973, %• 5- 

Alom I is one of a series painted between 1965-70 which 
were the largest canvases Vasarely had painted until that 
time. 



Still Life ivitb Game pl. 207 

[1782] Oil on canvas 

28 x 35 J4 in. (71 x 89.5 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower left: Mme Vallayer Coster/1782 

Frame stamped: E. L. Infroit 

Ace. no. 68.01B 

collections: Same as 68.01A. 

exhibitions: Paris, Salon, 1783, no. 76 (as Un tableau 
de gibier avec des attributs de chasse). 

references: M. Fare, La nature morte en France, Ge- 
neva, 1963, 1, p. 180; E. Bellier de la Chavignerie and L. 
Auvray, Dictionnaire general des artistes de I'ecole fran- 
caise, Paris, 1882-85, 1, p. 295; M. R. Michel, Anne 
Vallayer-Coster, 1744-1818, Paris, 1970, no. 286. 

Vallayer-Coster painted some two dozen hunt still lifes. 
However, Michel points out that the landscape back- 
ground is nearly unique in her work, as a stone ledge 
and bare wall were her usual setting. The picture was 
exhibited at the Salon of 1783 as the property of M. 
Girardot de Marigny who also owned its pendant, To- 
ledo's Still Life with Lobster. Kept together throughout 
their history, the two paintings have identical contempo- 
rary frames marked by the framemaker Etienne-Louis In- 
froit (1720-1794). 



DIEGO VELAZQUEZ, Attributed to 

1599-1660. Spanish. Born in Seville. His full name was 
Diego Rodriguez de Silva Velazquez. Studied briefly 
with Francisco de Herrera the Elder, and from ca. 1613- 
18, with Francisco Pacheco, whose daughter he married. 
In 1617 became a member of the Guild of St. Luke. First 
trip to Madrid, 1622. Returned there in 1623 and was 
appointed to the service of King Philip IV. From this 
date, the majority of his paintings were portraits of the 
Royal family and members of the court. With the ex- 
ception of trips to Italy in 1629-31 and 1649-51, he 
remained in Madrid until his death. 

Man with a Wine Glass pl. 55 

[Ca. 1627-28] Oil on canvas 
30 x 25 in. (76.2 x 63.5 cm.) 

Ace. no. 26.33 

collections: Sir Gabriel Prior Goldney, Bt., Derriads, 
Chippenham, Wiltshire, to 1914; (R. Langton Douglas, 
London); (Duveen, New York); Edward Drummond 
Libbey, 1915-25. 

exhibitions: Bristol, Fine Arts Academy, Loan Exhibi- 
tion, 1893 and 1906; New York, Metropolitan Museum 
of Art, Spanish Paititings from El Greco to Goya, 1928, 
no. 58, repr.; Baltimore Museum of Art, A Survey of 
Spanish Painting through Goya, 1937, no. 10, repr.; To- 



162 



VERNET 



ledo Museum of Art, Spanish Painting, 1941, p. 96, repr. 
(cat. by J. Gudiol); Madrid, Cason del Buen Retiro, 
Velazquez y lo Velazqueno, 2nd ed., i960, no. 45, pi. 38. 

references: A. L. Mayer, "The Man with the Wineglass 
by Diego Velazquez," Art in America, in, 1915, pp. 183- 
87, repr.; A. L. Mayer, Diego Velazquez, Berlin, 1924, 
p. 74, repr.; C. Justi, Diego Velazquez und sein Jahr- 
hundert, 4th ed., Zurich, 1933 (cat. by L. Goldscheider, 
no. 29, pi. 26); A. L. Mayer, Veldquez: A Catalogue 
Raisonne of the Pictures and Drawings, London, 1936, 
no. 447, pi. 148; J. Moreno Villa, Locos, enanos, negros, 
y ninos palaciegos, Mexico City, 1939, pp. 74, 100, pi. 
17; E. Lafuente Ferrari, The Paintings and Drawings of 
Velazquez, London, 1943, no. xxxiv, pi. 38; B. de Pan- 
torba, La vida y la ohra de Velazquez, Madrid, 1955, no. 
33 (as a pastiche); E. Tietze-Conrat, Dwarfs and Jesters 
in Art, New York, 1957, p. 100, fig. 39 (as Manuel de 
Gante); J. A. Gaya Nuno, La pintura espahola fuera de 
Espana, Madrid, 1958, no. 2835; A. Velbuena Prat, 
"Velazquez y la evasion del espejo magico," Varia Ve- 
lazquena, Madrid, i960, 1, p. 182; 11, pi. 44a; J. A. Gaya 
Nuho, "Cronica de la exposicion 'Velazquez y lo Velaz- 
queno'," Goya, Jan.-Feb. 1961, p. 270; X. de Salas, "The 
Velazquez Exhibition in Madrid," Burlington Maga- 
zine, CHI, Feb. 1961, p. 55; J. Camon Aznar, "Algunas 
precisiones sobre Velazquez," Goya, Mar.-Apr. 1963, 
p. 285, repr. p. 284; E. Harris, in Burlington Magazine, 
cv, July 1963, p. 322; J. Lopez-Rey, Velazquez: A Cata- 
logue Raisonne of his Oeuvre, London, 1963, no. 441, pi. 
195; J. Camon Aznar, Velazquez, Madrid, 1964, 1, pp. 
307-08, repr.; M. A. Asturias and P. M. Bardi, L'opera 
completa di Velazquez, Milan, 1969, no. 31b, repr. (as 
copy of Swedish version); J. Gudiol, Velazquez, New 
York, 1974, p. 87, no. 52, fig. 76. 

This painting was first published and attributed to 
Velazquez by Mayer (1915). Lafuente, while accepting 
the attribution, suggested that the Toledo picture may 
be a version with variations of the Geographer (Musee 
des Beaux-Arts, Rouen). Following the i960 Madrid 
exhibition, De Salas observed that the artist's fame from 
his youth onwards is evident from the many copies of 
his paintings, including three versions of the Geographer 
(Rouen, Toledo and Zornmuseet, Mora, Sweden); more 
recently, he has suggested that the Toledo canvas may 
be by a non-Spanish artist (letter, Aug. 1975). Lopez- 
Rey proposed that the Toledo painting is a copy after 
the nearly identical canvas in Sweden, which he attrib- 
utes to an unknown seventeenth century painter. Gudiol, 
however, who has maintained the attribution to Velaz- 
quez, believes the Swedish picture is a copy after To- 
ledo's. 



The dating of these three works has not been firmly 
established, although it is generally accepted that the 
Rouen painting was done between 1624 and 1628. Mayer 
(1936) dated the Toledo painting 1623-24, while Gudiol 
(1974) believes it was painted ca. 1627-28. 

The subject of the three paintings is the same man, 
presumably one of the many jesters or buffoons of the 
Spanish court. Moreno-Villa suggested that he is Man- 
uel de Gante, a gentilhombre de placer, Antonio Ban- 
uels, characterized as a madman, buffoon and hombre 
de placer, or perhaps the well-known fool, Pabillos de 
Valladolid. Valbuena Prat also suggested the name of 
Estebanillo Gonzalez, a favorite of Philip IV. 



NICOLAES VERKOLJE 

1673-1746. Dutch. Born in Delft. Son and pupil of Jan 
Verkolje. Influenced by the highly-finished style and 
genre subjects of Metsu, Ter Borch and Van der Werff. 
Learned mezzotint technique from his father. Worked 
in Amsterdam. 

The Fortune Teller PL. 145 

Oil on wood panel 

16H x 13J4 in. (42.2 x 33.6 cm.) 

Ace. no. 55.39 

collections: Henrietta van der Schagen (Van der 
Schley, Van Amstel, De Winter, Yver, Amsterdam, May 
16, 1781, no. 63); Van Leyden (A. Paillet, H. Delaroche, 
Paris, Sep. 10, 1804, no. 104); (Bernard Houthakker, 
Amsterdam, 1955). 

The attribution of this picture is confirmed by the mezzo- 
tint of it by Verkolje bearing his name. A copy of this 
print is in the Museum collection. 



CLAUDE-JOSEPH VERNET 

1714-1789. French. Born at Avignon, son of an artisan- 
painter. From 1734 until 1753 at Rome where, after 
study with Manglard, he developed his marine land- 
scape style, influenced by Claude Lorrain, and estab- 
lished an international clientele, including many English- 
men. Exhibiting at the Salon in Paris from 1746, he 
became a full Academie member in 1753, the year he was 
also commissioned by Louis XV to paint the famous 
series depicting the ports of France. He was the father 
of Carle Vernet and the grandfather of Horace Vernet. 



163 



VERONESE 



Evening PL. 205 

[1753] Oil on canvas 

39M x 54 in. (99.7 x 137.2 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower left: Joseph Vernet.f./i753 

Ace. no. 51.499 

collections: Ralph Howard (ca. 1724-1786), later 1st 
Viscount Wicklow, Dublin, 1753; Earls of Wicklow (sale, 
Shelton Abbey, Arklow, Oct. 16-Nov. 3, 1950, lot 1647 
[with Morning]); Anonymous owner (Sotheby, London, 
June 20, 195 1, lot 66 [with Morning]); (Cailleux, Paris). 

exhibitions: Toledo Museum of Art, The Age of Louis 
XV, 1975, no. in, repr. (cat. by P. Rosenberg; French 
edition (National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, 1976) cor- 
rects the Ingersoll-Smouse reference and clarifies prove- 
nance). 

references: L. Lagrange, Joseph Vernet et la peinture 
an XVlIle siecle, Paris, 1864, p. 335, no. C. 129; F. Inger- 
soll-Smouse, Joseph Vernet, Paris, 1926, 1, nos. 385-89 
(tma 51.499 is one of these; Howard in error called 
'Lord Stafford'); London, Greater London Council (Ken- 
wood), Claude-Joseph Vernet (exh. cat. by P. Conisbee), 
1976, Introd. n. 35, and in no. 49. 

This is one of five paintings ordered by Ralph Howard 
while he was in Rome on the Grand Tour in 1751-52. 
Four were marines showing the different times of day, 
a favorite theme of Vernet's, whose account book de- 
scribes the pictures for Howard as "representent des 
marines avec sujects differents a ma fantaisie" (Lagrange). 
His words emphasize the imaginary qualities of the To- 
ledo picture, which was generally inspired by the coast 
of the Gulf of Naples. 

According to P. Conisbee (Ottawa, 1976; letters Oct. 
1975 and Apr. 1976), who has clarified the history of 
the Howard Vernets, of the marines only Morning (pri- 
vate collection, Paris) and Evening (Toledo) are known; 
the other two are missing. 



last 30 years of his life he ranked with Tintoretto as the 
leading painter in Venice. Veronese's many assistants 
included his brother and two sons. 

Christ and the Centurion pl. 17 

[Ca. 1580] Oil on canvas 

39^ x 52^2 in. (99.2 x 130.8 cm.) 

Ace. no. 66.129 

COLLECTIONS: (Agnew, London). 

The subject is taken from Matthew VIII: 5-1 3. A centu- 
rion who asked the Lord to heal his servant felt unwor- 
thy of having Christ in his house. Christ marveled at the 
centurion's faith and instructed him to go his way, his 
servant being healed. 

Veronese's several versions of this subject are similar in 
composition, though they vary in size. The earliest of 
them was painted ca. 1571. According to Rodolfo Pallu- 
chini (letter, May 1965), the Toledo canvas, unknown 
to scholars until it was acquired by the Museum, was 
painted ca. 1580. It is also the smallest version of this 
subject, others of which are in the Gemaldegalerie, Dres- 
den; Alte Pinakothek, Munich; Kunsthistorisches Mu- 
seum, Vienna and Nelson Gallery of Art, Kansas City 
(G. Piovene, L'opera completa del Veronese, Milan, 
1968, pp. 83, 84). 

Fehl ("Questions of Identity in Veronese's Christ and 
the Centurion," Art Bidletin, xxix, No. 4, Dec. 1957, 
pp. 301, 302, figs. 1-4) believed that the figure on the 
far right in the Kansas City example is a self-portrait. 



JAN VICTORS, Copy after 

Dutch. Victors (1619/20-ca. 1676) was born in Amster- 
dam. A pupil of Rembrandt before 1640, he painted por- 
traits, religious and genre subjects. 



PAOLO VERONESE 

Ca. 1528-1588. Italian. Born Paolo Caliari; called Veron- 
ese after his birthplace, Verona, where he studied with 
Antonio Badile. He settled in Venice ca. 1553; for the 
rest of his life he worked for churches, palaces and villas 
there and on the neighboring mainland, except for a 
trip to Rome in the 1550s or 60s. As relatively few paint- 
ings can be firmly dated, the chronology of his work 
is problematical, and he also varied his style for differ- 
ent types of religious and mythological commissions, 
many of which were large-scale decorations. For the 

164 



Girl at a Window pl. 137 

Oil on canvas 

40M x 3iJ / 2 in. (102.7 x 79-9 cm -) 

Ace. no. 28.91 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: (Hendricks, Haarlem, Feb. n, 1816, lot 
62) ?; Arthur J. Secor, 1925-28. 

references: H. Gerson, "Jan Victors," Kunsthistor- 
ische Medelingen van het Rijksbureau voor Kunsthis- 
torische Documentatie, in, No. 2, 1948, pp. 19-22, fig. 
2 (as a copy). 



VILLON 



According to Gerson (1948 and letter, May 1975), this 
is a copy after a painting signed by Victors (1640; Louvre, 
Paris). A spurious signature of Ferdinand Bol was re- 
moved when the Toledo painting was cleaned in 1963. 



MARIA HELENA VIEIRA DA SILVA 

1908-. French. Born in Lisbon. Moved to Paris, 1928. 
Studied sculpture with Bourdelle and Despiau, painting 
with Friesz and Leger, and engraving with Hayter. Asso- 
ciated with the School of Paris. 

The City pl. 305 

[1951] Oil on canvas 

37/4 x 32^4 in. (94.6 x 81.9 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: Vieira da Silva 51 

Ace. no. 53.134 

collections: (Redfern Gallery, London). 

exhibitions: San Francisco Museum of Art, Art in the 
20th Century, 1955, p. 18; Minneapolis, Walker Art 
Center, School of Paris 1959: The Internationals, 1959, 
no. 68; Cleveland Museum of Art, Paths of Abstract Art, 
i960, no. 56, repr. p. 39. 

LOUISE-ELISABETH VIGEE-LE BRUN 

1755-1842. French. A pupil of her father, a pastel por- 
traitist, she was also greatly influenced by Greuze. Ad- 
mitted to Academy of St. Luke in 1774, she became 
Painter to Queen Marie Antoinette. Member of Acade- 
mie Royale in 1783. Left Paris at time of Revolution, 
spending 12 years in Italy, Germany and Eastern Europe, 
where she continued her career as a portraitist. After a 
brief return to Paris in 1801, lived in England and Swit- 
zerland, returning to Paris around 1812. 

Lady Folding a Letter PL. 210 

[1784] Oil on canvas 

36^4 x %9Y% in. (93 x 75 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: Lise V e LeBrun/1784 

Ace. no. 63.33 

collections: Baron Albert de Rothschild, Vienna; 
Baron Louis de Rothschild, Vienna; (Wildenstein, New 
York). 

exhibitions: London, Royal Academy, Prance in the 
FJghteenth Century, 1968, no. 716, fig. 326. 

references: A. Frankfurter, "Museum Evaluations, 2: 
Toledo," Art News, lxiii, no. 9, Jan. 1965, pp. 26, 55-6, 
repr. p. 26. 



Isabella Teotochi Marini PL. 209 

[1792] Oil on paper, mounted on canvas 
19 x 13% in. (48.2 x 35.2 cm.) 

Signed, dated and inscribed lower left: L. E. Vigee Le 
Brun/pour son ami De Non/a Venise 1792 

Ace. no. 50.243 

collections: Dominique Vivant-Denon, 1792 (Denon 
sale, Paris, May 1, 1826, lot 210); Countess Isabella Al- 
brizzi, Venice, 1826-36; Albrizzi family, Venice, 1836- 
98; (Stefano Bardini, Florence, 1898-99) (Christie, Lon- 
don, June 5-7, 1899, lot 484); E. M. Hodgkins, London, 
1899-1913; C. Morland Agnew, London, 1913 (Christie, 
London, July 9, 1926, lot 132); Frederick A. Szarvasy, 
London, 1926 (Christie, London, Dec. 10, 1948, lot 60); 
(Roland Browse & Delbanco, London). 

references: D. V. Denon, L'originale e il ritratto, 1st 
ed., Bassano, 1792, repr. (etching by Denon); L.-E. Vigee- 
Le Brun, Souvenirs de Mme. Vigee-Le Brim, Paris, [1867], 
1, pp. 246, 249; 11, p. 368; Collection Bardini, 1899, pl. 
20, no. 355; W. H. Helm, Vigee-Le Brim, Her Life, Work 
and Friendships, London, n.d., p. 114, repr. p. 166; A. 
Blum, Madame Vigee-Le Brun, Paris, [1919], pp. 61, 101 
(as Mme. Marini); V. Malamani, Isabella Teotochi- 
Albrizzi, I suoi amici-il suo tempo, Turin, 1882, p. 20; 
V. Malamani, Canova, Milan, n.d., p. 171; P. de Nolhac, 
Madame Vigee-Le Brun, Paris, [1912], pp. 176-77; A. 
Rubin de Cevin Albrizzi, "Palazzo Albrizzi," L'Oeil, 
June 1964, p. 44, fig. 3. 

To escape the Revolution, Mme. Vigee-Le Brun left Paris 
in 1792 for Venice. That year she was introduced to Isa- 
bella Teotochi Marini (1760-1836), later (1796) Count- 
ess Albrizzi, famous in Venetian society for her salon, 
literary gifts and beauty. The introduction was made 
by Dominique Vivant Denon, a scholar, archeologist and 
writer who under Napoleon was instrumental in organiz- 
ing the French museum system, including the Louvre. 
This freely-painted portrait, inscribed by the artist to 
Denon, was etched (in reverse) by him the same year for 
his book L'originale e il ritratto. A related oil sketch 
is in a London private collection. 

Malamani (1882, p. 20) quotes a letter from Denon 
enthusiastically praising both the artist and her sitter, 
in whose face he finds, "Greek delicacy, Italian passion 
and French amiability." 



JACQUES VILLON 

1875-1963. French. Born in Damville. Brother of the 
artists Raymond Duchamp- Villon and Marcel Duchamp. 

165 



VLAMINCK 



Studied painting and printmaking in Paris at Cormon's 
studio. Influenced by Degas, Lautrec, Fauvism, and, from 
1911, Analytical Cubism. Organized the Cubist Section 
d'or in 1912. After 1919 belonged to Abstraction-Cre- 
ation group. Also an important printmaker. 

Flowers pl. 302 

[1946] Oil on canvas 

36^4 x 28M in. (92 x 73 cm.) 

Signed lower right: Jacques Villon 

Inscribed on reverse: Jacques Villon/46/DES fleurs 

Ace. no. 49. in 

collections: (Louis Carre, Paris). 

exhibitions: Copenhagen, Statens Museum for Kunst, 
Jacques Villon Retrospective, 1948, no. 22. 



MAURICE DE VLAMINCK 

1876-1958. French. Born in Paris, but moved to Chatou 
in 1892 where he shared a studio with Derain from 
1900. Met Matisse in 1905 and the same year exhibited 
with the Fauve group, of which he was a chief figure. 
After 1908, inspired by Cezanne's late style and by Van 
Gogh, he developed an individual expressionist style, 
principally in landscapes and still lifes. He was also a 
printmaker and writer. 

Farm Landscape pl. 289 

[Ca. 1920-22] Oil on canvas 
25% x 36% in. (65.8 x 92.4 cm.) 
Signed lower right: Vlaminck 

Ace. no. 54.79 

collections: Mrs. Harry P. Whitney, New York; Ma- 
jor Edward J. Bowes; (J. K. Thannhauser, New York). 

Vlaminck never dated pictures, and the artist himself 
attached little importance to the chronology of his work 
(M. Sauvage, Vlaminck, sa vie et son message, Geneva, 
1956, p. 107). 

This was probably painted ca. 1920-22 at Valmondois, 
in the Seine valley north of Paris, where Vlaminck 
bought a house in 1919. 



HENRY WALTON, Attributed to 

1746-1813. British. Walton's genre subjects and conver- 
sation pieces show the influence of his teacher Zoffany, 
and of Chardin. Exhibited at the Royal Academy from 



1777 to 1779. He also painted portraits and was an ad- 
visor to several important collectors. 

A Gentleman at Breakfast pl. 318 

[Ca. 1775-80] Oil on canvas 
25 x 30-K in. (63.5 x 77.2 cm.) 

Ace. no. 56.77 

Gift of an Anonymous Donor 

collections: (Knoedler, New York); Mrs. D. H. Car- 
stairs, Philadelphia; (Scott & Fowles, New York, 1948); 
(Newhouse, New York, 1950-51); Private collection. 

exhibitions: Detroit Institute of Arts, English Conver- 
sation Pieces of the 18th Century, 1948, no. 28 (as by 
Benjamin Wilson). 

references: R. H. Wilenski, English Painting, London, 
1933, p. 73, pl. 12a (as by Benjamin Wilson); M. F. Rog- 
ers, Jr., "Gentlemen and Gentry," Toledo Museum 0/ 
Art Museum News, III, i960, pp. 30-1, repr. p. 32 (as by 
Benjamin Wilson). 

Previously thought to be by Benjamin Wilson (1721- 
1788), the attribution of this picture to Walton has been 
made by Mary Webster from a photograph (letter, May 
I 975)- The freely painted clothes, face and hair are 
characteristic of Walton's style, according to Miss Web- 
ster, who is completing a monograph on Zoffany, Wal- 
ton's teacher. 

Although the picture has been known as The Squire's 
Tea, Miss Webster believes the sitter is shown at break- 
fast because of the type of room, as well as the presence 
of a loaf of bread on the table. Dating is based on cos- 
tume and accessories (Rogers); Walton also seems to 
have been active chiefly in the 1770s. 



ANTOINE WATTEAU 

1684-1721. French. Born in Valenciennes. In 1702 went 
to Paris, where he worked with the decorative painter 
Audran and the painter of theatrical scenes Claude Gil- 
lot. Student at the Academie Royale in 1709; associate 
in 1712; full member, 1717, as a painter of fetes galan- 
tes, a category created especially for him. Watteau's 
Flemish heritage and admiration of Rubens are evident 
in the landscapes and figures in his work. 



La Conversation 

[1712-15] Oil on canvas 
19M x 24 in. (50.2 x 61 cm.) 
Ace. no. 71.152 



PL. 194 



166 



WILKIE 



collections: Jean de Jullienne, Paris, by 1733 — before 
1756; Thomas Baring, London, by 1837 — after 1857; 
Edouard Kann, Paris (Hotel Drouot, Paris, June 8, 1895, 
lot 10); (Sedelmeyer, Paris); Henry Heugel, Paris; Jacques 
Heugel, Paris, until 1970; (Heim, Paris). 
exhibitions: London, British Institution, 1837, no. 160; 
1844, no. 121; Paris, Petit Palais, Le paysage fratifais de 
Poussin a Corot, 1925, no. 352; Amsterdam, Rijksmu- 
seum, Exposition retrospective d'art francais, 1926, no. 
116; London, Royal Academy, European Masters of the 
Eighteenth Century, 1954, no. 244; Paris, Gazette des 
Beaux-Arts, De Watteau a Prud'hon, 1956, no. 92, repr. 

references: G. F. Waagen, Galleries and Cabinets of 
Art in Great Britain, London, 1857, p. 97 (probably no 
3 or 4); E. de Goncourt, Catalogue raisonne de I'oeuvre 
peint, dessine et grave d'Antoine Watteau, Paris, 1875 
no. 123; G. Schefer, "Les portraits dans I'oeuvre de 
Watteau," Gazette des Beaux- Arts, xvi, Dec. 1896, pp 
181-82; E. H. Zimmerman, Watteau, Stuttgart, 1912, p 
xxv; E. Dacier and A. Vuaflart, jean de Jullienne et les 
graveurs de Watteau au XVIIIe siecle, Paris, 11, 1922, pp 
37, 51, 63, 97, 122, 130, 161; III, 1922, no. 151; E. Pilon 
Watteau et son ecole, 2nd ed., Paris, 1924, p. 37; E 
Dacier, La gravure de genre et de moeurs, Paris, 1925 
p. 60; L. Reau, "Watteau," in Les peintres fratifais du 
XVIIIe siecle, (ed. L. Dimier), Paris, 1928, 1, pp. 14, 48 
no. 192; H. Adhemar, Watteau, sa vie — son oeuvre, Paris 
1950, no. no, pi. 55; K. T. Parker and J. Mathey, An- 
toine Watteau, catalogue complet de son oeuvre dessine 
Paris, 1957, 1, nos. 51, 58; 11, nos. 533, 729, 915; J 
Mathey, Antoine Watteau, peintures reapparues, Paris 
I 959; PP- 4 0_I > 77, pis. 94 (detail), 97; E. Camesasca 
The Complete Paintings of Watteau, New York, 1968 
no. 105, repr. p. 103. 

La Conversation was engraved in 1733 by J.-M. Liotard 
for the Recueil Jullienne, a collection of prints intended 
as a permanent record of as many as possible of Wat- 
teau's paintings and drawings, published by Jean de Jul- 
lienne, director of the Gobelins factory, who was also 
a major collector of Watteau drawings and probably 
the first owner of this painting. 

Goncourt and Mathey believed Jullienne is the seated 
man with the large wig. Dacier (with reservations) and 
Adhemar, on the other hand, identify this figure as Wat- 
teau's friend, the financier and art collector, Pierre Cro- 
zat. All generally agree, however, that the seated figure, 
his hand supported on a crutch, is Antoine de la Roque, 
collector, newspaper director and friend of Watteau, 
and that the figure in the center is Watteau himself. Gon- 
court, Dacier, Parker and Mathey, and Camesasca vari- 
ously dated this painting between 1712 and 1715. 



Preparatory drawings include studies of the two fig- 
ures at the far left with their backs to the viewer (National 
Gallery, Dublin), the figure of Watteau and the seated 
bewigged figure (both, Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris). 
There are also studies probably for the body (British 
Museum) and the head (Louvre) of the servant. 



JOHANNES HENDRIK WEISSENBRUCH 

1824-1903. Dutch. Born and lived in The Hague; studied 
at The Hague Academy. After 1875 the region around 
Noorden in Nieuwkoop became his chief source of sub- 
jects. Primarily a landscapist, he was a major figure of 
the Hague School. 



PL. 174 



The White Cloud 

[1901] Oil on canvas 

24 Ya x 18 in. (61.5 x 46 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower left: J. H. Weissenbruch f 1901 

Ace. no. 25.878 

collections: Edward Drummond Libbey, by 1925. 

Low Tide pl. 175 

[Ca. 1900] Oil on canvas 

31M x 24 in. (80.6 x 61 cm.) 

Signed lower right: J. H. Weissenbruch 

Ace. no. 22.29 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: J. B. Ford; (Scott & Fowles, New York, 
1914); (Vose, Boston, 1914); Arthur J. Secor, 1914-22. 

Another version of this subject in the Gemeentemuseum, 
The Hague is dated 1901. 

A Windy Day pl. 172 

[Ca. 1900] Oil on canvas 

19/^2 x 33^ in. (49.5 x 85 cm.) 

Signed lower right: J. H. Weissenbruch f 

Ace. no. 25.46 

collections: J. J. Tiele, Rotterdam (?); (Holland Art 
Galleries, Amsterdam); Edward Drummond Libbey, 
1903-25. 

references: W. J. de Gruyter, De Haagse School, 1, 
Rotterdam, 1968, p. 114, repr. no. 79. 

SIR DAVID WILKIE 

1785-1841. British. Born near Edinburgh. Studied at the 
Edinburgh Academy, 1799 and in London at the Royal 



167 



WILSON 



Academy, 1805. For twenty years his work reflected the 
influence of 17th century Dutch genre painting. A.R.A., 
1809; R.A., 1811; he exhibited there regularly 1806-42. 
Went to Paris in 18 14 to see the pictures looted by Na- 
poleon, and spent 1825-28 in Italy, Austria, Germany 
and Spain. This experience of Italian and Spanish art led 
him to a new, broader style. Named Painter in Ordinary 
to the King, 1830; knighted, 1836. Visited the Near East 
1840-41 and died on the return voyage. Early speciali- 
zation in genre subjects gave way to portraiture and 
history painting in his later work. 

William IV, King of England PL. 330 

[Ca. 1833] Oil on canvas 

5z l A x 42^ in. (132.4 x 107 cm.) 

Ace. no. 23.3156 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

COLLECTIONS: Wilkie sale (Christie, London, Apr. 25, 
1842, lot 656) (?); (Sulley, London); (T. J. Blakeslee sale, 
American Art Association Galleries, New York, Apr. 22, 
1915, lot 226); W. Seamon; (Vose, Boston, by 1921-23)-, 
Arthur J. Secor. 

references: H. Vollmer, in Thieme-Becker, 1947, 
xxxvi, p. 4; O. Millar, The Later Georgian Pictures in 
the Collection of Her Majesty the Queen, London, 1969, 
in no. 1185, cf. p. xi. 

This is a version of the full-length portrait of William 
IV (reigned 1830-37) painted in 1832 for the Waterloo 
Chamber at Windsor Castle, where it still is. He is shown 
in the robes of the Order of the Garter, wearing the col- 
lar of the order with its pendant St. George insignia and 
that of the Order of the Bath with pendant cross. This 
version, in Millar's opinion perhaps the best of five copies 
known, may be the one in Wilkie's possession at his 
death. It was probably painted in 1833, when the artist 
made two copies of a portrait of the King. According to 
Millar, the head is, in fact, closer to the full-length in 
military uniform (Wellington Museum, Apsley House, 
London) painted that year than to the Windsor portrait. 

The Toledo canvas was cut down to three-quarter 
length some time between 1905 and 1915. According to 
Malcolm Stearns (letter, Oct. 1956), this portrait and a 
companion portrait of Queen Adelaide (private collec- 
tion, Dallas, Texas in 1941), each measured io6]4 x 70 
inches when acquired by the dealer Sulley about 1900; 
both had their present dimensions in the 1915 Blakeslee 
sale. 

Millar (no. 1185) gives a comprehensive discussion of 
the Windsor portrait, versions of it, and related draw- 
ings and oil sketches, as well as portraits of the king by 



Wilkie in other formats. The full-length oil sketch, now 
lost, was in the Wilkie sale of Apr. 30, 1842 (lot 620). 



RICHARD WILSON 

1713/14-1782. British. Son of a Welsh clergyman, he was 
at first a portraitist. After a stay in Italy 1750-57, he de- 
voted himself to landscape, inspired by the classical style 
of Claude Lorrain and Gaspar Poussin. The advice of 
Francesco Zuccarelli in Venice and Joseph Vernet in 
Rome influenced his decision to become a landscape 
painter. He was a founding member of the Royal Acad- 
emy in 1768. After a brief period of popularity, his for- 
tunes declined and he died in obscurity. 



PL. 317 



The White Monk 

Oil on canvas 

26 x 31^ in. [66 x 80 cm.) 

Signed lower left (on boulder): W 

Ace. no. 58.38 

COLLECTIONS: Sir C. Robinson ?; Lord Poltimore ?; James 
Orrock; 1st Viscount Leverhulme; Lady Lever Art Gal- 
lery, Port Sunlight, Cheshire; (Agnew, London). 

exhibitions: London, National Gallery, Millbank (Tate 
Gallery), Loan Exhibition of Works by Richard Wilson, 
1925, no. 29; Manchester, City Art Gallery, Richard 
Wilson Loan Exhibition, 1925, no. 63; Birmingham, City 
Museum and Art Gallery, Richard Wilson and his Cir- 
cle, 1948, no. 57 (revised edition of catalogue, London, 
Tate Gallery, 1949, no. 56; incorrect size in both cata- 
logues). 

references: R. R. Tatlock, English Painting of the 
XVIIIth-XXth Centuries ... A Record of the Collection 
in the Lady Lever Art Gallery, Port Swilight formed by 
the first Viscount Leverhulme, London, 1928, p. 69, no. 
627, pi. 44; A. Bury, Richard Wilson, R.A., The Grand 
Classic, Leigh-on-Sea, 1947, p. 68; W. G. Constable, 
Richard Wilson, Cambridge, 1953, pp. 119, 227 1(1), pi. 
122a. 

Wilson often repeated his compositions, and among the 
more than 30 variations of The White Monk the Toledo 
picture is notable as especially highly finished. As he 
seldom dated paintings, it is difficult to order these vari- 
ations chronologically. Although the composition was 
inspired by the landscape of Italy, all the known ver- 
sions were done after Wilson returned to England in 
1757. The title is a traditional one, and was apparently 
not used by Wilson himself. 



168 



ZIEM 



JACOB DE WIT 

1695-1754. Dutch. Born in Amsterdam of Catholic par- 
ents and studied there with Albert van Spiers. Moved to 
Antwerp in 1708, living with his uncle, a wine merchant 
and art collector, and studying with Jacob van Hal. He 
was greatly influenced by the work of Van Dyck and 
Rubens, and in 1711-12 made drawings of Rubens' 
ceiling decorations in the Jesuit church at Antwerp. In 
1716 De Wit returned to Amsterdam, where he soon 
gained recognition for ceiling and wall decorations and 
religious paintings. 

Zephyr and Flora PL. 146 

[17x3] Oil on canvas 

20 x Z4$i in. (50.8 x 61.8 cm.) 

Inscribed: J D Wit Invt Ft/1723 (JD in monogram) 

Ace. no. 74.43 

collections: Mrs. P. M. Simpson (Sotheby, London, 
July 1973, lot 119); (Herner Wengraf, London); (Nystad, 
The Hague). 

references: R. Mandle, "A Ceiling Sketch by Jacob de 
Wit," Toledo Museum of Art Museum News, xvm, No. 
1, 1975, pp. 3-18, fig. 5 and cover (detail). 

This was the presentation modello for a ceiling painting 
commissioned by Jan de Surmout and his bride, Mar- 
garetha Catherina Cromhout, for their house at Amstel 
216, Amsterdam. Flora, goddess of flowers, is shown in 
the heavens gesturing to her husband Zephyr, one of the 
mythical winds. De Wit's own handwriting on a prepara- 
tory drawing in the Kupferstichkabinett, Berlin (Mandle, 
fig. 4), indicates that this design was executed in 1723 
as a ceiling painting for Surmout (E. Bock and J. Rosen- 
berg, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin: Die Niederlandischen 
Master, Frankfurt, 1931, I, no. 14577). The house is 
now a bank, and as far as is presently known the ceiling 
decoration no longer exists. 



CHRISTOPHER WOOD 

1901-1930. British. Born near Liverpool. Went to Paris 
in 1920 where he studied at the Academie Julian and the 
Grande Chaumiere. He was influenced by Picasso and 
Cocteau. Designed costumes and scenery for the theater, 
including work for Diaghilev. 



Drying Nets, Treboul Harbor 

[1930] Oil on board 

2,1% x 43^ in. (79.5 x 109.5 cm -) 



PL. 346 



Ace. no. 49.160 

collections: Mrs. Lucius Wood, the artist's mother; 
(Redfern Gallery, London). 

exhibitions: London, New Burlington Galleries, Chris- 
topher Wood: Exhibition of Complete Works, 1938, no. 
175; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine 
Arts, Contemporary British Vaulting, 1925-1950, 1950, 
no. 88. 

references: E. Newton, intro., Christopher Wood, 
1901-1930, London, 1938, no. 385, repr. p. 59; E. New- 
ton, Christopher Wood, London, 1959, pp. 16, 17, pi. 15. 

Wood spent most of the last year of his life at Treboul, 
a fishing port in Brittany. According to R. de C. Nan 
Kivell (letter, Sep. 1949) this picture was done in June or 
July 1930, and is among Wood's last paintings. 



FELIX ZIEM 

1821-1911. French. Born in Beaune. Studied architec- 
ture at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Dijon, in 1839. Trav- 
eled to Italy and Russia in the 1840s. Influenced early in 
career by Dutch and Barbizon landscapists. Settled in 
Paris in 1848, and exhibited at Salon 1849-68 and again 
from 1878. In Venice and south of France annually from 
1845 until his death. Specialized in views of Venice. 

Venice, Early Morning pl. 271 

Oil on canvas 

29^ x 42K in. (74.9 x 108.5 cm -) 

Signed lower left: Ziem 

Ace. no. 22.49 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 

collections: (Knoedler, New York, by 1899); Dr. L. D. 
Ward, Newark, 1899-1911 (American Art Galleries, New 
York, Jan. 13, 1911, lot 68); Arthur J. Secor. 

Venice, The Grand Canal pl. 272 

Oil on wood panel 

24 -)4 x 37^ in. (62.8 x 95.6 cm.) 

Signed lower right: Ziem 

Ace. no. 30.4 

Gift of Jefferson D. Robinson 

collections: Mrs. E. M. White, Cleveland; (Felix Ger- 
ard Fils, Paris); (Vose, Boston); Jefferson D. Robinson, 
Toledo, 1916-30. 



169 



ZURBARAN 



FRANCISCO DE ZURBARAN 

1598-1664. Spanish. Born in Badajoz province. In 1614 
apprenticed to a painter in Seville. Earliest dated work 
is of 1616. His style shows some Italian influence and 
knowledge of the work of Ribera and Velazquez. Lived 
in Llerna 1617-28. In 1629 he settled in Seville, where 
he and his assistants carried out many large commis- 
sions for churches and religious orders. In 1634 he was 
in Madrid, where he painted ten Labors of Hercules for 
the Palace of Buen Retiro. Lived in Madrid from 1658 
until his death. 



The Return from Egypt PL. 56 

[Ca. 1640] Oil on canvas 

75% x 97H in. (192.1 x 247.9 cm.) 

Ace. no. 21.3133 

collections: 4th Earl of Clarendon, British ambassa- 
dor in Madrid, 1833-39, an d descendants, The Grove, 
Watford, 1830s (Christie, London, Feb. 13, 1920, lot 119, 
as The Flight into Egypt); (Scott & Fowles, New York); 
Edward Drummond Libbey. 

exhibitions: London, British Institution, 1856; New 
York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Spanish Paintings 
from El Greco to Goya, 1928, no. 66, repr. (as The Flight 
into Egypt); Toledo Museum of Art, Spanish Painting, 
1941, p. 108, no. 68, repr. (cat. by J. Gudiol). 

references: G. F. Waagen, Treasures of Art in Great 
Britain, London, 1854, 11, p. 458 (as Flight into Egypt); 
A. L. Mayer, La pintura espanola, 2nd ed., Barcelona, 
1929, p. 165, pi. xli; M. S. Soria, "Francisco de Zurba- 
ran, A Study of his Style — II," Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 
xxv, 1944, p. 158; M. S. Soria, "Zurbaran, Right and 
Wrong," Art in America, xxxn, July 1944, p. 134, fig. 7; 



W. E. Suida, A Catalogue of Paintings in the John and 
Mabel Ringling Museum of Art, Sarasota, 1949, p. 281 
(as a studio replica); L. Reau, Iconographie de I' art 
chretien, Paris, 1957, n, pt. 2, p. 275, n. 1; J. A. Gaya 
Nuno, La pintura espanola fuera de Espaha, Madrid, 
1958, no. 2207; P. Guinard, 'Zurbaran et les peintures 
espagnols de la vie monastique, Paris, i960, no. 45, repr. 
(as La Sainte Famille quittant I'Egypte); M. F. Rogers, 
"Spanish Painting in the Museum Collection," Toledo 
Museum of Art Museum News, x, Summer 1967, p. 32, 
repr. (as Flight into Egypt); M. Gregori and T. Frati, 
L'opera completa di Zurbaran, Milan, 1973, no. 550 (as 
Zurbaran follower after a lost autograph work). 

The subject of this picture was long considered to be 
the Flight into Egypt (Matthew II: 13— 1 5), and accord- 
ing to Reau, it shows Mary's farewell to her family and 
friends. The age of the Christ Child, however, has led 
other scholars (Suida, Guinard) to believe that it repre- 
sents instead the departure of the Holy Family from 
Egypt for Galilee (Matthew II:20-2i), a subject rarely 
represented. 

This painting has been attributed to Zurbaran's assis- 
tants, the brothers Francisco and Miguel Polanco (Soria, 
1943, 1944), and to Zurbaran's studio (Suida). According 
to Guinard, it may have been painted by a pupil strongly 
inspired by Zurbaran. Both he and Soria noted similari- 
ties in the figures and style to the Adoration of the Magi 
(1638) and Circumcision (1639; both Musee des Beaux 
Arts, Grenoble, France), and Guinard believes the Toledo 
painting was done ca. 1640. Zurbaran's style developed 
slowly and it is difficult to place undated works with 
any real precision. 

A workshop repetition of the upper left quarter of the 
Toledo painting is in the Ringling Museum of Art, Sara- 
sota, Florida. 



170 



Plates 



ITALY 



ITALY 



♦ 




I. Lorenzo Monaco, Madonna and Child 



175 



ITALY 





2. Italian, Central, 

Virgin and Child Enthroned 



3. Workshop of Lorenzo Monaco, Madonna and Child 




4. Andrea di Bartolo, The Crucifixion 



176 



ITALY 




5. Pesellino, Madonna and Child with Saint John 



177 



ITALY 




6. Piero di Cosimo, 

The Adoration of the Child 



178 



ITALY 





7a. Luca Signorelli, Figures in a Landscape 
(Two Nude Youths) 



7L1. Luca Signorelli, Figures in a Landscape 
(Man, Woman and Child) 



179 



ITALY 




9. Italian, Venice (?), 

Saint Jerome in the Wilderness 



180 



ITALY 




10. Giovanni Bellini, Christ Carrying the Cross 



1S1 



ITALY 




ii. Lorenzo Costa, The Holy Family 
182 



ITALY 




iz. Francesco Salviati, The Holy Family with Saint John 



183 



ITALY 




13. Agnolo Bronzino, Cosimo I de' Medici 




14. Agnolo Bronzino, Don Giovanni de Medici 



184 



ITALY 




15. Francesco Primaticcio, Ulysses and Penelope 



185 



ITALY 




16. Jacopo Tintoretto, Noli Me Tangere 



186 



ITALY 




17. Paolo Veronese, Christ and the Centurion 



187 



ITALY 




18. Guido Reni, Venus and Cupid 



ITALY 




19. Pietro da Cortona, The Virgin with a Camaldolese Saint 



189 



ITALY 




10. Mattia Preti, The Feast of Herod 



21. Style of Salvator Rosa, 
Hagar and the Angel 




190 



ITALY 



22. Luca Giordano, 
The Rest on the 
Flight into Egypt 





23. Carlo Maratti, Holy Family 



191 



ITALY 




24. Francesco Solimena, Heliodorus Expelled from the Temple 



192 



ITALY 





15. Giovanni Paolo Pannini, Architectural Fantasy 
with a Concert Party 



26. Giovanni Paolo Pannini, Ruins with the 
Farnese Hercules 





SHrlS 1 ! •If l!*l W-'i ■ , t'ir?r<"?"'""-p»**"tL-^ 








27. Giovanni Paolo Pannini, St. Peter's Square, Rome 



193 



ITALY 




28. Pier Leone GTiezzi, An Augustinian Nun 



29. Giambettino Cignaroli, 

Madonna and Child with Saints 




194 



ITALY 





30. Placido Costanzi, The Trinity with Saints 
Gregory and Komuald 



31. Pompeo Batoni, The Madonna and Child in Glory 



195 



ITALY 




32.. Giovanni Antonio Pellegrini, Sophonisba Receiving the Cup of Poison 
196 



ITALY 




33. Sebastiano Ricci, Saint Paul Preaching 



197 



ITALY 





34. Sebastiano Ricci, Christ and the Woman of Samaria 



35. Francesco Guardi, The Holy Family 




36. Francesco Guardi, San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice 
198 



ITALY 







37. Canaletto, V/'ew 0/ the Riva degli Schiavoni 





38. Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo, Head of an Old Man 



39. Alessandro Longhi, Giacomo Casanova 



199 



ITALY 




TT 

a a. 
PS 



P' nvo^Vt^ 



40. Amedeo Modigliani, P^w/ Guillaume 
zoo 



ITALY 




b*C\l\ict . 



41. Giorgio de Chirico, 
Self-Portrait 



\z. Giorgio Morandi, 
Still Life with a Bottle 




201 



ITALY 



43. Bruno Cassinari, Still Life 





44. Mario Sironi, Composition 



202 



SPAIN 






SPAIN 




45. Master of the Last Judgment, Saints James and Philip 



46. Spanish, Catalonia, Saint John 




105 



SPAIN 




47. Juan de Sevilla, Retable of Saint Andrew and Saint Antonin of Pamiers 
206 



SPAIN 






- 




48. Master of Geria, Ketable of Saint Andrew 



207 



SPAIN 




49. Fernando Gallego, The Adoration of the Magi 




50. Master of Avila, The Adoration of the 

Magi 




51. Master of Jativa, The Adoration of the 

Magi 



208 



SPAIN 





52a. Attributed to Juan Rodriguez de Soli's, 
The Stoning of Saint Stephen 



52b. Attributed to Juan Rodriguez de Solis, 
The Burial of Saint Stephen 



109 



SPAIN 




53. El Greco, The Agony in the Garden 



210 



SPAIN 




54. El Greco, The Annunciation 



211 



SPAIN 




55. Attributed to Diego Velazquez, Man with a Wine Glass 



212 



SPAIN 



56. Francisco de Zurbaran, 
The Return from Egypt 





57. Jusepe de Ribera, Giovanni Maria 7 r abaci, 
Choir Master, Court of Naples 



213 



SPAIN 




58. Bartolome Esteban Murillo, The Adoration of the Magi 
214 



SPAIN 




59. Juan Bautista del Mazo, A Child in Ecclesiastical Dress 



215 



SPAIN 




60. Francisco de Goya, 

Children with a Cart 




61. Attributed to Francisco de Goya, 
The Bullfight 



216 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 




62. Master of the Vision of Saint John, The Adoration of the Magi 



219 



GERMANY 




63a. The Agony in the Garden; A Prophet 



63b. The Flagellation of Christ; A Prophet 



63. Valentin Lendenstreich, Wings of the Wiillersleben Triptych, a-b verso, c-d recto 
220 



GERMANY 




63c. Saints Alban of Mainz, Veter, Paul and Andrew 
Angel Annunciate 



63d. Saints John the Baptist, Lawrence, George and 
Nicholas of Bari; Virgin Annunciate 






221 



GERMANY 




64. Lucas Cranach the Elder, 

Saints Catherine, Margaret and Barbara 



222 



GERMANY 




65. Hans Holbein the Elder, Head of the Virgin 









66. Lucas Cranach the Younger, 

Martin Luther and the Wittenberg 
Reformers 




223 



GERMANY 




67. Hans Holbein the Younger, A Lady of the Cromwell Family 
224 



GERMANY 





68. Hans Muelich, Portrait of a Man 



69. Hans Muelich, Portrait of a Woman 



225 



GERMANY 




70. Angelica Kauffmann, 

The Return of Telemachus 





72. Adolph Schreyer, The Wallachian Team 



71. Adolph Schreyer, The Standard Bearer 
2.1.6 



GERMANY 




73. Oskar Kokoschka, Autumn Flowers 



2.2.7 



GERMANY 




74. Franz von Stuck, 

The Artist's Daughter 




tfft./,,ir.i...*!f 




75. Max Pechstein, Still Life with Calla Lilies 

Z2.8 



76. Karl Hofer, Flower Girl 



NETHERLANDS 



NETHERLANDS 



77. Flemish, Anonymous, 
Marriage of a Saint 





78. Copy after Robert Campin, 
The Virgin in an Apse 



231 



NETHERLANDS 





79a. Adam 



79b. Eve 



79c. Saint John the Baptist 



79. Master of the Morrison Triptych, The Morrison Triptych, a-b verso, c-e recto 

23Z 



NETHERLANDS 





jd. The Virgin and Child with Angels 



79c Saint John the Evangelist 



^33 



NETHERLANDS 





8ia. The Drowned Child Restored to Life 



80. Ambrosius Benson, 
Portrait of a Woman 



234 



NETHERLANDS 




iib. The Mule Kneeling Before the Host 



8ic. Saint Anthony Preaching to the Fishe 



8 1. Gerard David, Three Miracles of Saint Anthony of Padua 



^35 



NETHERLANDS 





82a. Angel Annunciate 



82b. Virgin Annunciate 



82. Jan Gossaert, Wings of the Salamanca Triptych, a-b verso, c-d recto 
236 



NETHERLANDS 





8zc. Saint John the Baptist 



82d. Saint Peter 



2-37 



NETHERLANDS 





83. Joos van Cleve, Portrait of a Man 



\. Joos van Cleve, Portrait of a Woman 



85. Jan Gossaert, 

jean de Carondelet 




238 



NETHERLANDS 



86. Jacob Cornelisz. van Oostsaanen, 
The Artist with a Portrait 
of his Wife 






87. Cornelis Massys, Landscape with the Judgment of Paris 



88. Flemish, Anonymous, Saint Jerome in his 

Study 

239 



NETHERLANDS 




89. Jan Brueghel the Elder, Landscape with a Fishing Village 




90. Pieter Brueghel the Younger, Winter Landscape with a Bird Trap 
240 



NETHERLANDS 




91. Isaak van Oosten, The Garden of Eden 




92. Cornells van Poelenburgh, Roman Landscape 



241 



NETHERLANDS 




93. Hendrik Avercamp, Winter Scene on a Canal 




94. Balthasar van der Ast, Fruit, Flowers and Shells 
24Z 



NETHERLANDS 



^^^mXx* > \**-li ---3a 








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95. Moyses van Uyttenbroeck, Landscape with Shepherds 




96. Bartholomeus Breenbergh, Landscape with Ruins 



M3 



NETHERLANDS 




97. Abraham Bloemaert, 

Shepherdess Reading a Sonnet 



Follower of 

Gerrit van Honthorst, 

A Musical Party 




NETHERLANDS 




99. Thomas de Keyser, The Syndics of the Amsterdam Goldsmiths Guild 



2-45 



NETHERLANDS 

















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ioo. Rembrandt van Rijn, Young Man with Plumed Hat 
246 



NETHERLANDS 




ioi. Bartholomeus van der Heist, Portrait of a Young Man 



2-47 



NETHERLANDS 




ioz. Peter Paul Rubens, The Crowning of Saint Catherine 
248 



NETHERLANDS 













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103. Anthony van Dyck, Portrait of a Man 



249 



NETHERLANDS 




104. Daniel Seghers, Flowers in a Glass Vase 



105. Follower of Peter Paul Rubens, 
Holy Family with Saint Elizabeth 
and Saint John 




250 



NETHERLANDS 




1 06. Aert van der Neer, 
Arrival of the Guests 




107. Aert van der Neer, 

Approaching the Bridge 



251 



NETHERLANDS 




108. Jan Miense Molenaer, Allegory of Vanity 



252 



NETHERLANDS 



, \ 




109. Isaak van Ostade, Skaters Near a Village 




no. Adriaen van Ostade, Villagers Merrymaking at an Inn 



2-53 



NETHERLANDS 



in. Follower of Frans Hals, 
The Flute Player 





iiz. David Teniers the Younger and Francois Ryckhals, Shepherds with their Flocks 
2 54 



NETHERLANDS 





113. Jan van Goyen, View of Dordrecht 



114. Jan van Goyen, 
The River Shore 




2-55 



NETHERLANDS 




115. Salomon van Ruysdael, River Landscape with Ferryboat 



256 



NETHERLANDS 



116. Salomon van Ruysdael, 
Landscape with Cattle 




117. Nicolaes Berchem, 
Pastoral Landscape 




NETHERLANDS 




1 1 8. Jan Both, Travelers in an Italian Landscape 



119. Adam Pynacker, 
Italian Landscape 




258 



NETHERLANDS 




120. Aelbert Cuyp, River Scene at Dordrecht 



259 



NETHERLANDS 




121. Aelbert Cuyp, The Riding Lesson 



z6o 



NETHERLANDS 





122. Jan van de Cappelle, Shipping Off the Coast 



161 



NETHERLANDS 




123. Jan Davidsz. de Heem, Still Life with a View of the Sea 



262 



NETHERLANDS 




124. Pieter Claesz., Still Life with Oysters 




125. Jan Davidsz. de Heem, Still Life with a Lobster 



263 



NETHERLANDS 





127. Abraham van Beyeren, Still Life with Wine Glasses 



126. Abraham van Beyeren, Still Life with a Wine Ewer 



128. Willem Moreelse, 
Portrait of a Scholar 




264 



NETHERLANDS 







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1 

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y .- 












map* 1 ■ ^^ ' 


^A 1 






3 




'1 ^^ i 


^8* 9r 


1 29. Gerard ter Borch, 
The Music Lesson \ 


■ H 





265 



NETHERLANDS 




130. Jan Steen, Peasants Before an Inn 



z66 



NETHERLANDS 




131. Pieter de Hooch, Courtyard, Delft 



267 



NETHERLANDS 





132. Pieter de Hooch, Interior 



133. Ferdinand Bol, The Huntsman 




134. 

Gerbrand van 
den Eeckhout, 
The Magnanimity 
of Scipio 



268 



NETHERLANDS 




135. Nicolaes Maes, The Happy Child 



269 



NETHERLANDS 





136. Nicolaes Maes, Portrait of a Man 



137. Copy after Jan Victors, Girl at a Window 







138. Jacob van Ruisdael, Landscape with Waterfall 
270 



NETHERLANDS 




139. Meyndert Hobbema, The Water Mill 



271 



NETHERLANDS 







140. Jan van der Heyden, The Garden of the Old Palace, Brussels 



2 7 Z 



NETHERLANDS 



141. Melchoir d'Hondecoeter, 
Poultry in a Landscape 






142. Melchoir d'Hondecoeter, Still Life with Birds 



143. Hendrik van Streek, Interior of the Old Church 
in Amsterdam 



2-73 



NETHERLANDS 





144. Rachel Ruysch, Flower Still Life 



145. Nicolaes Verkolje, The Fortune Teller 




146. Jacob de Wit, Zephyr and Flora 



274 



NETHERLANDS 




r47. Isaak Ouwater, The Prinsengracht, Amsterdam 



2 75 



NETHERLANDS 



Johann Barthold 
Jongkind, 
Honfleur Harbor 






150. Johannes Bosboom, The Amstel River, Amsterdam 



149. Johannes Bosboom, 
In Trier Cathedral 



276 



NETHERLANDS 




151. Jozef Israels, The Parting Day 




152. Jozef Israels, The Shepherd's Prayer 






■•**■ 



■ 



154. Jozef Israels, 
Self-Portrait 




I 




153. Jozef Israels, Coming Ashore 




155. Albert Neuhuijs, Mother and Children 



2-77 



NETHERLANDS 




156. Jacob Simon Hendrik Kever, Sisters 







1^ 




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^fc 








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157. Jacob Simon Hendrik Kever, Mother and Children 




159. Jacob Maris, Amsterdam 



«l. 



■*m 



V^H -^fc^TT^ . 




, ' J 



158. Jacob Maris, Scheveningen 
278 




160. Jacob Maris, The Tow Path 



NETHERLANDS 










161. Willem Maris, Pasture in Sunshine 




162. Willem Maris, 77?e Lowlands 




163. Pieter ter Meulen, Gelderland Pastures 











f^t^tf /,^^? 



164. Willem Steelink, Sheep in Pasture 







165. Anton Mauve, A Dutch Road 




166. Anton Mauve, Homeward Bound 






1* .« I 




167. Anton Mauve, Sheep on the Dunes 



2-79 



NETHERLANDS 




168. Theophile de Bock, Castle at Arnhem 




170. Evert Pieters, Mother Love 




169. Theophile de Bock, Solitude 







171. Evert Pieters, In the Month of May 




172. Johannes Hendrik Weissenbruch, A Windy Day 



2S0 



NETHERLANDS 




173. George Hendrik Breitner, Warehouses, Amsterdam 





174. Johannes Hendrik Weissenbruch, 
The White Cloud 




2 




175. Johannes Hendrik Weissenbruch, Low Tide 



281 



NETHERLANDS 


















m 



m:.^\ 



Y^ f 



fP^ fc/^ ■'~'"H^j)&20%- 176. Vincent van Gogh, 
t:mi' .- ' ;. * '.. ; - «* /■ x y - f.fir-&^ The Wheat Field 




177. Vincent van Gogh, 
Houses at Auvers 



282 



FRANCE 



FRANCE 




178. Francois Clouet, Elizabeth of Valois 



285 



FRANCE 




179. French, Anonymous, 

Saint George and the Dragon 





180. Corneille de Lyon, Marecbal Bonnivet 
286 



181. Jacques Blanchard, Portrait of a Sculptor 



FRANCE 




182. Jacques Blanchard, Allegory of Charity 



287 



FRANCE 




183. Mathieu Le Nain, The Family Dinner 



FRANCE 



184. Philippe de Champaigne, 
A Councilman of Paris 





185. Pieter van Boucle, 
Basket of Fruit 



289 



FRANCE 




186. Nicolas Poussin, Mars and Venus 



290 



FRANCE 




187. Nicolas Poussin, The Holy Family with Saint John 



291 



FRANCE 




188. Claude Lorrain, Landscape with Nymph and Satyr Dancing 



29 2 



FRANCE 




189. Eustache Le Sueur, The Annunciation 



293 



FRANCE 




190. Jean Jouvenet, 
The Deposition 






191. Laurent de La Hire, 
Allegory of Geometry 




294 



FRANCE 



192. Nicolas de Largillierre, 
Portrait of a Man 




193. Francisque Millet, 

Landscape with Christ 
and the Woman of Canaan 




FRANCE 




194. Antoine Watteau, La Conversation 



196 



FRANCE 




195. Nicolas Lancret, The Dance in the Park 



2 97 



FRANCE 



196. Hyacinthe Rigaud, 
Marquis Jean-Octave 
de Villars 





197. Jean-Baptiste Pater, 
The Bathing Party 



298 



FRANCE 



198. Maurice-Quentin de La Tour, 
Self-Portrait 





199. Jean-Baptisre Oudry, 
Still Life with Musette 
and Violin 



299 



FRANCE 




2.00. Jean-Marc Nattier, Princesse de Rohan 
300 



FRANCE 




201. Francois Boucher, The Mill at Charenton 




202. Francois Boucher, The Footbridge 



301 



FRANCE 




203. Jean-Honore Fragonard, Blind-Man's Buff 

302. 



FRANCE 




204. Jean-Baptiste Le Prince, Fear 




2.05. Claude-Joseph Vernet, Evening 



303 



FRANCE 




206. Anne Vallayer-Coster, Still Life with Lobster 




207. Anne Vallayer-Coster, Still Life with Game 



304 



FRANCE 




208. Charles-Francois Grenier de La Croix, A Mediterranean Seaport 



209. Louise-Elisabeth Vigee-Le Brun, 
Isabella Teotochi Marini 




305 



FRANCE 




210. Louise-Elisabeth Vigee-Le Brim, Lady Folding a Letter 
306 



FRANCE 




zi i. Jacques-Louis David, The Oath of the Horatii 



3°7 



FRANCE 




212. Claude-Marie Dubufe, Portrait of a Man 



213. Louis-Leopold Boilly, 
S'il vous plait 




308 



FRANCE 




214. Eugene Delacroix, The Return of Christopher Columbus 



309 



FRANCE 




215. Thomas Couture, The Falconer 
310 



FRANCE 



216. Thomas Couture, Alice Ozy fct 




217. Georges Michel, Landscape 
with Oak Tree 




311 



FRANCE 




218. Gustave Courbet, The Trellis 
312. 



FRANCE 




219. Gustave Courbet, Landscape Near Ornans 



313 



FRANCE 




220. Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, 
Canal in Picardy 



2zi. Honore Daumier, 

Children Under a Tree 




314 



FRANCE 




Z22. Jean-Francois Millet, The Quarriers 



315 



FRANCE 




223. Pierre-Etienne-Theodore Rousseau, Under the Birches, Evening 




224. Pierre-Etienne-Theodore Rousseau, In the Anvergne Mountains 
316 



FRANCE 




225. Constant Troyon, The Pasture 




226. Pierre-£tienne-Thcodore Rousseau, Landscape 



317 



FRANCE 





227. Narcisse-Virgile Diaz, Forest of Fontainebleau 



228. Narcisse-Virgile Diaz, Edge of the Wood 




229. Narcisse-Virgile Diaz, Fontainebleau 




231. Narcisse-Virgile Diaz, Deep Woods 
318 




230. Narcisse-Virgile Diaz, Woodland Scene near 
Fontainebleau 



FRANCE 



■P 



232. Charles-Francois Daubigny, 
Clearing After a Storm 




















- "'*,' 


"\ .* 


r^?«lffl 






-^~ && 









233. Charles-Francois Daubigny, On the Oise River 




234. Jules Dupre, Return of the Fisherman 



235. Jules Dupre, Morning 



319 



FRANCE 









t .-- k J 




'fjf&>st. 



237. Charles-Smile Jacque, The Shepherd's Rest 



236. Charles-Emile Jacque, Three Sheep 




238. Eugene Boudin, The Beach, Trouville 



320 



FRANCE 





239. Henri Fantin-Latour, Flowers and Fruit 



240. Henri Fantin-Latour, 

Portrait of the Artist's Sister 



321 



FRANCE 




241. James-Jacques-Joseph Tissot, London Visitors 
322. 



FRANCE 












■stf**$. 






242. Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Ludus Pro Patria 



tS$. ■■* 




243. Edgar Degas, Dancers at the Bar 



323 



FRANCE 




244. Edgar Degas, Victoria Dubourg 
3M 



FRANCE 



245. Edgar Degas, 
The Dancers 




>9St3u*»a£ 




Z46. Edouard Manet, 

Madame Edouard Manet 



325 



FRANCE 




247. Edouard Manet, Antonin Proust 
326 



FRANCE 



Q.t\y$<B*~*'* , 't&& 




248. Camille Pissarro, Still Life 



32-7 



FRANCE 



fe, 



^^^'™li|. 



kt ff¥ 



249. Camille Pissarro, 

The Roofs of Old Rouen 





ia*S*o«A j- 



wmm*' 







250. Camille Pissarro, 
Peasants Resting 



328 



FRANCE 



251. Alfred Sisley, 

The Aqueduct at Marly 




252. Alfred Sisley, 

Nut Trees at Thomery 







^4 



329 



FRANCE 




253. Pierre-Auguste Renoir, 
Road at Wargemont 



254. Pierre-Auguste Renoir, 
The Green jardiniere 




330 



FRANCE 



255. Pierre-Auguste Renoir, 
Landscape at Cagnes 





256. Pierre-Auguste Renoir, 
Bather 



331 



FRANCE 




H 
















HSrA'^S 



257. Claude Monet, Antibes 




Jft%ttty : 'jMliU~<>l'- 'k 



•.58. Berthe Morisot, 

J« f/7e Garden at Maurecourt 



332 



FRANCE 




c ■:'■ ,., : ' 259. Gustave Caillebotte, 
1 ^" ! -"- ' "* '* By the Sea, Villerville 



2.60. Paul Cezanne, The Glade 




333 



FRANCE 




z6i. Paul Cezanne, Avenue at Chantilly 
334 



FRANCE 




' 



?frsj> 



z6z. Paul Gauguin, Street in Tahiti 



335 



FRANCE 




263. Paul-Gustave Dore, The Scottish Highlands 





264. Paul-Gustave Dore, The Mocking of Christ 
336 



265. Jean-Jacques Henner, Mary Magdalene 



FRANCE 




z66. Jules Breton, The Shepherd's Star 





z6j. Emile van Marcke, The Pasture Pool 




'-68. Emile van Marcke, Cows 




269. William Adolphe Bouguereau, The Captive 270. Adolphe Monticelli, The Greyhounds 






337 



FRANCE 




271. Felix Ziem, Venice, Early Morning 



I 



w iti iu-iiA- 







272. Felix Ziem, Venice, The Grand Canal 








273. Henri Le Sidaner, In the Garden 



274. Henri-Joseph Harpignies, Souvenir of Dauphine 



338 



FRANCE 




■*?"0L~mMi&:. 




-a^> 


- ' % > 


; 0S ..„. 





276. Jean-Charles Cazin, In the Lowlands 



277. Henry Moret, Seaweed Gatherers 








278. Gustave Loiseau, The Banks of the Eure 






',, : ■-■■ 



- .--vv V 







«— . 




i't 



275. Henri-Joseph Harpignies, The Mediterranean Coast 



279. Georges d'Espagnat, he Lavandou 



339 



FRANCE 




280. Leon Lhermitte, 

Rest During the Harvest 



281. Henri-Edmond Cross, 
At the Fair 




340 



FRANCE 









' i. 

'ft 



- 

x a 
















.-• 




282. Paul Signac, Entrance to the Grand Canal, Venice 



341 



FRANCE 




283. Andre Derain, Landscape 
at Carrieres-Saint-Denis 




284. Maurice Utrillo, 

Street in Montmartre 



FRANCE 




285. Pablo Ruiz Picasso, Woman with a Crow 



343 



FRANCE 



rvtlfl/tL'^tftfC 




l86. Roger de 
La Fresnaye, 
Still Life with 
Coffee Pot 




2.87. Robert Delaunay 
The City of Paris 



344 



FRANCE 




288. Pierre Bonnard, The Abduction of Europa 



345 



FRANCE 




289. Maurice de Vlaminck, Farm Landscape 




290. Andre Dunoyer de Segonzac, Landscape at Saint Tropez 
346 



FRANCE 




291. Henri Matisse, Flowers 



347 



FRANCE 




292. Henri Matisse, Dancer Resting 






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293. Jules Pascin, Cinderella 




294. Leopold Survage, 

Landscape with Figure 



348 



FRANCE 



295. Jean Lur^at, Souvenir of Spain: 
The Birth of a Sailboat 





296. Marie Laurencin, Acrobats 



297. Yves Tanguy, 

Passage of a Smile 




349 



FRANCE 



299. Georges Rouault, The Judge 





298. Kees van Dongen, Deauville 



300. Raoul Dufy, Threshing 
with a Blue Machine 




350 



FRANCE 




301. Georges Braque, Still Life with Fish 



351 



FRANCE 





302. Jacques Villon, Flowers 



303. Andre Masson, The Harbor Near 
St. Mark's, Venice 



35^ 



FRANCE 



304. Nicolas de Stael, 
White Flowers in a 
Black Vase JL* 1 





305. Maria Helena Vieira da Silva, 
The City 



353 



FRANCE 




306. Victor Vasarely, Alom I 



354 



BRITAIN 



BRITAIN 





307. British, Anonymous, Elizabeth 1, Queen 
of England 



308. William Hogarth, Joseph Porter 



357 



BRITAIN 




















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309. Sir Joshua Reynolds, Miss Esther Jacob, 



310. Sir Joshua Reynolds, Captain William Hamilton 



35! 



BRITAIN 





311. Sir Joshua Reynolds, Master Henry Hoare 



312. Sir Joshua Reynolds, Miss Frances Harris 




313. Copy after Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
Sir Joshua Reynolds 



359 



BRITAIN 



314. Thomas Gainsborough, 
The Shepherd Boy 





315. Thomas Gainsborough, 
Lady Frederick Campbell 



360 



BRITAIN 




316. Thomas Gainsborough, The Road from Market 



36i 



BRITAIN 




317. Richard Wilson, 
The White Monk 




318. Attributed to Henry Walton, 
A Gentleman at Breakfast 



BRITAIN 




319. John Hoppner, 

Mrs. Henry Richmond Gale 






320. John Hoppner, A Lady of the Townshend Family 



321. George Romney, Lord Macleod 



363 



BRITAIN 




322. Sir William Beechey, The Dashwood Children 



364 



BRITAIN 





323. Sir Henry Raeburn, Lady Janet Traill 



314. Sir Henry Raeburn, Mrs. Bell 



365 



BRITAIN 





325. Sir Henry Raeburn, Miss Christina Thomson 



326. Sir Thomas Lawrence, Sophia, Lady Valletort 



366 



BRITAIN 





328. Sir Thomas Lawrence, Lady Arundell 



327. Sir Thomas Lawrence, 
Sir Thomas Frankland 



367 



BRITAIN 




329. Sir Thomas Lawrence, Lord Amherst 
368 



BRITAIN 




330. Sir David Wilkie, 

William IV, King of England 



331. John Martin, 
The Destruction 
of Tyre 




369 



BRITAIN 




332. John Constable, Arundel Mill and Castle 



370 






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BRITAIN 






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333. Joseph Mallord William Turner, The Campo Santo, Venice 



37i 



BRITAIN 




334. Arthur Hughes, Ophelia 



335. Edward Lear, Venosa 

372 




BRITAIN 



336. Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 
The Salutation of Beatrice 




373 



BRITAIN 




337. Walter Greaves, James Abbott McNeill Whistler 



338. Sir William Rothenstein, 

The Painter Charles Conder 




374 



BRITAIN 



339. Sir Frank Brangwyn, 
The Golden Horn, 
Constantinople 




340. Spencer Frederick Gore, 
Mornington Crescent 




375 



BRITAIN 



341. Sir John Lavery, 

Moonlight, Tetuan, Morocco 





342. Walter Richard Sickert, 
Rio di San Paolo, Venice 



BRITAIN 



343. Philip de Laszlo, 

Edward Drummond Libbey 






344. Samuel John Peploe, Still Life with Fruit 



345. Paul Nash, French Farm 



377 



BRITAIN 




"-ssasSfe-Sss- 



346. Christopher Wood, 

Drying Nets, Treboul Harbor 



347. Augustus Edwin John, 
Chrysanthemums 




378 



BRITAIN 




348. Duncan Grant, A Sussex Farm 








349. John Tunnard, Painting 1944 



350. William Scott, Homage to Corot 



379 



BRITAIN 



^* 




351. Graham Sutherland, Thorn Trees 



380 



BRITAIN 




352. Patrick Heron, Pink Table with Lamp and Jug 




353. John Piper, Rocky Valley, North Wales 



381 



BRITAIN 








H ^ 





■ 

1 




354. Ceri Richards, Music Room 

(Composition in Red and Black) 



355. Lord Methuen, i, ,, 

Brympton d'Evercy, Somerset -'«#"^ 




382 



BRITAIN 




356. Alan Reynolds, 

Cheveley Well, Suffolk 




357. Ivon Hitchens, Hut in "Woodland 



358. Ivon Hitchens, Arched Trees 




383 



BRITAIN 




359. Ben Nicholson, Ides of March 



384 



Reserve Section 



RESERVE SECTION 




GIUSEPPE AJMONE 1923-. Italian. 

Still Life, 1962 

Oil on canvas 

S7 3 A x 44M in. (i45-7 x l:t 3-6 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: Ajmone 62 

Ace. no. 63.1 

Museum Purchase Fund 



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NORMAN ALEXANDER 1915-. British. MAGDA ANDRADE. French. 

Work in Progress, 1958 Lagoon, ca. 1957 

Oil on canvas Oil on panel 

28 x 36 in. (71. 1 x 91.4 cm.) 25^2 x 21H in. (64.7 x 54 cm.) 

Ace. no. 58.39 Signed lower left: Magda Andrade 

Museum Purchase Fund Ace. no. 57.25 

Museum Purchase Fund 




MARIANO ANDREU 1888-. Spanish. 

Bastinadoes, 1934 

Oil on mahogany board 

17% x zz% in. (44 x 56 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower left: Mariano 

Andreu/Juillet 34 
Ace. no. 36.16 
Museum Purchase Fund 







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HERMENGILDO ANGLADA- 

CAMARASA 1873-1959. Spanish. 

La Gata Rosa, ca. 1926 

Oil on canvas 

41 x 75 in. (104 x 191 cm.) 

Signed lower right: H. Anglada-Camarasa 

Ace. no. 31.15 

Museum Purchase Fund 




JOSEPH CLAUDE BAIL 1862-1921. 

French. 

Servants Lunching, ca. 1901 

Oil on canvas 

72% x 60% in. (182.8 x 153.4 on.) 

Signed lower right: Bail Joseph 

Ace. no. 26.87 




ANDRE BICAT 1909-. British. 

Portland Bill, ca. 1953 

Oil on canvas 

19H x vfii in. (49.5 x 59.7 cm.) 

Ace. no. 53.126 

Museum Purchase Fund 




FERDINAND BOL 1616-1680. Dutch. 

Portrait of a Man, ca. 1650 

Oil on wood panel 

33% x 25% in. (85.7 x 65.6 cm.) 

Ace. no. 26.65 




PIERRE BOSCO 1909-. French. 

Horse Race, 1956 

Oil on canvas 

23J4 x 36 in. (59.7 x 91.4 cm.) 

Signed lower right: Bosco 

Ace. no. 57.28 

Museum Purchase Fund 



387 



RESERVE SECTION 




DENIS BOWEN 1921-. British. 

Nocturnal Image, 1958 

Oil on masonite 

29 x 29 in. (73.6 x 73.6 cm.) 

Inscribed on back of support: Nocturnal 

Image/Denis Bowen/58 
Ace. no. 58.40 
Museum Purchase Fund 




MAURICE BRIANCHON 1899-. French. 

Woman with a Mirror, 1956 

Gouache, crayon and pencil on paper 

14^4 x 2IJ/2 in. (36.8 x 54.5 cm.) 

Signed lower right: Brianchon 

Ace. no. 56.67 

Museum Purchase Fund 




BRITISH, ANONYMOUS 

Mrs. Fischer (?), probably 18th century 

Oil 



on canvas 



42^4 x 34 in. (108.6 x 86.4 cm.) 
Ace. no. 26.69 




BRITISH, ANONYMOUS 

Portrait of a Boy, late 18th century 

Oil on canvas 

24 x 20 in. (61 x 50.8 cm.) 

Ace. no. 33.19 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 




BRITISH, ANONYMOUS 

Portrait of a Lady, probably 19th century 

Oil on canvas 

45 7 A x 35 5 A in- ( x 55 x 9° cm -) 

Ace. no. 33.33 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 




BRITISH, ANONYMOUS 

Market Cart, probably 18th century 

Oil on canvas 

28^ x 36 in. (71.5 x 91.4 cm.) 

Ace. no. 33.163 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 




BARTHEL BRUYN THE YOUNGER 

1530-1610. German. 

Father and Sons, ca. 1570 

Oil on wood panel 

2.7.Y2 x 17^6 in. (57.2 x 44.2 cm.) 

Ace. no. 26.52 




BARTHEL BRUYN THE YOUNGER 

1530-1610. German. 

Mother and Daughters, ca. 1570 

Oil on wood panel 

22^ x 17^ in. (57.2 x 45.2 cm.) 

Ace. no. 26.73 




BYZANTINE, ANONYMOUS 

The Old Testament Trinity (Abraham 

Receiving the Angels), probably 16th 

century 

Tempera on wood panel 

Diameter: 6% in. (16.2 cm.) 

Ace. no. 48.73 



388 



RESERVE SECTION" 




BYZANTINE, CRETE 

The Old Testament Trinity (Abraham 

Receiving the Angels), probably mid- 

17th century 

Tempera on wood panel 

xfA x 33^ in. (38.7 x 84.4 cm.) 

Ace. no. 48.75 




VALERIOS CALOUTSIS 1927-. Greek. 

Formation II, i960 

Oil and plaster on canvas 

63% x 45 in. (161. 8 x 114. 3 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower left: V. Caloutsis 

60 
Inscribed on back: Valerios Caloutsis 

"Formation II" i960 
Ace. no. 61.31 
Museum Purchase Fund 




SPIRIDION CHRYSOLORAS 17th 

Century. Cretan. 

The Baptism of Christ 

Tempera on wood panel 

25^4 x 24 M? in. (65.4 x 61.2 cm.) 

Signed lower left (in Greek characters): 

The hand of Spiridion Chrysoloras 
Inscribed over Baptist's head (in Greek 

characters): The holy John; by Christ's 

head: The Baptism of Christ 
Ace. no. 48.74 




MARIE JOSEPH LEON CLAVEL, called 

Iwill 1850-1923. French. 

La Boresca, Venice, ca. 1910 

Oil on canvas 

23 x 36 in. (58.4 x 91.4 cm.) 

Signed lower left: Iwill 

Ace. no. 11.24 

Gift of Charles L. Borgmeyer 




PRUNELLA CLOUGH 1919-. British. 

Lorry with Ladder, ca. 1953 

Oil on canvas 

34^4 x 25% in. (87.5 x 65.4 cm.) 

Signed lower left: Clough 

Ace. no. 53.132 

Museum Purchase Fund 




LUCIEN COUTAUD 1904-. French. 

Allegory with Boats 

Gouache on paper 

19 x 24 in. (48.3 x 61 cm.) 

Signed lower left: L. Coutaud 

Ace. no. 32.11 

Museum Purchase Fund 




JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID, Follower of 

French. 

Portrait of a Man, after 1818 (date on 

book) 
Oil on canvas 

46 x 35 in. (116.8 x 88.9 cm.) 
Ace. no. 24.33 
Gift of Arthur J. Secor 




LEON DEVOS 1897-. Belgian. 

Susanna at the Bath, 1935 

Oil on canvas 

57^ x 47 in. (149.7 x 119. 3 cm.) 

Signed upper left: Leon Devos 

Ace. no. 36.13 

Museum Purchase Fund 




JEF DIEDEREN 1920-. Dutch. 

Summer, 1955 

Oil on canvas 

51% x 7ZH in. (131. 5 x 183.8 cm. 

Ace. no. 58.10 

Museum Purchase Fund 



;S . 



RESERVE SECTION 



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s&'ral 



PIERRE DUMONT 1884-1936. French. 

Notre Dame from the Left Bank, 1920s 

Oil on canvas 

2.8J4 x 36 in. (71.6 x 91.4 cm.) 

Signed lower right: Dumont 

Ace. no. 54.42. 

Museum Purchase Fund 




DUTCH, ANONYMOUS 

Portrait of a Woman, early 16th century 

Oil on wood panel 

izVs x iojHs in. (32 x 27 cm.) 

Ace. no. 36.1 




ANTHONY VAN DYCK, After 

Flemish. 

Saint Martin Sharing his Mantle 

Oil on wood panel 

25 J4 x 19% in. (64.1 x 50.2 cm.) 

Ace. no. 19.39 

Gift of Charles Leon Cardon 




MERLYN OLIVER EVANS 

1910-. British. 

Interior with Red and Green, 1952 

Oil on canvas 

40 x 30 in. (101.6 x 76.2 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower left: Evans 52 

Ace. no. 53.12.8 

Museum Purchase Fund 




PAUL FEILER 1918-. British. 

Near Lamorna, 1952 

Oil on canvas 

2554 x 30 in. (64.1 x 76.2 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: Feiler 52 

Ace. no. 53.131 

Museum Purchase Fund 




GUSTAV ADOLF FJAESTAD 

1868-1948. Swedish. 

Silence: Winter, 1914 

Oil on canvas 

58 x 72 in. (147 x 183 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: G. Fjaestad, 

1914,/Varmland 
Ace. no. 14. 1 19 




NILS FORSBERG 1842-1934. Swedish. 

Potter at Saint- Amand, 1907 

Oil on canvas 

51 x 63H in. (127 x 161 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: Nils 1907 

Ace. no. 07.2 

Museum Purchase Fund 




WILLIAM GEAR 1915-. British. 

Summer Landscape, 195 1 

Oil on canvas 

29J4 x 2.454 m - (74-3 x 61.6 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: Gear 51 

Ace. no. 53.133 

Museum Purchase Fund 




Ttaft "lanjfW" 

ARNOLD MARC GORTER 

1866-1933. Dutch. 

Apple Blossoms 

Oil on canvas 

3954 x 53 in. (99.7 x 134.6 cm.) 

Signed lower right: A. M. Gorter 

Ace. no. 16.46 



390 



RESERVE SECTION 




GIUSEPPE DE GREGORIO 

1920-. Italian. 

Cold Light, 1963 

Oil on canvas 

39-Hs x 3iJ/2 in.( 100 x 80 cm.) 

Signed lower center: de gregorio 

Ace. no. 64.132 

Gift of Mr. and Mrs. W. W. Knight, Jr. 




JULES ALEXANDER GRUN 

1868-1934. French. 

Effet de Lumiere, ca. 1907 

Oil on canvas 

58% x 45 in. (148.5 x 114. 3 cm.) 

Signed lower right: Griin 

Ace. no. 07.3 

Gift of Frederick B. Shoemaker 




■ ! •- c %&& ■-■ 
TOMAS HARRIS 1908-. British. 
Almond Trees, Majorca, 1954 
Oil on canvas 

zS% x 22 in. (71.7 x 55.8 cm.) 
Dated lower left: 19-1-54 
Ace. no. 54.75 
Museum Purchase Fund 





EUGEN HETTICH 1848-1888. German. EDGAR IENE 1904-. French. 



The Woodlands, 1875 

Oil on canvas 

35§^ x 55^4 in. (90.5 x 141. 6 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower left: E. Hettich 

1875 
Ace. no. 06.2.67 
Gift of Mrs. John B. Bell 



Castle Courtyard, 1957 

Oil on canvas 

21^ x 235^ in. (55 x 65 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower left: E. Iene 57 

Ace. no. 58.24 

Museum Purchase Fund 




ITALIAN, ANONYMOUS 
Head of an Angel, 17th century 
Oil on canvas 

23 r /2 x 19H in- (59-7 x 49-5 cm-) 
Ace. no. 25.48 




ITALIAN, ANONYMOUS 
Head of a Bishop, 17th century 
Oil on canvas 
20^2 x 16 in. (52 x 40.6 cm.) 
Ace. no. 25.1135 




ITALIAN, ANONYMOUS 
Madonna and Child, 16th century 
Tempera on wood panel 
20^2 x 16 in. (52 x 40.6 cm.) 
Ace. no. 26.56 



**V 




ITALIAN, ANONYMOUS 
The Holy Family with Angels, 
late 15th century 
Tempera on wood panel 
Diameter: 36J/2 in. (92.7 cm.) 
Ace. no. 26.72 



391 



RESERVE SECTION 




ITALIAN, ANONYMOUS 
Madonna and Child, late 14th- 
early 15th century 
Tempera on wood panel 
25 x 18 in. (63.5 x 45.7 cm.) 
Ace. no. 26.83 




ITALIAN, POSSIBLY SIENA 
Madonna and Child, 15th century 
Tempera on wood panel 
19 x 14 in. (48.2 x 35.5 cm.) 
Ace. no. 26.84 




ITALIAN, PROBABLY VENICE 
Head of Christ, 16th century 
Tempera on wood panel 
23^ x 18^2 in. (59.7 x 47 cm.) 
Ace. no. 26.156 




ITALIAN, POSSIBLY FLORENCE 

Madonna and Child with Saints, 

early 15th century 

Tempera on wood panel 

15% x 13 in. (40 x 33 cm.) 

Ace. no. 35.45 

Gift of Florence Scott Libbey 




ALEXANDER JACOVLEFF 

1887-1938. Russian. 

Madonna of the Grotto, 1936 

Gouache on paper 

12 x 18 in. (30.5 x 45.6 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower left: A. Jacovleff 

Mexico 1936 
Ace. no. 49.103 
Gift of Charles E. Feinberg 




PIERRE JEROME 1905-. French. 

Bunch of Flowers, ca. 1947 

Oil on canvas 

25^2 x I9% in. (64.7 x 50.2 cm.) 

Signed lower right: P. Jerome 

Ace. no. 49.101 




KARL N. KAHL 1873-?. Russian. 

The Old Mill, ca. 1903 

Oil on canvas 

32 x 24 in. (81.3 x 61 cm.) 

Signed lower right: K. N. Kahl 

Ace. no. 06.248 

Gift of Wednesday Art History Club 







>n 




KARL N. KAHL 1873-?. Russian. 

End of a Summer Day, ca. 1903 

Oil on canvas 

27 x 42 in. (68.6 x 106.6 cm.) 

Signed lower right: K. Kahl F (?) 

Ace. no. 06.249 

Gift of Robinson Locke 




A. A. KOUDRIAVTSEFF. Russian. 

The Fishermen, 1904 

Oil on canvas 

40 x 55 in. (101.6 x 139.8 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower left in Cyrillic: 

A. Koudriavtseff 04 
Ace. no. 06.246 
Gift of A. M. Chesbrough 



392 



RESERVE SECTION 



A 







ANDRE MIKHAILOVITCH LANSKOY 

1902-. French. 

Objects on Snow, 1944 

Oil on canvas 

31^6 x 455^ in. (80.8 x 115. 7 cm.) 

Signed lower right: Lanskoy 

Stencilled on stretcher: objets sur la 

neige 
Ace. no. 49.112. 




GASTON LARRIEU 1912-. French. 

Landscape, ca. 1958 

Oil on canvas 

25^2 x 36^8 in. (64.8 x 91.6 cm.) 

Signed lower right: Gaston Larrieu 

Ace. no. 58.25 

Museum Purchase Fund 











■ .4 









GASTON LA TOUCHE 

1854-1913. French. 

In the Garden, 1902 

Oil on canvas 

44 x 40 in. (111. 8 x 101.6 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: Gaston La 

Touche St. C. 02 
Ace. no. 26.149 
Gift of Miss Elsie C. Mershon, in memory 

of Edward C. Mershon 




ROBERT MACBRYDE 1913-. British. 

Still Life with Cucumbers, ca. 1949 

Oil on canvas 

22 x 16 in. (55.8 x 40.6 cm.) 

Signed upper left: MacBryde 

Ace. no. 50.257 

Museum Purchase Fund 




DANIEL MACLISE 1806-1870. British. 

The Standard Bearer 

Oil on canvas 

31 x 26 in. (78.7 x 66 cm.) 

Ace. no. 05.4 

Gift of Carlton T. Chapman 




NICOLAES MAES 1634-1693. Dutch. 

At the Fountain, 1670 

Oil on canvas 

45H x 34H in. (115-6 x 87 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower left: N. Maes/1670 

Ace. no. 24.57 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 




MASTER OF THE PANZANO 
TRIPTYCH active ca. 1365-1380. Italian. 
Saint Anthony of Padua 
Tempera on wood panel 
44 x 15H in. (in. 7 x 39 cm.) 
Ace. no. 25.107 

Gift of Paul Reinhardt in memory of his 
father Henry Reinhardt 




EDWARD MIDDLEDITCH 
1923-. British. 

Winter, i960 

Oil on canvas 

102^ x 825/2 in. (260.3 x 2.08.3 cm -) 

Ace. no. 60.25 

Museum Purchase Fund 




JEAN-FRANCOIS MILLET, 

after 1814-1875. French. 

The Gleaner 

Oil on wood panel 

23-M x 14^4 in. (58.4 x 37.5 cm.) 

Inscribed lower right: J. F. Millet 

Ace. no. 33.22 

Gift of Arthur J. Secor 



393 



RESERVE SECTION 




ABRAHAM MINTCHINE 

1898-1931. French. 

Market, Place d'Alleray, Paris 

Oil on canvas 

35 x 45^ in. (88.9 x 115. 5 cm.) 

Signed lower right center: A. Mintchine 

Ace. no. 30.2.08 

Museum Purchase Fund 




JOSEPH MOMPOU 1888-. Spanish. 
The Shore, 1932 
Oil on canvas 

25% x 32 in. (65.7 x 81.3 cm.) 
Signed lower right: Mompou 
Inscribed verso: J. Mompou 1932. 
Ace. no. 34.50 
Museum Purchase Fund 




WINIFRED NICHOLSON 

1893-. British. 

Lilies and Moonlight, 1930 

Oil on canvas 

25 x 30 in. (63.5 x 76.2 cm.) 

Signed and dated verso: Winifred 

Nicholson 1930 
Ace. no. 50.2.59 
Museum Purchase Fund 




FRIEDRICH OFFERMAN 

1859-1913. Dutch. 

The Violin Mender 

Oil on canvas 

20^ x 16 in. (52.2 x 40.6 cm.) 

Signed lower right: F. Offerman 

Ace. no. 25.39 




ROLAND OUDOT 1897-. French. 

Ceres, ca. 1935 

Oil on canvas 

39§ / 8 x 24 J4 in. (100.6 x 61.5 cm.) 

Signed lower left: Roland Oudot 

Ace. no. 36.15 

Museum Purchase Fund 




ROLAND OUDOT 1897-. French. 

Coste Bonne Farm at Eygalieres, ca. 1962 

Oil on canvas 

zi% x 31% in. (54 x 80.7 cm.) 

Signed lower right: Roland Oudot 

Ace. no. 62.72 

Gift of Harold Boeschenstein 




BENJAMIN N. POPOFF 1832-. Russian. 

The Weaver, 1897 

Oil on canvas 

26 x 18 in. (66 x 45.8 cm.) 

Dated upper right in Cyrillic: 97 

Ace. no. 06.242 

Gift of Harry E. King 




VALENTINE HENRIETTE PRAX 
1 899-. French. 

Allegory with Three People, 1930 
Oil on canvas 

45/^ x 39 m - ( IX 5-6 x 99- J cm -) 

Signed and dated lower right: V. Prax 30 

Ace. no. 32.6 

Museum Purchase Fund 




PEDRO PRUNA 1904-. Spanish. 
Alice Roullier, 1926 
Pastel and pencil on paper 
24^ x i8J/2 in. (62.2 x 47 cm.) 
Signed and dated lower right: Pruna, 

Paris 1926 
Ace. no. 53.37 
Gift of Alice Roullier 



394 



RESERVE SECTION 




HUBERT ROBERT 1733-1808. French. 

The Fonte Lucano and Tomb of the 

Plautii, 1794/95 

Oil on canvas 

3254 x 25^ in. (81.8 x 64.8 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower right: H. Robert/ 

1795 (4?) 
Ace. no. 45.24 
Gift of Mrs. C. Lockhart McKelvy 




HENRIETTE KNIP RONNER 

1821-1909. Belgian. 

Kittens, 1893 

Oil on wood panel 

12^2 x 15^ in. (31.7 x 39.4 cm.) 

Signed and dated upper left: Henriette 

Ronner 93 
Ace. no. 33.16 
Gift of Florence Scott Libbey 




PETER PAUL RUBENS, Follower of 

Flemish. 

Landscape with a Wagon 

Oil on wood panel 

16% x 24^ in. (42.8 x 62.2 cm.) 

Ace. no. 54.57 




PIERO RUGGERI 1930-. Italian. 

Figure, 1962 

Oil on canvas 

71 x 63 in. (180.4 x 1 &° cm -) 

Signed left center: Ruggeri 

Inscribed verso: Ruggeri, Figura 1$ 

Ace. no. 63.2 

Museum Purchase Fund 




PAVEL D. SCHMAROFF 

1874-?. Russian. 

Lady in the Carriage 

Oil on canvas 

57 x 74 in. (144.8 x 187.9 cm -) 

Dated lower right in Cyrillic: 190 ? 

Ace. no. 06.243 

Gift of A. M. Chesbrough 




S. M. SEIDENBERG. Russian. 

The Flowers, ca. 1903 

Oil on canvas 

64 x 93 in. (162.6 x 236.2 cm.) 

Signed lower left with monogram in 

Cyrillic 
Ace. no. 06.244 
Gift of Albion E. Lang 




GINO SEVERINI 1883-1966. Italian. 

Composition, ca. 1938 

Gouache on paper 

199^ x 24 in. (49.9 x 61 cm.) 

Signed lower right: G. Severini 

Ace. no. 38.82 

Museum Purchase Fund 




ANDRE VOLTEN 1920-. Dutch. 

Composition j, 1955 

Oil on canvas 

39K x 51 in. (99.6 x 129.5 cm -) 

Signed and dated verso: andre volten 

7-1955 
Ace. no. 58.11 
Museum Purchase Fund 




CZESLAW WDOWISZEWSKI 

1901-. Polish. 

Still Life, 1931 

Oil on wood panel 

17^ x 21-M5 in. (44.1 x 54.3 cm.) 

Signed and dated lower left: Czeslaw 

Wdowiszewski 1931 
Ace. no. 34.48 
Museum Purchase Fund 



395 



RESERVE SECTION 









JOSE WEISS 1859-1919. British. 
September on the Arun, after 1897 
Oil on canvas 

72 x 84 in. (182.9 x 2I 3-5 cm -) 
Signed lower left: Jose Weiss 
Ace. no. 12.917 

Gift of Dr. F. W. Gunsaulus in memory of 
Miss Rosa Lang 



JACK B. YEATS 1871-1957. Irish. 

Another Chance, 1944 

Oil on canvas 

36 x 48 in. (91.4 x 121. 8 cm.) 

Signed lower left: Jack B. Yeats 

Ace. no. 49.15 



ZANETTO DI BUGATTO, Attributed to 

Died 1476. Italian. 

Saint Gregory, probably 1470s 

Tempera on wood panel 

37 x 1454 in. (94 x 36.8 cm.) 

Ace. no. 13.233 



396 



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